Neurocentre Magendie

Les publications de l'équipe

IF du Neurocentre

63 publications

* equal contribution
Les IF indiqués ont été collectés par le Web of Sciences en Juillet 2017

13/04/2018 | Mol Metab   IF 6.8
mTORC1-dependent increase in oxidative metabolism in POMC neurons regulates food intake and action of leptin.
Haissaguerre M, Ferriere A, Simon V, Saucisse N, Dupuy N, Andre C, Clark S, Guzman-Quevedo O, Tabarin A, Cota D

OBJECTIVE: Nutrient availability modulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the hypothalamus. In turn, ROS regulate hypothalamic neuronal activity and feeding behavior. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is an important cellular integrator of the action of nutrients and hormones. Here we tested the hypothesis that modulation of mTORC1 activity, particularly in Proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons, mediates the cellular and behavioral effects of ROS. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice or controls and their knockout (KO) littermates deficient either for the mTORC1 downstream target 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) or for the mTORC1 component Rptor specifically in POMC neurons (POMC-rptor-KO) were treated with an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of the ROS hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or the ROS scavenger honokiol, alone or, respectively, in combination with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin or the mTORC1 activator leptin. Oxidant-related signal in POMC neurons was assessed using dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence. RESULTS: Icv administration of H2O2 decreased food intake, while co-administration of rapamycin, whole-body deletion of S6K1, or deletion of rptor in POMC neurons impeded the anorectic action of H2O2. H2O2 also increased oxidant levels in POMC neurons, an effect that hinged on functional mTORC1 in these neurons. Finally, scavenging ROS prevented the hypophagic action of leptin, which in turn required mTORC1 to increase oxidant levels in POMC neurons and to inhibit food intake. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that ROS and leptin require mTORC1 pathway activity in POMC neurons to increase oxidant levels in POMC neurons and consequently decrease food intake.

13/03/2018 | Brain Behav Immun   IF 6
mTORC1 pathway disruption abrogates the effects of the ciliary neurotrophic factor on energy balance and hypothalamic neuroinflammation.
Andre C, Catania C, Remus-Borel J, Ladeveze E, Leste-Lasserre T, Mazier W, Binder E, Gonzales D, Clark S, Guzman-Quevedo O, Abrous DN, Laye S, Cota D

Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) potently decreases food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese mice by acting through neuronal circuits and pathways located in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. CNTF also exerts pro-inflammatory actions within the brain. Here we tested whether CNTF modifies energy balance by inducing inflammatory responses in the ARC and whether these effects depend upon the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which regulates both energy metabolism and inflammation. To this purpose, chow- and high fat diet (HFD)- fed mice lacking the S6 kinase 1 (S6K1(-/-)), a downstream target of mTORC1, and their wild-type (WT) littermates received 12 days continuous intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of the CNTF analogue axokine (CNTFAx15). Behavioral, metabolic and molecular effects were evaluated. Central chronic administration of CNTFAx15 decreased body weight and feed efficiency in WT mice only, when fed HFD, but not chow. These metabolic effects correlated with increased number of iba-1 positive microglia specifically in the ARC and were accompanied by significant increases of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic iNOS and SOCS3 mRNA, molecular markers of pro-inflammatory response, were also increased by CNTFAx15. All these changes were absent in S6K1(-/-) mice. This study reveals that CNTFAx15 requires a functional S6K1 to modulate energy balance and hypothalamic inflammation in a diet-dependent fashion. Further investigations should determine whether S6K1 is a suitable target for the treatment of pathologies characterized by a high neuroinflammatory state.

The pathophysiology of body weight gain that is observed in patients suffering from myeloproliferative neoplasms treated with inhibitors of the janus kinase (Jak) 1 and 2 pathway remains unknown. Here we hypothesized that this class of drugs interferes with the metabolic actions of leptin, as this hormone requires functional Jak2 signaling. To test this, C57BL/6J chow-fed mice received either chronic intraperitoneal (ip) or repeated intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of the selective Jak2 inhibitor NVP-BSK805, which was proven efficacious in treating polycythemia in rodents. Changes in food intake, body weight and body composition were recorded. Icv NVP-BSK805 was combined with ip leptin to evaluate ability to interfere with the action of this hormone on food intake and on induction of hypothalamic phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). We found that chronic peripheral administration of NVP-BSK805 did not alter food intake, but increased fat mass and feed efficiency. The increase in fat mass was more pronounced during repeated icv administration of the compound, suggesting that metabolic effects were related to molecular interference in brain structures regulating energy balance. Accordingly, acute icv administration of NVP-BSK805 prevented the ability of leptin to decrease food intake and body weight by impeding STAT3 phosphorylation within the hypothalamus. Consequently, acute icv administration of NVP-BSK805 at higher dose induced hyperphagia and body weight gain. Our results provide evidence for a specific anabolic effect exerted by antineoplastic drugs targeting the Jak2 pathway, which is due to interference with the actions of leptin. Consequently, assessment of metabolic variables related to increased fat mass gain should be performed in patients treated with Jak2 inhibitors.

01/11/2017 | J Clin Invest   IF 12.8
Adipocyte cannabinoid receptor CB1 regulates energy homeostasis and alternatively activated macrophages.
Ruiz de Azua I, Mancini G, Srivastava RK, Rey AA, Cardinal P, Tedesco L, Zingaretti CM, Sassmann A, Quarta C, Schwitter C, Conrad A, Wettschureck N, Vemuri VK, Makriyannis A, Hartwig J, Mendez-Lago M, Bindila L, Monory K, Giordano A, Cinti S, Marsicano G, Offermanns S, Nisoli E, Pagotto U, Cota D, Lutz B

Dysregulated adipocyte physiology leads to imbalanced energy storage, obesity, and associated diseases, imposing a costly burden on current health care. Cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) plays a crucial role in controlling energy metabolism through central and peripheral mechanisms. In this work, adipocyte-specific inducible deletion of the CB1 gene (Ati-CB1-KO) was sufficient to protect adult mice from diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic alterations and to reverse the phenotype in already obese mice. Compared with controls, Ati-CB1-KO mice showed decreased body weight, reduced total adiposity, improved insulin sensitivity, enhanced energy expenditure, and fat depot-specific cellular remodeling toward lowered energy storage capacity and browning of white adipocytes. These changes were associated with an increase in alternatively activated macrophages concomitant with enhanced sympathetic tone in adipose tissue. Remarkably, these alterations preceded the appearance of differences in body weight, highlighting the causal relation between the loss of CB1 and the triggering of metabolic reprogramming in adipose tissues. Finally, the lean phenotype of Ati-CB1-KO mice and the increase in alternatively activated macrophages in adipose tissue were also present at thermoneutral conditions. Our data provide compelling evidence for a crosstalk among adipocytes, immune cells, and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), wherein CB1 plays a key regulatory role.

26/10/2017 | Gut   IF 16.7
Liver Reptin/RUVBL2 controls glucose and lipid metabolism with opposite actions on mTORC1 and mTORC2 signalling.
Javary J, Allain-Courtois N, Saucisse N, Costet P, Heraud C, Benhamed F, Pierre R, Bure C, Pallares-Lupon N, Do Cruzeiro M, Postic C, Cota D, Dubus P, Rosenbaum J, Benhamouche-Trouillet S

OBJECTIVE: The AAA+ ATPase Reptin is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and preclinical studies indicate that it could be a relevant therapeutic target. However, its physiological and pathophysiological roles in vivo remain unknown. This study aimed to determine the role of Reptin in mammalian adult liver. DESIGN AND RESULTS: We generated an inducible liver-specific Reptin knockout (RepinLKO ) mouse model. Following Reptin invalidation, mice displayed decreased body and fat mass, hypoglycaemia and hypolipidaemia. This was associated with decreased hepatic mTOR protein abundance. Further experiments in primary hepatocytes demonstrated that Reptin maintains mTOR protein level through its ATPase activity. Unexpectedly, loss or inhibition of Reptin induced an opposite effect on mTORC1 and mTORC2 signalling, with: (1) strong inhibition of hepatic mTORC1 activity, likely responsible for the reduction of hepatocytes cell size, for decreased de novo lipogenesis and cholesterol transcriptional programmes and (2) enhancement of mTORC2 activity associated with inhibition of the gluconeogenesis transcriptional programme and hepatic glucose production. Consequently, the role of hepatic Reptin in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease consecutive to a high-fat diet was investigated. We found that Reptin deletion completely rescued pathological phenotypes associated with IR, including glucose intolerance, hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and hepatic steatosis. CONCLUSION: We show here that the AAA +ATPase Reptin is a regulator of mTOR signalling in the liver and global glucido-lipidic homeostasis. Inhibition of hepatic Reptin expression or activity represents a new therapeutic perspective for metabolic syndrome.

19/09/2017 | Cell Metab   IF 18.2
Molecular Integration of Incretin and Glucocorticoid Action Reverses Immunometabolic Dysfunction and Obesity.
Quarta C, Clemmensen C, Zhu Z, Yang B, Joseph SS, Lutter D, Yi CX, Graf E, Garcia-Caceres C, Legutko B, Fischer K, Brommage R, Zizzari P, Franklin BS, Krueger M, Koch M, Vettorazzi S, Li P, Hofmann SM, Bakhti M, Bastidas-Ponce A, Lickert H, Strom TM, Gailus-Durner V, Bechmann I, Perez-Tilve D, Tuckermann J, Hrabe de Angelis M, Sandoval D, Cota D, Latz E, Seeley RJ, Muller TD, DiMarchi RD, Finan B, Tschop MH

Chronic inflammation has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of diet-induced obesity. However, scarce therapeutic options are available to treat obesity and the associated immunometabolic complications. Glucocorticoids are routinely employed for the management of inflammatory diseases, but their pleiotropic nature leads to detrimental metabolic side effects. We developed a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-dexamethasone co-agonist in which GLP-1 selectively delivers dexamethasone to GLP-1 receptor-expressing cells. GLP-1-dexamethasone lowers body weight up to 25% in obese mice by targeting the hypothalamic control of feeding and by increasing energy expenditure. This strategy reverses hypothalamic and systemic inflammation while improving glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. The selective preference for GLP-1 receptor bypasses deleterious effects of dexamethasone on glucose handling, bone integrity, and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Thus, GLP-1-directed glucocorticoid pharmacology represents a safe and efficacious therapy option for diet-induced immunometabolic derangements and the resulting obesity.

01/06/2017 | Neuropharmacology   IF 5
Endocannabinoid modulation of homeostatic and non-homeostatic feeding circuits.
Lau BK, Cota D, Cristino L, Borgland SL

The endocannabinoid system has emerged as a key player in the control of eating. Endocannabinoids, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA), modulate neuronal activity via cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs) in multiple nuclei of the hypothalamus to induce or inhibit food intake depending on nutritional and hormonal status, suggesting that endocannabinoids may act in the hypothalamus to integrate different types of signals informing about the animal's energy needs. In the mesocorticolimbic system, (endo)cannabinoids modulate synaptic transmission to promote dopamine release in response to palatable food. In addition, (endo)cannabinoids act within the nucleus accumbens to increase food's hedonic impact; although this effect depends on activation of CB1Rs at excitatory, but not inhibitory inputs in the nucleus accumbens. While hyperactivation of the endocannabinoid system is typically associated with overeating and obesity, much evidence has emerged in recent years suggesting a more complicated system than first thought - endocannabinoids promote or suppress feeding depending on cell and input type, or modulation by various neuronal or hormonal signals. This review presents our latest knowledge of the endocannabinoid system in non-homeostatic and homeostatic feeding circuits. In particular, we discuss the functional role and cellular mechanism of action by endocannabinoids within the hypothalamus and mesocorticolimbic system, and how these are modulated by neuropeptide signals related to feeding. In light of recent advances and complexity in the field, we review cannabinoid-based therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and how peripheral restriction of CB1R antagonists may provide a different mechanism of weight loss without the central adverse effects.

22/03/2017 | Neuron   IF 14
The CB1 Receptor as the Cornerstone of Exostasis.
Piazza PV, Cota D, Marsicano G

The type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) is the main effector of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in most brain and body functions. In this Perspective, we provide evidence indicating that CB1 receptor functions are key determinants of bodily coordinated exostatic processes. First, we will introduce the concepts of endostasis and exostasis as compensation or accumulation for immediate or future energy needs and discuss how exostasis has been necessary for the survival of species during evolution. Then, we will argue how different specific biological functions of the CB1 receptor in the body converge to provide physiological exostatic processes. Finally, we will introduce the concept of proactive evolution-induced diseases (PEIDs), which helps explain the seeming paradox that an evolutionary-selected physiological function can become the cause of epidemic pathological conditions, such as obesity. We propose here a possible unifying theory of CB1 receptor functions that can be tested by future experimental studies.

The endocannabinoid system (ECS), including cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R), endogenous ligands called endocannabinoids and their related enzymatic machinery, is known to have a role in the regulation of energy balance. Past information generated on the ECS, mainly focused on the involvement of this system in the central nervous system regulation of food intake, while at the same time clinical studies pointed out the therapeutic efficacy of brain-penetrant CB1R antagonists like rimonabant for obesity and metabolic disorders. Rimonabant was removed from the market in 2009 and its obituary written due to its psychiatric side effects. However, in the meanwhile a number of investigations had started to highlight the roles of the peripheral ECS in the regulation of metabolism, bringing up new hope that the ECS might still represent target for treatment. Accordingly, peripherally-restricted CB1R antagonists or inverse agonists have shown to effectively reduce body weight, adiposity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in obese animal models. Very recent investigations have further expanded the possible toolbox for the modulation of the ECS, by demonstrating the existence of endogenous allosteric inhibitors of CB1R, the characterization of the structure of the human CB1R, and the likely involvement of CB2R in metabolic disorders. Here we give an overview of these findings, discussing what the future may hold in the context of strategies targeting the ECS in metabolic disease.