IF du Neurocentre

22 publications

* equal contribution
Les IF indiqués ont été collectés par le Web of Sciences en Juin 2020

2021 | Prog Brain Res   IF 1.7
Multiple facets of serotonergic modulation.
Beyeler A, Ju A, Chagraoui A, Cuvelle L, Teixeira M, Di Giovanni G, De Deurwaerdere P

The serotonergic system of the central nervous system (CNS) has been implicated in a broad range of physiological functions and behaviors, such as cognition, mood, social interaction, sexual behavior, feeding behavior, sleep-wake cycle and thermoregulation. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) establishes a plethora of interactions with neurochemical systems in the CNS via its numerous 5-HT receptors and autoreceptors. The facets of this control are multiple if we consider the molecular actors playing a role in the autoregulation of 5-HT neuron activity including the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT2B, 5-HT7 receptors as well as the serotonin transporter. Moreover, extrinsic loops involving other neurotransmitters giving the other 5-HT receptors the possibility to impact 5-HT neuron activity. Grasping the complexity of these interactions is essential for the development of a variety of therapeutic strategies for cognitive defects and mood disorders. Presently we can illustrate the plurality of the mechanisms and only conceive that these 5-HT controls are likely not uniform in terms of regional and neuronal distribution. Our understanding of the specific expression patterns of these receptors on specific circuits and neuronal populations are progressing and will expand our comprehension of the function and interaction of these receptors with other chemical systems. Thus, the development of new approaches profiling the expression of 5-HT receptors and autoreceptors should reveal additional facets of the 5-HT controls of neurochemical systems in the CNS.

30/09/2020 | Curr Biol   IF 9.6
A Novel Cortical Mechanism for Top-Down Control of Water Intake.
Zhao Z, Soria-Gomez E, Varilh M, Covelo A, Julio-Kalajzic F, Cannich A, Castiglione A, Vanhoutte L, Duveau A, Zizzari P, Beyeler A, Cota D, Bellocchio L, Busquets-Garcia A, Marsicano G

Water intake is crucial for maintaining body fluid homeostasis and animals' survival [1-4]. In the brain, complex processes trigger thirst and drinking behavior [1-5]. The anterior wall of the third ventricle formed by the subfornical organ (SFO), the median preoptic nucleus, and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) constitute the primary structures sensing thirst signals and modulating water intake [6-10]. These subcortical regions are connected with the neocortex [11]. In particular, insular and anterior cingulate cortices (IC and ACC, respectively) have been shown to receive indirect innervations from the SFO and OVLT in rats [11] and to be involved in the control of water intake [12-15]. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1) modulate consummatory behaviors, such as feeding [16-26]. However, the role of CB1 receptors in the control of water intake is still a matter of debate [27-31]. Here, we show that endogenous activation of CB1 in cortical glutamatergic neurons of the ACC promotes water intake. Notably, presynaptic CB1 receptors of ACC glutamatergic neurons are abundantly located in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a key area in the regulation of water intake. The selective expression of CB1 receptors in the ACC-to-BLA-projecting neurons is sufficient to stimulate drinking behavior. Moreover, chemogenetic stimulation of these projecting neurons suppresses drinking behavior, further supporting the role of this neuronal population in the control of water intake. Altogether, these data reveal a novel cortico-amygdalar mechanism involved in the regulation of drinking behavior.

29/06/2020 | Molecular Brain   IF 4.7
Expression of serotonin 1A and 2A receptors in molecular- and projection-defined neurons of the mouse insular cortex.
Ju A, Fernandez-Arroyo B, Wu Y, Jacky D, Beyeler A

The serotonin (5-HT) system is the target of multiple anxiolytics, including Buspirone, which is a partial agonist of the serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A). Similarly, ligands of the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2A) were shown to alter anxiety level. The 5-HT1A and 2A receptors are widely expressed across the brain, but the target region(s) underlying the influence of those receptors on anxiety remain unknown. Interestingly, recent studies in human and non-human primates have shown that the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A binding potentials within the insular cortex (insula) are correlated to anxiety. As an initial step to define the function of 5-HT transmission in the insula, we quantified the proportion of specific neuronal populations of the insula expressing 5-HT1A or 5-HT2A. We analyzed seven neural populations, including three defined by a molecular marker (putative glutamate, GABA or parvalbumin), and four defined by their projections to different downstream targets. First, we found that more than 70% of putative glutamatergic neurons, and only 30% of GABAergic neurons express the 5-HT1A. Second, within insular projection neurons, 5-HT1A is highly expressed (75-80%) in the populations targeting one sub-nuclei of the amygdala (central or basolateral), or targeting the rostral or caudal sections of the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Similarly, 70% of putative glutamatergic neurons and only 30% of insular GABAergic neurons contain 5-HT2A. Finally, the 5-HT2A is present in a majority of insula-amygdala and insula-LH projection neurons (73-82%). These observations suggest that most glutamatergic neurons can respond to 5-HT through 5-HT1A or 5-HT2A in the insula, and that 5-HT directly affects a limited number of GABAergic neurons. This study defines a molecular and neuroanatomical map of the 5-HT system within the insular cortex, providing ground knowledge to identify the potential role of serotonergic modulation of selective insular populations in anxiety.

2020 | Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience
Neuronal diversity of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis
Beyeler A, Dabrowska J

The amygdala complex is a diverse group of more than thirteen nuclei, segregated in five major groups: the basolateral (BLA), central (CeA), medial (MeA), cortical (CoA) and basomedial (BMA) amygdala nuclei. These nuclei can be distinguished depending on their cytoarchitectonic properties, connectivity, genetic and molecular identity, and most importantly, on their functional role in animal behavior. The extended amygdala includes the CeA, as well as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Both CeA and the BNST share similar cellular organization, including common neuron types, reciprocal connectivity, and many overlapping downstream targets. In this section, we describe the advances of our knowledge on neuronal diversity in the amygdala complex and BNST, based on recent functional studies, performed at genetic, molecular, physiological and anatomical levels in rodent models, especially rats and mice. Molecular and connection property can be used separately, or in combinations, to define neuronal populations, leading to a multiplexed neuronal diversity supporting different functional roles.

11/2019 | neurobiol stress
Neurobiological links between stress and anxiety.
Daviu N, Bruchas MR, Moghaddam B, Sandi C, Beyeler A

Stress and anxiety have intertwined behavioral and neural underpinnings. These commonalities are critical for understanding each state, as well as their mutual interactions. Grasping the mechanisms underlying this bidirectional relationship will have major clinical implications for managing a wide range of psychopathologies. After briefly defining key concepts for the study of stress and anxiety in pre-clinical models, we present circuit, as well as cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in either or both stress and anxiety. First, we review studies on divergent circuits of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) underlying emotional valence processing and anxiety-like behaviors, and how norepinephrine inputs from the locus coeruleus (LC) to the BLA are responsible for acute-stress induced anxiety. We then describe recent studies revealing a new role for mitochondrial function within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), defining individual trait anxiety in rodents, and participating in the link between stress and anxiety. Next, we report findings on the impact of anxiety on reward encoding through alteration of circuit dynamic synchronicity. Finally, we present work unravelling a new role for hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in controlling anxiety-like and stress-induce behaviors. Altogether, the research reviewed here reveals circuits sharing subcortical nodes and underlying the processing of both stress and anxiety. Understanding the neural overlap between these two psychobiological states, might provide alternative strategies to manage disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

12/04/2019 | Science   IF 41
Perspective - Do antidepressants restore lost synapses?
Beyeler A

2019 | Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences   IF 3.4
Valence Coding in Amygdala Circuits
Pignatelli M, Beyeler A

The neural mechanisms underlying emotional valence are at the interface between perception and action, integrating inputs from the external environment with past experiences to guide the behavior of an organism. Depending on the positive or negative valence assigned to an environmental stimulus, the organism will approach or avoid the source of the stimulus. Multiple convergent studies have demonstrated that the amygdala complex is a critical node of the circuits assigning valence. Here we examine the current progress in identifying valence coding properties of neural populations in different nuclei of the amygdala, based on their activity, connectivity, and gene expression profile.

07/11/2018 | Nature   IF 41.6
Dopamine enhances signal-to-noise ratio in cortical-brainstem encoding of aversive stimuli.
Vander Weele CM, Siciliano CA, Matthews GA, Namburi P, Izadmehr EM, Espinel IC, Nieh EH, Schut EHS, Padilla-Coreano N, Burgos-Robles A, Chang CJ, Kimchi EY, Beyeler A, Wichmann R, Wildes CP, Tye KM

Dopamine modulates medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity to mediate diverse behavioural functions(1,2); however, the precise circuit computations remain unknown. One potentially unifying model by which dopamine may underlie a diversity of functions is by modulating the signal-to-noise ratio in subpopulations of mPFC neurons(3-6), where neural activity conveying sensory information (signal) is amplified relative to spontaneous firing (noise). Here we demonstrate that dopamine increases the signal-to-noise ratio of responses to aversive stimuli in mPFC neurons projecting to the dorsal periaqueductal grey (dPAG). Using an electrochemical approach, we reveal the precise time course of pinch-evoked dopamine release in the mPFC, and show that mPFC dopamine biases behavioural responses to aversive stimuli. Activation of mPFC-dPAG neurons is sufficient to drive place avoidance and defensive behaviours. mPFC-dPAG neurons display robust shock-induced excitations, as visualized by single-cell, projection-defined microendoscopic calcium imaging. Finally, photostimulation of dopamine terminals in the mPFC reveals an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio in mPFC-dPAG responses to aversive stimuli. Together, these data highlight how dopamine in the mPFC can selectively route sensory information to specific downstream circuits, representing a potential circuit mechanism for valence processing.

31/05/2018 | Cell   IF 31.4
Corticoamygdala Transfer of Socially Derived Information Gates Observational Learning.
Allsop SA, Wichmann R, Mills F, Burgos-Robles A, Chang CJ, Felix-Ortiz AC, Vienne A, Beyeler A, Izadmehr EM, Glober G, Cum MI, Stergiadou J, Anandalingam KK, Farris K, Namburi P, Leppla CA, Weddington JC, Nieh EH, Smith AC, Ba D, Brown EN, Tye KM

Observational learning is a powerful survival tool allowing individuals to learn about threat-predictive stimuli without directly experiencing the pairing of the predictive cue and punishment. This ability has been linked to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA). To investigate how information is encoded and transmitted through this circuit, we performed electrophysiological recordings in mice observing a demonstrator mouse undergo associative fear conditioning and found that BLA-projecting ACC (ACC-->BLA) neurons preferentially encode socially derived aversive cue information. Inhibition of ACC-->BLA alters real-time amygdala representation of the aversive cue during observational conditioning. Selective inhibition of the ACC-->BLA projection impaired acquisition, but not expression, of observational fear conditioning. We show that information derived from observation about the aversive value of the cue is transmitted from the ACC to the BLA and that this routing of information is critically instructive for observational fear conditioning. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

05/03/2018 | Nat Neurosci   IF 19.9
Nontoxic, double-deletion-mutant rabies viral vectors for retrograde targeting of projection neurons.
Chatterjee S, Sullivan HA, MacLennan BJ, Xu R, Hou Y, Lavin TK, Lea NE, Michalski JE, Babcock KR, Dietrich S, Matthews GA, Beyeler A, Calhoon GG, Glober G, Whitesell JD, Yao S, Cetin A, Harris JA, Zeng H, Tye KM, Reid RC, Wickersham IR

Recombinant rabies viral vectors have proven useful for applications including retrograde targeting of projection neurons and monosynaptic tracing, but their cytotoxicity has limited their use to short-term experiments. Here we introduce a new class of double-deletion-mutant rabies viral vectors that left transduced cells alive and healthy indefinitely. Deletion of the viral polymerase gene abolished cytotoxicity and reduced transgene expression to trace levels but left vectors still able to retrogradely infect projection neurons and express recombinases, allowing downstream expression of other transgene products such as fluorophores and calcium indicators. The morphology of retrogradely targeted cells appeared unperturbed at 1 year postinjection. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings showed no physiological abnormalities at 8 weeks. Longitudinal two-photon structural and functional imaging in vivo, tracking thousands of individual neurons for up to 4 months, showed that transduced neurons did not die but retained stable visual response properties even at the longest time points imaged.

23/01/2018 | Cell Rep   IF 8
Organization of Valence-Encoding and Projection-Defined Neurons in the Basolateral Amygdala.
Beyeler A, Chang CJ, Silvestre M, Leveque C, Namburi P, Wildes CP, Tye KM

The basolateral amygdala (BLA) mediates associative learning for both fear and reward. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that different BLA projections distinctly alter motivated behavior, including projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), medial aspect of the central amygdala (CeM), and ventral hippocampus (vHPC). Although there is consensus regarding the existence of distinct subsets of BLA neurons encoding positive or negative valence, controversy remains regarding the anatomical arrangement of these populations. First, we map the location of more than 1,000 neurons distributed across the BLA and recorded during a Pavlovian discrimination task. Next, we determine the location of projection-defined neurons labeled with retrograde tracers and use CLARITY to reveal the axonal path in 3-dimensional space. Finally, we examine the local influence of each projection-defined populations within the BLA. Understanding the functional and topographical organization of circuits underlying valence assignment could reveal fundamental principles about emotional processing.

06/2017 | Nat Neurosci   IF 17.8
Amygdala inputs to prefrontal cortex guide behavior amid conflicting cues of reward and punishment.
Burgos-Robles A, Kimchi EY, Izadmehr EM, Porzenheim MJ, Ramos-Guasp WA, Nieh EH, Felix-Ortiz AC, Namburi P, Leppla CA, Presbrey KN, Anandalingam KK, Pagan-Rivera PA, Anahtar M, Beyeler A, Tye KM

Orchestrating appropriate behavioral responses in the face of competing signals that predict either rewards or threats in the environment is crucial for survival. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) and prelimbic (PL) medial prefrontal cortex have been implicated in reward-seeking and fear-related responses, but how information flows between these reciprocally connected structures to coordinate behavior is unknown. We recorded neuronal activity from the BLA and PL while rats performed a task wherein competing shock- and sucrose-predictive cues were simultaneously presented. The correlated firing primarily displayed a BLA-->PL directionality during the shock-associated cue. Furthermore, BLA neurons optogenetically identified as projecting to PL more accurately predicted behavioral responses during competition than unidentified BLA neurons. Finally photostimulation of the BLA-->PL projection increased freezing, whereas both chemogenetic and optogenetic inhibition reduced freezing. Therefore, the BLA-->PL circuit is critical in governing the selection of behavioral responses in the face of competing signals.

04/11/2016 | Science   IF 34.7
Parsing reward from aversion.
Beyeler A

20/04/2016 | Neuron   IF 14
Divergent Routing of Positive and Negative Information from the Amygdala during Memory Retrieval.
Beyeler A, Namburi P, Glober GF, Simonnet C, Calhoon GG, Conyers GF, Luck R, Wildes CP, Tye KM

Although the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is known to play a critical role in the formation of memories of both positive and negative valence, the coding and routing of valence-related information is poorly understood. Here, we recorded BLA neurons during the retrieval of associative memories and used optogenetic-mediated phototagging to identify populations of neurons that synapse in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the central amygdala (CeA), or ventral hippocampus (vHPC). We found that despite heterogeneous neural responses within each population, the proportions of BLA-NAc neurons excited by reward predictive cues and of BLA-CeA neurons excited by aversion predictive cues were higher than within the entire BLA. Although the BLA-vHPC projection is known to drive behaviors of innate negative valence, these neurons did not preferentially code for learned negative valence. Together, these findings suggest that valence encoding in the BLA is at least partially mediated via divergent activity of anatomically defined neural populations.

30/04/2015 | Nature   IF 41.5
A circuit mechanism for differentiating positive and negative associations.
Namburi P*, Beyeler A*, Yorozu S, Calhoon GG, Halbert SA, Wichmann R, Holden SS, Mertens KL, Anahtar M, Felix-Ortiz AC, Wickersham IR, Gray JM, Tye KM

The ability to differentiate stimuli predicting positive or negative outcomes is critical for survival, and perturbations of emotional processing underlie many psychiatric disease states. Synaptic plasticity in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) mediates the acquisition of associative memories, both positive and negative. Different populations of BLA neurons may encode fearful or rewarding associations, but the identifying features of these populations and the synaptic mechanisms of differentiating positive and negative emotional valence have remained unknown. Here we show that BLA neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc projectors) or the centromedial amygdala (CeM projectors) undergo opposing synaptic changes following fear or reward conditioning. We find that photostimulation of NAc projectors supports positive reinforcement while photostimulation of CeM projectors mediates negative reinforcement. Photoinhibition of CeM projectors impairs fear conditioning and enhances reward conditioning. We characterize these functionally distinct neuronal populations by comparing their electrophysiological, morphological and genetic features. Overall, we provide a mechanistic explanation for the representation of positive and negative associations within the amygdala.

2014 | prog mol biol transl sci
Deciphering memory function with optogenetics.
Beyeler A, Eckhardt CA, Tye KM

Optogenetics has accelerated the field of neuroscience by overcoming many of the spatial, genetic, and temporal limitations of previous techniques to control neural activity. The study of learning and memory has profoundly benefited from these tools mainly from their use in rodents. New insights have been made regarding the involvement of specific cell types or populations of synapses in the acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval of memories. The cellular specificity and temporal precision of optogenetic manipulations have also shown to be useful to study synaptic mechanisms supporting learning and memory including long-term synaptic plasticity. Recently, new light-sensitive molecules have been developed to control intracellular pathways or gene expression, which promise to enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism of memory function.

21/08/2013 | Neuron   IF 15.8
BLA to vHPC inputs modulate anxiety-related behaviors.
Felix-Ortiz AC*, Beyeler A*, Seo C, Leppla CA, Wildes CP, Tye KM

The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and ventral hippocampus (vHPC) have both been implicated in mediating anxiety-related behaviors, but the functional contribution of BLA inputs to the vHPC has never been directly investigated. Here we show that activation of BLA-vHPC synapses acutely and robustly increased anxiety-related behaviors, while inhibition of BLA-vHPC synapses decreased anxiety-related behaviors. We combined optogenetic approaches with in vivo pharmacological manipulations and ex vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to dissect the local circuit mechanisms, demonstrating that activation of BLA terminals in the vHPC provided monosynaptic, glutamatergic inputs to vHPC pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, BLA inputs exerted polysynaptic, inhibitory effects mediated by local interneurons in the vHPC that may serve to balance the circuit locally. These data establish a role for BLA-vHPC synapses in bidirectionally controlling anxiety-related behaviors in an immediate, yet reversible, manner and a model for the local circuit mechanism of BLA inputs in the vHPC.

2013 | PLoS ONE   IF 3.7
Recruitment of Perisomatic Inhibition during Spontaneous Hippocampal Activity
Beyeler A, Retailleau A, Molter C, Mehidi A, Szabadics J, Leinekugel X

It was recently shown that perisomatic GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) originating from basket and chandelier cells can be recorded as population IPSPs from the hippocampal pyramidal layer using extracellular electrodes (eIPSPs). Taking advantage of this approach, we have investigated the recruitment of perisomatic inhibition during spontaneous hippocampal activity in vitro. Combining intracellular and extracellular recordings from pyramidal cells and interneurons, we confirm that inhibitory signals generated by basket cells can be recorded extracellularly, but our results suggest that, during spontaneous activity, eIPSPs are mostly confined to the CA3 rather than CA1 region. CA3 eIPSPs produced the powerful time-locked inhibition of multi-unit activity expected from perisomatic inhibition. Analysis of the temporal dynamics of spike discharges relative to eIPSPs suggests significant but moderate recruitment of excitatory and inhibitory neurons within the CA3 network on a 10 ms time scale, within which neurons recruit each other through recurrent collaterals and trigger powerful feedback inhibition. Such quantified parameters of neuronal interactions in the hippocampal network may serve as a basis for future characterisation of pathological conditions potentially affecting the interactions between excitation and inhibition in this circuit.

2013 | PLoS ONE   IF 3.7
Vestibular lesion-induced developmental plasticity in spinal locomotor networks during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis.
Beyeler A, Rao G, Ladepeche L, Jacques A, Simmers J, Le Ray D

During frog metamorphosis, the vestibular sensory system remains unchanged, while spinal motor networks undergo a massive restructuring associated with the transition from the larval to adult biomechanical system. We investigated in Xenopus laevis the impact of a pre- (tadpole stage) or post-metamorphosis (juvenile stage) unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL) on young adult swimming performance and underlying spinal locomotor circuitry. The acute disruptive effects on locomotion were similar in both tadpoles and juvenile frogs. However, animals that had metamorphosed with a preceding UL expressed restored swimming behavior at the juvenile stage, whereas animals lesioned after metamorphosis never recovered. Whilst kinematic and electrophysiological analyses of the propulsive system showed no significant differences in either juvenile group, a 3D biomechanical simulation suggested that an asymmetry in the dynamic control of posture during swimming could account for the behavioral restoration observed in animals that had been labyrinthectomized before metamorphosis. This hypothesis was subsequently supported by in vivo electromyography during free swimming and in vitro recordings from isolated brainstem/spinal cord preparations. Specifically, animals lesioned prior to metamorphosis at the larval stage exhibited an asymmetrical propulsion/posture coupling as a post-metamorphic young adult. This developmental alteration was accompanied by an ipsilesional decrease in propriospinal coordination that is normally established in strict left-right symmetry during metamorphosis in order to synchronize dorsal trunk muscle contractions with bilateral hindlimb extensions in the swimming adult. Our data thus suggest that a disequilibrium in descending vestibulospinal information during Xenopus metamorphosis leads to an altered assembly of adult spinal locomotor circuitry. This in turn enables an adaptive compensation for the dynamic postural asymmetry induced by the vestibular imbalance and the restoration of functionally-effective behavior.

05/2012 | J Physiol Paris
Neural circuits underlying the generation of theta oscillations.
Pignatelli M, Beyeler A, Leinekugel X

Theta oscillations represent the neural network configuration underlying active awake behavior and paradoxical sleep. This major EEG pattern has been extensively studied, from physiological to anatomical levels, for more than half a century. Nevertheless the cellular and network mechanisms accountable for the theta generation are still not fully understood. This review synthesizes the current knowledge on the circuitry involved in the generation of theta oscillations, from the hippocampus to extra hippocampal structures such as septal complex, entorhinal cortex and pedunculopontine tegmentum, a main trigger of theta state through direct and indirect projections to the septal complex. We conclude with a short overview of the perspectives offered by technical advances for deciphering more precisely the different neural components underlying the emergence of theta oscillations.

11/08/2010 | Neuroscience   IF 3.4
Stimulation of serotonin2C receptors elicits abnormal oral movements by acting on pathways other than the sensorimotor one in the rat basal ganglia.
Beyeler A, Kadiri N, Navailles S, Boujema MB, Gonon F, Moine CL, Gross C, De Deurwaerdere P

Serotonin2C (5-HT(2C)) receptors act in the basal ganglia, a group of sub-cortical structures involved in motor behavior, where they are thought to modulate oral activity and participate in iatrogenic motor side-effects in Parkinson's disease and Schizophrenia. Whether abnormal movements initiated by 5-HT(2C) receptors are directly consequent to dysfunctions of the motor circuit is uncertain. In the present study, we combined behavioral, immunohistochemical and extracellular single-cell recordings approaches in rats to investigate the effect of the 5-HT(2C) agonist Ro-60-0175 respectively on orofacial dyskinesia, the expression of the marker of neuronal activity c-Fos in basal ganglia and the electrophysiological activity of substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) neuron connected to the orofacial motor cortex (OfMC) or the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The results show that Ro-60-0175 (1 mg/kg) caused bouts of orofacial movements that were suppressed by the 5-HT(2C) antagonist SB-243213 (1 mg/kg). Ro-60-0175 (0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg) dose-dependently enhanced Fos expression in the striatum and the nucleus accumbens. At the highest dose, it enhanced Fos expression in the subthalamic nucleus, the SNr and the entopeduncular nucleus but not in the external globus pallidus. However, the effect of Ro-60-0175 was mainly associated with associative/limbic regions of basal ganglia whereas subregions of basal ganglia corresponding to sensorimotor territories were devoid of Fos labeling. Ro-60-0175 (1-3 mg/kg) did not affect the electrophysiological activity of SNr neurons connected to the OfMC nor their excitatory-inhibitory-excitatory responses to the OfMC electrical stimulation. Conversely, Ro-60-0175 (1 mg/kg) enhanced the late excitatory response of SNr neurons evoked by the mPFC electrical stimulation. These results suggest that oral dyskinesia induced by 5-HT(2C) agonists are not restricted to aberrant signalling in the orofacial motor circuit and demonstrate discrete modifications in associative territories.

Anuran metamorphosis includes a complete remodeling of the animal's biomechanical apparatus, requiring a corresponding functional reorganization of underlying central neural circuitry. This involves changes that must occur in the coordination between the motor outputs of different spinal segments to harmonize locomotor and postural functions as the limbs grow and the tail regresses. In premetamorphic Xenopus laevis tadpoles, axial motor output drives rostrocaudally propagating segmental myotomal contractions that generate propulsive body undulations. During metamorphosis, the anterior axial musculature of the tadpole progressively evolves into dorsal muscles in the postmetamorphic froglet in which some of these back muscles lose their implicit locomotor function to serve exclusively in postural control in the adult. To understand how locomotor and postural systems interact during locomotion in juvenile Xenopus, we have investigated the coordination between postural back and hindlimb muscle activity during free forward swimming. Axial/dorsal muscles, which contract in bilateral alternation during undulatory swimming in premetamorphic tadpoles, change their left-right coordination to become activated in phase with bilaterally synchronous hindlimb extensions in locomoting juveniles. Based on in vitro electrophysiological experiments as well as specific spinal lesions in vivo, a spinal cord region was delimited in which propriospinal interactions are directly responsible for the coordination between leg and back muscle contractions. Our findings therefore indicate that dynamic postural adjustments during adult Xenopus locomotion are mediated by local intraspinal pathways through which the lumbar generator for hindlimb propulsive kicking provides caudorostral commands to thoracic spinal circuitry controlling the dorsal trunk musculature.