Publications du Neurocentre Magendie

Publications







IF du Neurocentre
IF1234567891011121314151617181920253035404550
Nombre00134448333017985796983314074601
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790 publications

* equal contribution
The indicated IF have been collected by the Web of Sciences in June 2020



05/10/2020 | Addict Biol   IF 4.1
Exercise craving potentiates excitatory inputs to ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons.
Medrano MC, Hurel I, Mesguich E, Redon B, Stevens C, Georges F, Melis M, Marsicano G, Chaouloff F

Abstract:
Physical exercise, which can be addictogenic on its own, is considered a therapeutic alternative for drug craving. Exercise might thus share with drugs the ability to strengthen excitatory synapses onto ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic neurones, as assessed by the ratio of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) to NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated EPSCs. As did acute cocaine, amphetamine, or Delta(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) pretreatments, an acute 1-h wheel-running session increased the AMPAR/NMDAR ratio in VTA dopaminergic neurones. To dissect the respective influences of wheel-running seeking and performance, mice went through an operant protocol wherein wheel-running was conditioned by nose poking under fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement. Conditioned wheel-running increased the AMPAR/NMDAR ratio to a higher extent than free wheel-running, doing so although running performance was lower in the former paradigm than in the latter. Thus, the cue-reward association, rather than reward consumption, played a major role in this increase. The AMPAR/NMDAR ratio returned to baseline levels in mice that had extinguished the cued-running motivated task, but it increased after a cue-induced reinstatement session. The amplitude of this increase correlated with the intensity of exercise craving, as assessed by individual nose poke scores. Finally, cue-induced reinstatement of running seeking proved insensitive to acute cocaine or THC pretreatments. Our study reveals for the first time that the drive for exercise bears synaptic influences on VTA dopaminergic neurones which are reminiscent of drug actions. Whether these influences play a role in the therapeutic effects of exercise in human drug craving remains to be established.





03/10/2020 | Aging Cell   IF 7.2
Age-related impairment of declarative memory: linking memorization of temporal associations to GluN2B redistribution in dorsal CA1.
Al Abed AS, Sellami A, Potier M, Ducourneau EG, Gerbeaud-Lassau P, Brayda-Bruno L, Lamothe V, Sans N, Desmedt A, Vanhoutte P, Bennetau-Pelissero C, Trifilieff P, Marighetto A

Abstract:
GluN2B subunits of NMDA receptors have been proposed as a target for treating age-related memory decline. They are indeed considered as crucial for hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent memory formation, which are both altered in aging. Because a synaptic enrichment in GluN2B is associated with hippocampal LTP in vitro, a similar mechanism is expected to occur during memory formation. We show instead that a reduction of GluN2B synaptic localization induced by a single-session learning in dorsal CA1 apical dendrites is predictive of efficient memorization of a temporal association. Furthermore, synaptic accumulation of GluN2B, rather than insufficient synaptic localization of these subunits, is causally involved in the age-related impairment of memory. These challenging data identify extra-synaptic redistribution of GluN2B-containing NMDAR induced by learning as a molecular signature of memory formation and indicate that modulating GluN2B synaptic localization might represent a useful therapeutic strategy in cognitive aging.





30/09/2020 | Curr Biol   IF 9.6
A Novel Cortical Mechanism for Top-Down Control of Water Intake.
Zhao Z, Soria-Gomez E, Varilh M, Covelo A, Julio-Kalajzic F, Cannich A, Castiglione A, Vanhoutte L, Duveau A, Zizzari P, Beyeler A, Cota D, Bellocchio L, Busquets-Garcia A, Marsicano G

Abstract:
Water intake is crucial for maintaining body fluid homeostasis and animals' survival [1-4]. In the brain, complex processes trigger thirst and drinking behavior [1-5]. The anterior wall of the third ventricle formed by the subfornical organ (SFO), the median preoptic nucleus, and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) constitute the primary structures sensing thirst signals and modulating water intake [6-10]. These subcortical regions are connected with the neocortex [11]. In particular, insular and anterior cingulate cortices (IC and ACC, respectively) have been shown to receive indirect innervations from the SFO and OVLT in rats [11] and to be involved in the control of water intake [12-15]. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1) modulate consummatory behaviors, such as feeding [16-26]. However, the role of CB1 receptors in the control of water intake is still a matter of debate [27-31]. Here, we show that endogenous activation of CB1 in cortical glutamatergic neurons of the ACC promotes water intake. Notably, presynaptic CB1 receptors of ACC glutamatergic neurons are abundantly located in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a key area in the regulation of water intake. The selective expression of CB1 receptors in the ACC-to-BLA-projecting neurons is sufficient to stimulate drinking behavior. Moreover, chemogenetic stimulation of these projecting neurons suppresses drinking behavior, further supporting the role of this neuronal population in the control of water intake. Altogether, these data reveal a novel cortico-amygdalar mechanism involved in the regulation of drinking behavior.





26/09/2020 | autophagy
Cannabinoid-induced motor dysfunction via autophagy inhibition.
Blazquez C, Ruiz-Calvo A, Bajo-Graneras R, Baufreton JM, Resel E, Varilh M, Pagano Zottola AC, Mariani Y, Cannich A, Rodriguez-Navarro JA, Marsicano G, Galve-Roperh I, Bellocchio L, Guzman M

Abstract:
The recreational and medical use of cannabis is largely increasing worldwide. Cannabis use, however, can cause adverse side effects, so conducting innovative studies aimed to understand and potentially reduce cannabis-evoked harms is important. Previous research conducted on cultured neural cells had supported that CNR1/CB1R (cannabinoid receptor 1), the main molecular target of cannabis, affects macroautophagy/autophagy. However, it was not known whether CNR1 controls autophagy in the brain in vivo, and, eventually, what the functional consequences of a potential CNR1-autophagy connection could be. We have now found that Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major intoxicating constituent of cannabis, impairs autophagy in the mouse striatum. Administration of autophagy activators (specifically, the rapalog temsirolimus and the disaccharide trehalose) rescues THC-induced autophagy inhibition and motor dyscoordination. The combination of various genetic strategies in vivo supports the idea that CNR1 molecules located on neurons belonging to the direct (striatonigral) pathway are required for the autophagy- and motor-impairing activity of THC. By identifying autophagy as a mechanistic link between THC and motor performance, our findings may open a new conceptual view on how cannabis acts in the brain.





21/09/2020 | Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry   IF 4.4
Cannabis and exercise: Effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol on preference and motivation for wheel-running in mice.
Hurel I, Muguruza C, Redon B, Marsicano G, Chaouloff F

Abstract:
Recent surveys have revealed close links between cannabis and exercise. Specifically, cannabis usage before and/or after exercise is an increasingly common habit primarily aimed at boosting exercise pleasure, motivation, and performance whilst facilitating post-exercise recovery. However, whether these beliefs reflect the true impact of cannabis on these aspects of exercise is unknown. This study has thus examined the effects of cannabis' main psychoactive ingredient, namely Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), on (i) mouse wheel-running preference and performance and (ii) running motivation and seeking behaviour. Wheel-running preference and performance were investigated using a T-maze with free and locked wheels located at the extremity of either arm. Running motivation and seeking were assessed by a cued-running operant task wherein wheel-running was conditioned by nose poking. Moreover, because THC targets cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors, i.e. receptors previously documented to control running motivation, this study also assessed the role of these receptors in running preference, performance, and craving-like behaviour. Whilst acute blockade or genetic deletion of CB1 receptors decreased running preference and performance in the T-maze, THC proved ineffective on either variable. The failure of THC to affect running variables in the T-maze extended to running motivation, as assessed by cued-running under a progressive ratio (PR) reinforcement schedule. This ineffectiveness of THC was not related to the treatment protocol because it successfully increased motivation for palatable food. Although craving-like behaviour, as indexed by a cue-induced reinstatement of running seeking, was found to depend on CB1 receptors, THC again proved ineffective. Neither running motivation nor running seeking were affected when CB1 receptors were further stimulated by increasing the levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol. These results, which suggest that the drive for running is insensitive to the acute stimulation of CB1 receptors, raise the hypothesis that cannabis is devoid of effect on exercise motivation. Future investigation using chronic administration of THC, with and without other cannabis ingredients (e.g. cannabidiol), is however required before conclusions can be drawn.





21/09/2020 | Neuron   IF 14.4
LTP Induction Boosts Glutamate Spillover by Driving Withdrawal of Perisynaptic Astroglia.
Henneberger C*, Bard L*, Panatier A*, Reynolds JP, Kopach O, Medvedev NI, Minge D, Herde MK, Anders S, Kraev I, Heller JP, Rama S, Zheng K, Jensen TP, Sanchez-Romero I, Jackson CJ, Janovjak H, Ottersen OP, Nagelhus EA, Oliet SHR, Stewart MG*, Nagerl V*, Rusakov DA*

Abstract:
Extrasynaptic actions of glutamate are limited by high-affinity transporters expressed by perisynaptic astroglial processes (PAPs): this helps maintain point-to-point transmission in excitatory circuits. Memory formation in the brain is associated with synaptic remodeling, but how this affects PAPs and therefore extrasynaptic glutamate actions is poorly understood. Here, we used advanced imaging methods, in situ and in





Abstract:
Serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR) antagonists inhibit cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion independently of changes of accumbal dopamine (DA) release. Given the tight relationship between accumbal DA activity and locomotion, and the inhibitory role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) DA on subcortical DA neurotransmission and DA-dependent behaviors, it has been suggested that the suppressive effect of 5-HT2BR antagonists on cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion may result from an activation of mPFC DA outflow which would subsequently inhibit accumbal DA neurotransmission. Here, we tested this hypothesis by means of the two selective 5-HT2BR antagonists, RS 127445 and LY 266097, using a combination of neurochemical, behavioral and cellular approaches in male rats. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of RS 127445 (0.16 mg/kg) or LY 266097 (0.63 mg/kg) potentiated cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced mPFC DA outflow. The suppressant effect of RS 127445 on cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion was no longer observed in rats with local 6-OHDA lesions in the mPFC. Also, RS 127445 blocked cocaine-induced changes of accumbal glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3beta phosphorylation, a postsynaptic cellular marker of DA neurotransmission. Finally, in keeping with the location of 5-HT2BRs on GABAergic interneurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), the intra-DRN perfusion of the GABAAR antagonist bicuculline (100 muM) prevented the effect of the systemic or local (1 muM, intra-DRN) administration of RS 127445 on cocaine-induced mPFC DA outflow. Likewise, intra-DRN bicuculline injection (0.1 mug/0.2 mul) prevented the effect of the systemic RS 127445 administration on cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion and GSK3beta phosphorylation. These results show that DRN 5-HT2BR blockade suppresses cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion by potentiation of cocaine-induced DA outflow in the mPFC and the subsequent inhibition of accumbal DA neurotransmission.





24/08/2020 | Nat Commun   IF 12.1
Preventing and treating PTSD-like memory by trauma contextualization.
Al Abed AS, Ducourneau EG, Bouarab C, Sellami A, Marighetto A, Desmedt A

Abstract:
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by emotional hypermnesia on which preclinical studies focus so far. While this hypermnesia relates to salient traumatic cues, partial amnesia for the traumatic context can also be observed. Here, we show in mice that contextual amnesia is causally involved in PTSD-like memory formation, and that treating the amnesia by re-exposure to all trauma-related cues cures PTSD-like hypermnesia. These findings open a therapeutic perspective based on trauma contextualization and the underlying hippocampal mechanisms.





18/08/2020 | Cell Rep   IF 8.1
Specific Hippocampal Interneurons Shape Consolidation of Recognition Memory.
Oliveira da Cruz JF, Busquets-Garcia A, Zhao Z, Varilh M, Lavanco G, Bellocchio L, Robin L, Cannich A, Julio-Kalajzic F, Leste-Lasserre T, Maitre M, Drago F, Marsicano G, Soria-Gomez E

Abstract:
A complex array of inhibitory interneurons tightly controls hippocampal activity, but how such diversity specifically affects memory processes is not well understood. We find that a small subclass of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R)-expressing hippocampal interneurons determines episodic-like memory consolidation by linking dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) signaling to GABAergic transmission. Mice lacking CB1Rs in D1-positive cells (D1-CB1-KO) display impairment in long-term, but not short-term, novel object recognition memory (NOR). Re-expression of CB1Rs in hippocampal D1R-positive cells rescues this NOR deficit. Learning induces an enhancement of in vivo hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), which is absent in mutant mice. CB1R-mediated NOR and the associated LTP facilitation involve local control of GABAergic inhibition in a D1-dependent manner. This study reveals that hippocampal CB1R-/D1R-expressing interneurons control NOR memory, identifying a mechanism linking the diversity of hippocampal interneurons to specific behavioral outcomes.





10/08/2020 | eLife   IF 7.1
Inhibition of striatonigral autophagy as a link between cannabinoid intoxication and impairment of motor coordination.
Blazquez C, Ruiz-Calvo A, Bajo-Graneras R, Baufreton JM, Resel E, Varilh M, Pagano Zottola AC, Mariani Y, Cannich A, Rodriguez-Navarro JA, Marsicano G, Galve-Roperh I, Bellocchio L, Guzman M

Abstract:
The use of cannabis is rapidly expanding worldwide. Thus, innovative studies aimed to identify, understand and potentially reduce cannabis-evoked harms are warranted. Here, we found that Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, disrupts autophagy selectively in the striatum, a brain area that controls motor behavior, both in vitro and in vivo. Boosting autophagy, either pharmacologically (with temsirolimus) or by dietary intervention (with trehalose), rescued the Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced impairment of motor coordination in mice. The combination of conditional knockout mouse models and viral vector-mediated autophagy-modulating strategies in vivo showed that cannabinoid CB1 receptors located on neurons belonging to the direct (striatonigral) pathway are required for the motor-impairing activity of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol by inhibiting local autophagy. Taken together, these findings identify inhibition of autophagy as an unprecedented mechanistic link between cannabinoids and motor performance, and suggest that activators of autophagy might be considered as potential therapeutic tools to treat specific cannabinoid-evoked behavioral alterations.





03/08/2020 |
Sex-dependent pharmacological profiles of the synthetic cannabinoid MMB-Fubinaca.
Oliveira da Cruz JF, Ioannidou C, Pagano Zottola AC, Muguruza C, Gomez-Sotres P, Fernandez M, Callado LF, Marsicano G, Busquets-Garcia A

Abstract:
Synthetic cannabinoids have emerged as novel psychoactive substances with damaging consequences for public health. They exhibit high affinity at the cannabinoid type-1 (CB1 ) receptor and produce similar and often more potent effects as other CB1 receptor agonists. However, we are still far from a complete pharmacological understanding of these compounds. In this study, by using behavioral, molecular, pharmacological, and electrophysiological approaches, we aimed at characterizing several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects of the synthetic cannabinoid MMB-Fubinaca (also known as AMB-Fubinaca or FUB-AMB), a particular synthetic cannabinoid. MMB-Fubinaca stimulates CB1 receptor-mediated functional coupling to G-proteins in mouse and human brain preparations in a similar manner as the CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,512-2 but with a much greater potency. Both drugs similarly activate the CB1 receptor-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Notably, in vivo administration of MMB-Fubinaca in mice induced greater behavioral and electrophysiological effects in male than in female mice in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner. Overall, these data provide a solid pharmacological profiling of the effects of MMB-Fubinaca and important information about the mechanisms of action underlying its harmful impact in humans. At the same time, they reinforce the significant sexual dimorphism of cannabinoid actions, which will have to be taken into account in future animal and clinical studies.





08/07/2020 | Nature   IF 42.8
Glucose metabolism links astroglial mitochondria to cannabinoid effects.
Jimenez-Blasco D, Busquets-Garcia A, Hebert-Chatelain E, Serrat R, Vicente-Gutierrez C, Ioannidou C, G, Marsicano G

Abstract:
Astrocytes take up glucose from the bloodstream to provide energy to the brain, thereby allowing neuronal activity and behavioural responses(1-5). By contrast, astrocytes are under neuronal control through specific neurotransmitter receptors(5-7). However, whether the activation of astroglial receptors can directly regulate cellular glucose metabolism to eventually modulate behavioural responses is unclear. Here we show that activation of mouse astroglial type-1 cannabinoid receptors associated with mitochondrial membranes (mtCB(1)) hampers the metabolism of glucose and the production of lactate in the brain, resulting in altered neuronal functions and, in turn, impaired behavioural responses in social interaction assays. Specifically, activation of astroglial mtCB(1) receptors reduces the phosphorylation of the mitochondrial complex I subunit NDUFS4, which decreases the stability and activity of complex I. This leads to a reduction in the generation of reactive oxygen species by astrocytes and affects the glycolytic production of lactate through the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 pathway, eventually resulting in neuronal redox stress and impairment of behavioural responses in social interaction assays. Genetic and pharmacological correction of each of these effects abolishes the effect of cannabinoid treatment on the observed behaviour. These findings suggest that mtCB(1) receptor signalling can directly regulate astroglial glucose metabolism to fine-tune neuronal activity and behaviour in mice.





29/06/2020 | Molecular Brain   IF 4.7
Expression of serotonin 1A and 2A receptors in molecular- and projection-defined neurons of the mouse insular cortex.
Ju A, Fernandez-Arroyo B, Wu Y, Jacky D, Beyeler A

Abstract:
The serotonin (5-HT) system is the target of multiple anxiolytics, including Buspirone, which is a partial agonist of the serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A). Similarly, ligands of the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2A) were shown to alter anxiety level. The 5-HT1A and 2A receptors are widely expressed across the brain, but the target region(s) underlying the influence of those receptors on anxiety remain unknown. Interestingly, recent studies in human and non-human primates have shown that the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A binding potentials within the insular cortex (insula) are correlated to anxiety. As an initial step to define the function of 5-HT transmission in the insula, we quantified the proportion of specific neuronal populations of the insula expressing 5-HT1A or 5-HT2A. We analyzed seven neural populations, including three defined by a molecular marker (putative glutamate, GABA or parvalbumin), and four defined by their projections to different downstream targets. First, we found that more than 70% of putative glutamatergic neurons, and only 30% of GABAergic neurons express the 5-HT1A. Second, within insular projection neurons, 5-HT1A is highly expressed (75-80%) in the populations targeting one sub-nuclei of the amygdala (central or basolateral), or targeting the rostral or caudal sections of the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Similarly, 70% of putative glutamatergic neurons and only 30% of insular GABAergic neurons contain 5-HT2A. Finally, the 5-HT2A is present in a majority of insula-amygdala and insula-LH projection neurons (73-82%). These observations suggest that most glutamatergic neurons can respond to 5-HT through 5-HT1A or 5-HT2A in the insula, and that 5-HT directly affects a limited number of GABAergic neurons. This study defines a molecular and neuroanatomical map of the 5-HT system within the insular cortex, providing ground knowledge to identify the potential role of serotonergic modulation of selective insular populations in anxiety.





29/06/2020 | Aging Cell   IF 7.2
Responsiveness of dentate neurons generated throughout adult life is associated with resilience to cognitive aging.
Montaron MF, Charrier V, Blin N, Garcia P, Abrous DN

Abstract:
During aging, some individuals are resilient to the decline of cognitive functions whereas others are vulnerable. These inter-individual differences in memory abilities have been associated with differences in the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis measured in elderlies. Whether the maintenance of the functionality of neurons generated throughout adult life is linked to resilience to cognitive aging remains completely unexplored. Using the immediate early gene Zif268, we analyzed the activation of dentate granule neurons born in adult (3-month-old), middle-aged (12-month-old), or senescent (18-month-old) rats (n = 96) in response to learning when animals reached 21 months of age. The activation of neurons born during the developmental period was also examined. We show that adult-born neurons can survive up to 19 months and that neurons generated 4, 10, or 19 months before learning, but not developmentally born neurons, are activated in senescent rats with good learning abilities. In contrast, aged rats with bad learning abilities do not exhibit activity-dependent regulation of newborn cells, whatever their birthdate. In conclusion, we propose that resilience to cognitive aging is associated with responsiveness of neurons born during adult life. These data add to our current knowledge by showing that the aging of memory abilities stems not only from the number but also from the responsiveness of adult-born neurons.





09/06/2020 | Neuroendocrinology   IF 4.3
Calcitonin gene-related peptide-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 in arcuate neurons is a link in the metabolic benefits of portal glucose.
Soty M, Vily-Petit J, Castellanos-Jankiewicz A, Guzman-Quevedo O, Raffin M, Clark S, Silva M, Gautier-Stein A, Cota D, Mithieux G

Abstract:
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal gluconeogenesis exerts metabolic benefits in energy homeostasis via the neural sensing of portal glucose. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to determine central mechanisms involved in the effects of intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGN) on the control of energy homeostasis. METHODS: We investigated the effects of glucose infusion into the portal vein, at a rate that mimics IGN, in conscious wild-type, leptin-deficient ob/ob and CGRP-/- mice. RESULTS: We report that portal glucose infusion decreases food intake and plasma glucose and induces in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) the phosphorylation of STAT3, the classic intracellular messenger of leptin signaling. This notably takes place in POMC-expressing neurons. STAT3-phosphorylation does not require leptin, since portal glucose effects are observed in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. We hypothesized that the portal glucose effects could require calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neuromediator previously suggested to suppress hunger. In line with this hypothesis, neither the metabolic benefits nor the phosphorylation of STAT3 in the ARC take place upon portal glucose infusion in CGRP-deficient mice. Moreover, intracerebroventricular injection of CGRP activates hypothalamic phosphorylation of STAT3 in mice, and CGRP does the same in hypothalamic cells. Finally, no metabolic benefit of dietary fibers (known to depend on the induction of IGN), takes place in CGRP deficient mice. CONCLUSIONS: CGRP-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 in the ARC is part of the neural chain determining the hunger-modulating and glucose-lowering effects of IGN/portal glucose. CONCLUSIONS: CGRP-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 in the ARC is part of the neural chain determining the hunger-modulating and glucose-lowering effects of IGN/portal glucose.





09/06/2020 | Cell Rep   IF 8.1
Vangl2 in the Dentate Network Modulates Pattern Separation and Pattern Completion.
Robert BJA, Moreau MM, Dos Santos Carvalho S, Barthet G, Racca C, Bhouri M, Quiedeville A, Garret M, Atchama B, Al Abed AS, Guette C, Henderson DJ, Desmedt A, Mulle C, Marighetto A, Montcouquiol M, Sans N

Abstract:
The organization of spatial information, including pattern completion and pattern separation processes, relies on the hippocampal circuits, yet the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these two processes are elusive. Here, we find that loss of Vangl2, a core PCP gene, results in opposite effects on pattern completion and pattern separation processes. Mechanistically, we show that Vangl2 loss maintains young postmitotic granule cells in an immature state, providing increased cellular input for pattern separation. The genetic ablation of Vangl2 disrupts granule cell morpho-functional maturation and further prevents CaMKII and GluA1 phosphorylation, disrupting the stabilization of AMPA receptors. As a functional consequence, LTP at lateral perforant path-GC synapses is impaired, leading to defects in pattern completion behavior. In conclusion, we show that Vangl2 exerts a bimodal regulation on young and mature GCs, and its disruption leads to an imbalance in hippocampus-dependent pattern completion and separation processes.





06/2020 | hepatol commun
ASS1 Overexpression: A Hallmark of Sonic Hedgehog Hepatocellular Adenomas; Recommendations for Clinical Practice.
Sala M, Gonzales D, Leste-Lasserre T, Dugot-Senant N, Paradis V, Di Tommaso S, Dupuy JW, Pitard V, Dourthe C, Sciarra A, Sempoux C, Ferrell LD, Clouston AD, Miller G, Yeh MM, Thung S, Gouw ASH, Quaglia A, Han J, Huan J, Fan C, Crawford J, Nakanuma Y, Harada K, le Bail B, Castain C, Frulio N, Trillaud H, Possenti L, Blanc JF, Chiche L, Laurent C, Balabaud C, Bioulac-Sage P, Raymond AA, Saltel F

Abstract:
Until recently, 10% of hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) remained unclassified (UHCA). Among the UHCAs, the sonic hedgehog HCA (shHCA) was defined by focal deletions that fuse the promoter of Inhibin beta E chain with GLI1. Prostaglandin D2 synthase was proposed as immunomarker. In parallel, our previous work using proteomic analysis showed that most UHCAs constitute a homogeneous subtype associated with overexpression of argininosuccinate synthase (ASS1). To clarify the use of ASS1 in the HCA classification and avoid misinterpretations of the immunohistochemical staining, the aims of this work were to study (1) the link between shHCA and ASS1 overexpression and (2) the clinical relevance of ASS1 overexpression for diagnosis. Molecular, proteomic, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed in UHCA cases of the Bordeaux series. The clinico-pathological features, including ASS1 immunohistochemical labeling, were analyzed on a large international series of 67 cases. ASS1 overexpression and the shHCA subgroup were superimposed in 15 cases studied by molecular analysis, establishing ASS1 overexpression as a hallmark of shHCA. Moreover, the ASS1 immunomarker was better than prostaglandin D2 synthase and only found positive in 7 of 22 shHCAs. Of the 67 UHCA cases, 58 (85.3%) overexpressed ASS1, four cases were ASS1 negative, and in five cases ASS1 was noncontributory. Proteomic analysis performed in the case of doubtful interpretation of ASS1 overexpression, especially on biopsies, can be a support to interpret such cases. ASS1 overexpression is a specific hallmark of shHCA known to be at high risk of bleeding. Therefore, ASS1 is an additional tool for HCA classification and clinical diagnosis.





22/05/2020 | Nutrients   IF 4.5
Effects of a High-Protein Diet on Cardiometabolic Health, Vascular Function, and Endocannabinoids-A PREVIEW Study.
Tischmann L, Drummen M, Joris PJ, Gatta-Cherifi B, Raben A, Fogelholm M, Matias I, Cota D, Mensink RP, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Adam TC

Abstract:
An unfavorable lipid profile and being overweight are known mediators in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The effect of diet, particularly high in protein, remains under discussion. Therefore, this study examines the effects of a high-protein (HP) diet on cardiometabolic health and vascular function (i.e., endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and retinal microvascular structure), and the possible association with plasma endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related compounds in overweight participants. Thirty-eight participants (64.5 +/- 5.9 (mean +/- SD) years; body mass index (BMI) 28.9 +/- 4.0 kg/m(2)) were measured for 48 h in a respiration chamber after body-weight maintenance for approximately 34 months following weight reduction. Diets with either a HP (n = 20) or moderate protein (MP; n = 18) content (25%/45%/30% vs. 15%/55%/30% protein/carbohydrate/fat) were provided in energy balance. Validated markers for cardiometabolic health (i.e., office blood pressure (BP) and serum lipoprotein concentrations) and vascular function (i.e., brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation, pulse wave analysis and velocity, and retinal microvascular calibers) were measured before and after those 48 h. Additionally, 24 h ambulatory BP, plasma anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and pregnenolone (PREG) were analyzed throughout the day. Office and ambulatory BP, serum lipoprotein concentrations, and vascular function markers were not different between the groups. Only heart rate (HR) was higher in the HP group. HR was positively associated with OEA, while OEA and PEA were also positively associated with total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations. Vascular function markers were not associated with endocannabinoids (or endocannabinoid-related substances). In conclusion, the HP diet did not affect cardiometabolic health and vascular function in overweight participants after completing a weight-loss intervention. Furthermore, our data indicate a possible association between OEA and PEA with TC and LDL cholesterol.





18/05/2020 | Nat Commun   IF 12.1
Author Correction: Structural basis of astrocytic Ca(2+) signals at tripartite synapses.
Arizono M, Inavalli VVGK, Panatier A, Pfeiffer T, Angibaud J, Levet F, Veer MJTT, Stobart J, Bellocchio L, Mikoshiba K, Marsicano G, Weber B, Oliet SHR, Nagerl UV

Abstract:
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.





05/2020 | sci adv   IF 13.1
Identification of distinct pathological signatures induced by patient-derived alpha-synuclein structures in nonhuman primates.
Bourdenx M, Nioche A, Dovero S, Arotcarena ML, Camus S, Porras G, Thiolat ML, Rougier NP, Prigent A, Aubert P, Bohic S, Sandt C, Laferriere F, Doudnikoff E, Kruse N, Mollenhauer B, Novello S, Morari M, Leste-Lasserre T, Damas IT, Goillandeau M, Perier C, Estrada C, Garcia-Carrillo N, Recasens A, Vaikath NN, El-Agnaf OMA, Herrero MT, Derkinderen P, Vila M, Obeso JA, Dehay B, Bezard E

Abstract:
Dopaminergic neuronal cell death, associated with intracellular alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn)-rich protein aggregates [termed 'Lewy bodies' (LBs)], is a well-established characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD). Much evidence, accumulated from multiple experimental models, has suggested that alpha-syn plays a role in PD pathogenesis, not only as a trigger of pathology but also as a mediator of disease progression through pathological spreading. Here, we have used a machine learning-based approach to identify unique signatures of neurodegeneration in monkeys induced by distinct alpha-syn pathogenic structures derived from patients with PD. Unexpectedly, our results show that, in nonhuman primates, a small amount of singular alpha-syn aggregates is as toxic as larger amyloid fibrils present in the LBs, thus reinforcing the need for preclinical research in this species. Furthermore, our results provide evidence supporting the true multifactorial nature of PD, as multiple causes can induce a similar outcome regarding dopaminergic neurodegeneration.





25/04/2020 | J Clin Endocrinol Metab   IF 5.4
Role of endocannabinoids in energy balance regulation in participants in the post-obese state - a PREVIEW study.
Drummen M, Tischmann L, Gatta-Cherifi B, Cota D, Matias I, Raben A, Adam T, Westerterp-Plantenga M

Abstract:
CONTEXT: Endocannabinoids are suggested to play a role in energy balance regulation. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate associations of endocannabinoid concentrations during the day with energy balance and adiposity and interactions with 2 diets differing in protein content in participants in the post-obese phase with pre-diabetes. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants (n=38) were individually fed in energy balance with a medium protein (MP: 15:55:30% of energy from Protein:Carbohydrate:Fat) or high protein diet (HP: 25:45:30% energy from P:C:F) for 48-hours in a respiration chamber. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Associations between energy balance, energy expenditure, RQ and endocannabinoid concentrations during the day were assessed. RESULTS: Plasma-concentrations of anandamide (AEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoyethanolamide (PEA), and pregnenolone (PREG) significantly decreased during the day. This decrease was inversely related to BMI (AEA) or body-fat (%) (PEA; OEA). The lowest RQ value, before lunch, was inversely associated with concentrations of AEA and PEA before lunch. AUC of concentrations of AEA, 2-AG, PEA, and OEA were positively related to body-fat% (p<0.05). The HP and MP groups showed no differences in concentrations of AEA, OEA, PEA, and PREG, but the AUC of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) was significantly higher in the HP vs. the MP group. CONCLUSIONS: In energy balance, only the endocannabinoid 2-AG changed in relation to protein level of the diet, while the endocannabinoid AEA, and endocannabinoid-related compounds OEA and PEA reflected the gradual energy intake matching energy expenditure over the day.





21/04/2020 | Int J Obes (Lond)   IF 4.4
Anti-obesity therapy with peripheral CB1 blockers: from promise to safe(?) practice.
Quarta C, Cota D

Abstract:
Pharmacological blockers of the cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) have been considered for a long time as the holy grail of obesity pharmacotherapy. These agents were hastily released in the clinical setting, due to their clear-cut therapeutic efficacy. However, the first generation of these drugs, which were able to target both the brain and peripheral tissues, had serious neuropsychiatric effects, leading authorities to ban their clinical use. New peripherally restricted CB1 blockers, characterized by low brain penetrance, have been developed over the past 10 years. In preclinical studies, these molecules seem to overcome the neuropsychiatric negative effects previously observed with brain-penetrant CB1 inhibitors, while retaining or even outperforming their efficacy. The mechanisms of action of these peripherally restricted compounds are only beginning to emerge, and a balanced discussion of the risk/benefits ratio associated to their possible clinical use is urgently needed, in order to avoid repeating past mistakes. Here, we will critically discuss the advantages and the possible hidden threats associated with the use of peripheral CB1 blockers for the pharmacotherapy of obesity and its associated metabolic complications. We will address whether this novel pharmacological approach might 'compete' with current pharmacotherapies for obesity and diabetes, while also conceptualizing future CB1-based pharmacological trends that may significantly lower the risk/benefits ratio associated with the use of these drugs.





20/04/2020 | Nat Commun   IF 12.1
Structural basis of astrocytic Ca(2+) signals at tripartite synapses.
Arizono M, Inavalli VVGK, Panatier A, Pfeiffer T, Angibaud J, Levet F, Ter Veer MJT, Stobart J, Bellocchio L, Mikoshiba K, Marsicano G, Weber B, Oliet SHR, Nagerl UV

Abstract:
Astrocytic Ca(2+) signals can be fast and local, supporting the idea that astrocytes have the ability to regulate single synapses. However, the anatomical basis of such specific signaling remains unclear, owing to difficulties in resolving the spongiform domain of astrocytes where most tripartite synapses are located. Using 3D-STED microscopy in living organotypic brain slices, we imaged the spongiform domain of astrocytes and observed a reticular meshwork of nodes and shafts that often formed loop-like structures. These anatomical features were also observed in acute hippocampal slices and in barrel cortex in vivo. The majority of dendritic spines were contacted by nodes and their sizes were correlated. FRAP experiments and Ca(2+) imaging showed that nodes were biochemical compartments and Ca(2+) microdomains. Mapping astrocytic Ca(2+) signals onto STED images of nodes and dendritic spines showed they were associated with individual synapses. Here, we report on the nanoscale organization of astrocytes, identifying nodes as a functional astrocytic component of tripartite synapses that may enable synapse-specific communication between neurons and astrocytes.





03/03/2020 | Cell Metab   IF 21.6
Impairment of Glycolysis-Derived l-Serine Production in Astrocytes Contributes to Cognitive Deficits in Alzheimer's Disease.
Le Douce J, Maugard M, Veran J, Matos M, Jego P, Vigneron PA, Faivre E, Toussay X, Vandenberghe M, Balbastre Y, Piquet J, Guiot E, Tran NT, Taverna M, Marinesco S, Koyanagi A, Furuya S, Gaudin-Guerif M, Goutal S, Ghettas A, Pruvost A, Bemelmans AP, Gaillard MC, Cambon K, Stimmer L, Sazdovitch V, Duyckaerts C, Knott G, Herard AS, Delzescaux T, Hantraye P, Brouillet E, Cauli B, Oliet SHR, Panatier A, Bonvento G

Abstract:
Alteration of brain aerobic glycolysis is often observed early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whether and how such metabolic dysregulation contributes to both synaptic plasticity and behavioral deficits in AD is not known. Here, we show that the astrocytic l-serine biosynthesis pathway, which branches from glycolysis, is impaired in young AD mice and in AD patients. l-serine is the precursor of d-serine, a co-agonist of synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs) required for synaptic plasticity. Accordingly, AD mice display a lower occupancy of the NMDAR co-agonist site as well as synaptic and behavioral deficits. Similar deficits are observed following inactivation of the l-serine synthetic pathway in hippocampal astrocytes, supporting the key role of astrocytic l-serine. Supplementation with l-serine in the diet prevents both synaptic and behavioral deficits in AD mice. Our findings reveal that astrocytic glycolysis controls cognitive functions and suggest oral l-serine as a ready-to-use therapy for AD.





03/2020 |
Juvenile mild traumatic brain injury elicits distinct spatiotemporal astrocyte responses.
Clement T, Lee JB, Ichkova A, Rodriguez-Grande B, Fournier ML, Aussudre J, Ogier M, Haddad E, Canini F, Koehl M, Abrous DN, Obenaus A, Badaut J

Abstract:
Mild-traumatic brain injury (mTBI) represents ~80% of all emergency room visits and increases the probability of developing long-term cognitive disorders in children. To date, molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying post-mTBI cognitive dysfunction are unknown. Astrogliosis has been shown to significantly alter astrocytes' properties following brain injury, potentially leading to significant brain dysfunction. However, such alterations have never been investigated in the context of juvenile mTBI (jmTBI). A closed-head injury model was used to study jmTBI on postnatal-day 17 mice. Astrogliosis was evaluated using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and nestin immunolabeling in somatosensory cortex (SSC), dentate gyrus (DG), amygdala (AMY), and infralimbic area (ILA) of prefrontal cortex in both hemispheres from 1 to 30 days postinjury (dpi). In vivo T2-weighted-imaging (T2WI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed at 7 and 30 dpi to examine tissue level structural alterations. Increased GFAP-labeling was observed up to 30 dpi in the ipsilateral SSC, the initial site of the impact. However, vimentin and nestin expression was not perturbed by jmTBI. The morphology of GFAP positive cells was significantly altered in the SSC, DG, AMY, and ILA up to 7 dpi that some correlated with magnetic resonance imaging changes. T2WI and DTI values were significantly altered at 30 dpi within these brain regions most prominently in regions distant from the impact site. Our data show that jmTBI triggers changes in astrocytic phenotype with a distinct spatiotemporal pattern. We speculate that the presence and time course of astrogliosis may contribute to pathophysiological processes and long-term structural alterations following jmTBI.





02/2020 | Neurosci Biobehav Rev   IF 8.3
What we can learn from a genetic rodent model about autism.
Mohrle D, Fernandez M, Penagarikano O, Frick A, Allman B, Schmid S

Abstract:
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders that are caused by genetic and/or environmental impacts, often probably by the interaction of both. They are characterised by deficits in social communication and interaction and by restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests from early childhood on, causing significant impairment. While it is clear that no animal model captures the full complexity of ASD in humans, genetic models are extremely useful for studying specific symptoms associated with ASD and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. In this review we summarize the behavioral paradigms used in rodents to model ASD symptoms as they are listed in the DSM-5. We then review existing genetic rodent models with disruptions in ASD candidate genes, and we map their phenotypes onto these behavioural paradigms. The goal of this review is to give a comprehensive overview on how ASD symptoms can be studied in animal models and to give guidance for which animal models are appropriate to study specific symptom clusters.





07/01/2020 | eLife   IF 7.1
Vangl2 acts at the interface between actin and N-cadherin to modulate mammalian neuronal outgrowth.
Dos-Santos Carvalho S, Moreau MM, Hien YE, Garcia M, Aubailly N, Henderson DJ, Studer V, Sans N, Thoumine O, Montcouquiol M

Abstract:
Dynamic mechanical interactions between adhesion complexes and the cytoskeleton are essential for axon outgrowth and guidance. Whether planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins, which regulate cytoskeleton dynamics and appear necessary for some axon guidance, also mediate interactions with membrane adhesion is still unclear. Here we show that Vangl2 controls growth cone velocity by regulating the internal retrograde actin flow in an N-cadherin-dependent fashion. Single molecule tracking experiments show that the loss of Vangl2 decreased fast-diffusing N-cadherin membrane molecules and increased confined N-cadherin trajectories. Using optically manipulated N-cadherin-coated microspheres, we correlated this behavior to a stronger mechanical coupling of N-cadherin with the actin cytoskeleton. Lastly, we show that the spatial distribution of Vangl2 within the growth cone is selectively affected by an N-cadherin-coated substrate. Altogether, our data show that Vangl2 acts as a negative regulator of axonal outgrowth by regulating the strength of the molecular clutch between N-cadherin and the actin cytoskeleton.





07/01/2020 | Neuron   IF 14.4
Dopamine-Evoked Synaptic Regulation in the Nucleus Accumbens Requires Astrocyte Activity.
Corkrum M, Covelo A, Lines J, Bellocchio L, Pisansky M, Loke K, Quintana R, Rothwell PE, Lujan R, Marsicano G, Martin ED, Thomas MJ, Kofuji P, Araque A

Abstract:
Dopamine is involved in physiological processes like learning and memory, motor control and reward, and pathological conditions such as Parkinson's disease and addiction. In contrast to the extensive studies on neurons, astrocyte involvement in dopaminergic signaling remains largely unknown. Using transgenic mice, optogenetics, and pharmacogenetics, we studied the role of astrocytes on the dopaminergic system. We show that in freely behaving mice, astrocytes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key reward center in the brain, respond with Ca(2+) elevations to synaptically released dopamine, a phenomenon enhanced by amphetamine. In brain slices, synaptically released dopamine increases astrocyte Ca(2+), stimulates ATP/adenosine release, and depresses excitatory synaptic transmission through activation of presynaptic A1 receptors. Amphetamine depresses neurotransmission through stimulation of astrocytes and the consequent A1 receptor activation. Furthermore, astrocytes modulate the acute behavioral psychomotor effects of amphetamine. Therefore, astrocytes mediate the dopamine- and amphetamine-induced synaptic regulation, revealing a novel cellular pathway in the brain reward system.





01/2020 | addiction   IF 6.3
The relevance of animal models of addiction.
Deroche-Gamonet V



2020 | Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience
Neuronal diversity of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis
Beyeler A, Dabrowska J

Abstract:
The amygdala complex is a diverse group of more than thirteen nuclei, segregated in five major groups: the basolateral (BLA), central (CeA), medial (MeA), cortical (CoA) and basomedial (BMA) amygdala nuclei. These nuclei can be distinguished depending on their cytoarchitectonic properties, connectivity, genetic and molecular identity, and most importantly, on their functional role in animal behavior. The extended amygdala includes the CeA, as well as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Both CeA and the BNST share similar cellular organization, including common neuron types, reciprocal connectivity, and many overlapping downstream targets. In this section, we describe the advances of our knowledge on neuronal diversity in the amygdala complex and BNST, based on recent functional studies, performed at genetic, molecular, physiological and anatomical levels in rodent models, especially rats and mice. Molecular and connection property can be used separately, or in combinations, to define neuronal populations, leading to a multiplexed neuronal diversity supporting different functional roles.





2020 | Front Behav Neurosci   IF 2.5
False Opposing Fear Memories Are Produced as a Function of the Hippocampal Sector Where Glucocorticoid Receptors Are Activated.
Kaouane N, Ducourneau EG, Marighetto A, Segal M, Desmedt A

Abstract:
Injection of corticosterone (CORT) in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) can mimic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related memory in mice: both maladaptive hypermnesia for a salient but irrelevant simple cue and amnesia for the traumatic context. However, accumulated evidence indicates a functional dissociation within the hippocampus such that contextual learning is primarily associated with the DH whereas emotional processes are more linked to the ventral hippocampus (VH). This suggests that CORT might have different effects on fear memories as a function of the hippocampal sector preferentially targeted and the type of fear learning (contextual vs. cued) considered. We tested this hypothesis in mice using CORT infusion into the DH or VH after fear conditioning, during which a tone was either paired (predicting-tone) or unpaired (predicting-context) with the shock. We first replicate our previous results showing that intra-DH CORT infusion impairs contextual fear conditioning while inducing fear responses to the not predictive tone. Second, we show that, in contrast, intra-VH CORT infusion has opposite effects on fear memories: in the predicting-tone situation, it blocks tone fear conditioning while enhancing the fear responses to the context. In both situations, a false fear memory is formed based on an erroneous selection of the predictor of the threat. Third, these opposite effects of CORT on fear memory are both mediated by glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation, and reproduced by post-conditioning stress or systemic CORT injection. These findings demonstrate that false opposing fear memories can be produced depending on the hippocampal sector in which the GRs are activated.





09/12/2019 | J Neurosci Methods   IF 2.8
Alpha technology: A powerful tool to detect mouse brain intracellular signaling events.
Zanese M*, Tomaselli G*, Roullot-Lacarriere V, Moreau M, Bellocchio L, Grel A, Marsicano G, Sans N, Vallee M, Revest JM

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Phosphorylation by protein kinases is a fundamental molecular process involved in the regulation of signaling activities in living organisms. Understanding this complex network of phosphorylation, especially phosphoproteins, is a necessary step for grasping the basis of cellular pathophysiology. Studying brain intracellular signaling is a particularly complex task due to the heterogeneous complex nature of the brain tissue, which consists of many embedded structures. NEW METHOD: Overcoming this degree of complexity requires a technology with a high throughput and economical in the amount of biological material used, so that a large number of signaling pathways may be analyzed in a large number of samples. We have turned to Alpha (Amplified Luminescent Proximity Homogeneous Assay) technology. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHOD: Western blot is certainly the most commonly used method to measure the phosphorylation state of proteins. Even though Western blot is an accurate and reliable method for analyzing modifications of proteins, it is a time-consuming and large amounts of samples are required. Those two parameters are critical when the goal of the research is to comprehend multi-signaling proteic events so as to analyze several targets from small brain areas. RESULT: Here we demonstrate that Alpha technology is particularly suitable for studying brain signaling pathways by allowing rapid, sensitive, reproducible and semi-quantitative detection of phosphoproteins from individual mouse brain tissue homogenates and from cell fractionation and synaptosomal preparations of mouse hippocampus. CONCLUSION: Alpha technology represents a major experimental step forward in unraveling the brain phosphoprotein-related molecular mechanisms involved in brain-related disorders.





02/11/2019 | Neuroscience   IF 3.2
POMC Neurons Dysfunction in Diet-induced Metabolic Disease: Hallmark or Mechanism of Disease?
Quarta C, Fioramonti X, Cota D

Abstract:
One important lesson from the last decade of studies in the field of systemic energy metabolism is that obesity is first and foremost a brain disease. Hypothalamic neurons dysfunction observed in response to chronic metabolic stress is a key pathogenic node linking consumption of hypercaloric diets with body weight gain and associated metabolic sequelae. A key hypothalamic neuronal population expressing the neuropeptide Pro-opio-melanocortin (POMC) displays altered electrical activity and dysregulated neuropeptides production capacity after long-term feeding with hypercaloric diets. However, whether such neuronal dysfunction represents a consequence or a mechanism of disease, remains a subject of debate. Here, we will review and highlight emerging pathogenic mechanisms that explain why POMC neurons undergo dysfunctional activity in response to caloric overload, and critically address whether these mechanisms may be causally implicated in the physiopathology of obesity and of its associated co-morbidities.





11/2019 | neurobiol stress
Neurobiological links between stress and anxiety.
Daviu N, Bruchas MR, Moghaddam B, Sandi C, Beyeler A

Abstract:
Stress and anxiety have intertwined behavioral and neural underpinnings. These commonalities are critical for understanding each state, as well as their mutual interactions. Grasping the mechanisms underlying this bidirectional relationship will have major clinical implications for managing a wide range of psychopathologies. After briefly defining key concepts for the study of stress and anxiety in pre-clinical models, we present circuit, as well as cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in either or both stress and anxiety. First, we review studies on divergent circuits of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) underlying emotional valence processing and anxiety-like behaviors, and how norepinephrine inputs from the locus coeruleus (LC) to the BLA are responsible for acute-stress induced anxiety. We then describe recent studies revealing a new role for mitochondrial function within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), defining individual trait anxiety in rodents, and participating in the link between stress and anxiety. Next, we report findings on the impact of anxiety on reward encoding through alteration of circuit dynamic synchronicity. Finally, we present work unravelling a new role for hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in controlling anxiety-like and stress-induce behaviors. Altogether, the research reviewed here reveals circuits sharing subcortical nodes and underlying the processing of both stress and anxiety. Understanding the neural overlap between these two psychobiological states, might provide alternative strategies to manage disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).





24/10/2019 | Psychoneuroendocrinology   IF 4
The ergogenic impact of the glucocorticoid prednisolone does not translate into increased running motivation in mice.
Redon B, Violleau C, Georges F, Marsicano G, Chaouloff F

Abstract:
Glucocorticoids, such as prednisolone, are considered sport doping agents owing to their ergogenic properties. These are accounted for by peripheral mechanisms associated with energetic and anti-inflammatory processes. However, because glucocorticoids target brain tissues, it is likely that these ergogenic impacts are associated with central effects. One of these might be reward motivation, which relies on glucocorticoid receptor-expressing mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic neurons. In keeping with this possibility, this study has explored in mice whether repeated prednisolone administration (5 or 15mug/ml of drinking water for 10 days) affected intrinsic motivation for running, a strong reinforcer in rodents. Running motivation was assessed by means of a cued-reward motivated instrumental task wherein wheel-running was conditioned by prior nose poke responses under fixed (FR), and then progressive (PR), ratio reinforcement schedules. Sub-chronic ingestion of prednisolone decreased the running distance covered during each rewarded sequence under FR schedules. This finding did not extend to wheel-running performances in mice provided free (i.e. unconditioned) wheel-running opportunities. Running motivation, as estimated under a PR reinforcement schedule, was found to be decreased (lowest concentration) or to remain unaffected (highest concentration) by prednisolone concentration. Lastly, an inter-individual analysis of the respective effects of prednisolone on muscular endurance (as assessed in the wire grid-hanging test) and on running motivation indicated that the former was not predictive of the latter. This observation suggests that prednisolone ergogenic impacts might occur without any concomitant increase in intrinsic exercise motivation.





17/10/2019 | Behav Brain Res   IF 2.8
Insult-induced aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis: Functional consequences and possible therapeutic strategies.
Bielefeld P, Dura I, Danielewicz J, Lucassen PJ, Baekelandt V, Abrous DN, Encinas JM, Fitzsimons CP

Abstract:
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a critical role in a wide spectrum of hippocampus-dependent functions. Brain pathologies that involve the hippocampus like epilepsy, stroke, and traumatic brain injury, are commonly associated with cognitive impairments and mood disorders. These insults can affect neural stem cells and the subsequent neurogenic cascade in the hippocampus, resulting in the induction of aberrant neurogenesis, which is thought to compromise hippocampal network function, thereby hampering hippocampus-dependent behavior. We here summarize recent preclinical literature on hippocampal insult-induced changes in neurogenesis and based on that, we propose that normalizing aberrant neurogenesis post-insult may help to prevent or rescue behavioral deficits which could help develop novel therapeutic strategies.





21/09/2019 | Nutrients   IF 4.2
Effects of a High-Protein/Moderate-Carbohydrate Diet on Appetite, Gut Peptides, and Endocannabinoids-A Preview Study.
Tischmann L, Drummen M, Gatta-Cherifi B, Raben A, Fogelholm M, Hartmann B, Holst JJ, Matias I, Cota D, Mensink RP, Joris PJ, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Adam TC

Abstract:
Favorable effects of a high-protein/moderate-carbohydrate (HP/MCHO) diet after weight loss on body weight management have been shown. To extend these findings, associations between perception of hunger and satiety with endocannabinoids, and with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and polypeptide YY (PYY) were assessed. At approximately 34 months after weight loss, 22 female and 16 male participants (mean age 64.5 +/- 5.9 years; body mass index (BMI) 28.9 +/- 3.9 kg/m(2)) completed a 48 h respiration chamber study. Participants were fed in energy balance with a HP/MCHO diet with 25%:45%:30% or a moderate-protein/high-carbohydrate (MP/HCHO) diet with 15%:55%:30% of energy from protein:carbohydrate:fat. Endocannabinoids and related compounds, relevant postprandial hormones (GLP-1, PYY), hunger, satiety, and ad libitum food intake were assessed. HP/MCHO versus MP/HCHO reduced hunger perception. The lower decremental area under the curve (dAUC) for hunger in the HP/MCHO diet (-56.6% compared to MP, p < 0.05) was associated with the higher AUC for 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) concentrations (p < 0.05). Hunger was inversely associated with PYY in the HP/MCHO group (r = -0.7, p < 0.01). Ad libitum food intake, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and incremental AUCs for gut peptides were not different between conditions. HP/MCHO versus MP/HCHO diet-induced reduction in hunger was present after 34 months weight maintenance in the post-obese state. HP/MCHO diet-induced decrease of hunger is suggested to interact with increased 2-AG and PYY concentrations.





11/08/2019 | j pers   IF 3.1
Stability and change of basic personal values in early adolescence: A 2-year longitudinal study.
Vecchione M, Schwartz SH, Davidov E, Cieciuch J, Alessandri G, Marsicano G

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: We examined patterns of change and stability in the whole set of 10 Schwartz values over 2 years during early adolescence. METHOD: Participants completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire repeatedly throughout the junior high school years. The study involved six waves of data and a total of 382 respondents aged 10 years at the first measurement occasion (43% female). We investigated multiple types of stability in the values: mean-level, rank-order, and ipsative stability. RESULTS: At the mean-level, self-enhancement, and Openness to change values increased in importance. Self-direction and hedonism values showed the greatest increase-about one-third of a standard deviation. Conservation and self-transcendence values did not change with the exception of tradition, which decreased slightly. After correcting for measurement error, rank-order stability coefficients ranged from .39 (hedonism) to .77 (power). Correlations between value hierarchies measured 2 years apart were >/=.85 for 75% of respondents, and </=.12 for 5% of the respondents. Thus only a small proportion of participants experienced a marked change in the relative importance they ascribed to the 10 values. CONCLUSIONS: Results are discussed and related to earlier findings on patterns and magnitude of value change during other periods of the life span.





Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a key target of the melanocortin system, which orchestrates behavioral and metabolic responses depending on energy availability. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and the endocannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) pathways are two key signaling systems involved in the regulation of energy balance whose activity closely depends upon energy availability. Here we tested the hypothesis that modulation of mTORC1 and CB1R signaling regulates excitatory glutamatergic inputs onto the PVN. METHODS: Patch-clamp recordings in C57BL/6J mice, in mice lacking the mTORC1 component Rptor or CB1R in pro-opio-melanocortin (POMC) neurons, combined with pharmacology targeting mTORC1, the melanocortin receptor type 4 (MC4R), or the endocannabinoid system under chow or a hypercaloric diet. RESULTS: Acute pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 in C57BL/6J mice decreased glutamatergic inputs onto the PVN via a mechanism requiring modulation of MC4R, endocannabinoid 2-AG mobilization by PVN parvocellular neurons, and retrograde activation of presynaptic CB1R. Further electrophysiology studies using mice lacking mTORC1 activity or CB1R in POMC neurons indicated that the observed effects involved mTORC1 and CB1R-dependent regulation of glutamate release from POMC neurons. Finally, energy surfeit caused by hypercaloric high-fat diet feeding, rapidly and time-dependently altered the glutamatergic inputs onto parvocellular neurons and the ability of mTORC1 and CB1R signaling to modulate such excitatory activity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings pinpoint the relationship between mTORC1 and endocannabinoid-CB1R signaling in the regulation of the POMC-mediated glutamatergic inputs onto PVN parvocellular neurons and its rapid alteration in conditions favoring the development of obesity.





02/07/2019 | Curr Biol   IF 9.2
CB1 Receptors in the Anterior Piriform Cortex Control Odor Preference Memory.
Terral G, Busquets-Garcia A, Varilh M, Achicallende S, Cannich A, Bellocchio L, Bonilla-Del Rio I, Massa F, Puente N, Soria-Gomez E, Grandes P, Ferreira G, Marsicano G

Abstract:
The retrieval of odor-related memories shapes animal behavior. The anterior piriform cortex (aPC) is the largest part of the olfactory cortex, and it plays important roles in olfactory processing and memory. However, it is still unclear whether specific cellular mechanisms in the aPC control olfactory memory, depending on the appetitive or aversive nature of the stimuli involved. Cannabinoid-type 1 (CB1) receptors are present in the aPC (aPC-CB1), but their potential impact on olfactory memory was never explored. Here, we used a combination of behavioral, genetic, anatomical, and electrophysiological approaches to characterize the functions of aPC-CB1 receptors in the regulation of appetitive and aversive olfactory memory. Pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of aPC-CB1 receptors specifically impaired the retrieval of conditioned odor preference (COP). Interestingly, expression of conditioned odor aversion (COA) was unaffected by local CB1 receptor blockade, indicating that the role of aPC endocannabinoid signaling is selective for retrieval of appetitive memory. Anatomical investigations revealed that CB1 receptors are highly expressed on aPC GABAergic interneurons, and ex vivo electrophysiological recordings showed that their pharmacological activation reduces miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) onto aPC semilunar (SL), but not pyramidal principal neurons. COP retrieval, but not COA, was associated with a specific CB1-receptor-dependent decrease of mIPSCs in SL cells. Altogether, these data indicate that aPC-CB1 receptor-dependent mechanisms physiologically control the retrieval of olfactory memory, depending on odor valence and engaging modulation of local inhibitory transmission.





25/06/2019 | Cell Rep   IF 7.8
Aquaporin-4 Surface Trafficking Regulates Astrocytic Process Motility and Synaptic Activity in Health and Autoimmune Disease.
Ciappelloni S, Bouchet D, Dubourdieu N, Boue-Grabot E, Kellermayer B, Manso C, Marignier R, Oliet SHR, Tourdias T, Groc L

Abstract:
Astrocytes constantly adapt their ramified morphology in order to support brain cell assemblies. Such plasticity is partly mediated by ion and water fluxes, which rely on the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). The mechanism by which this channel locally contributes to process dynamics has remained elusive. Using a combination of single-molecule and calcium imaging approaches, we here investigated in hippocampal astrocytes the dynamic distribution of the AQP4 isoforms M1 and M23. Surface AQP4-M1 formed small aggregates that contrast with the large AQP4-M23 clusters that are enriched near glutamatergic synapses. Strikingly, stabilizing surface AQP4-M23 tuned the motility of astrocyte processes and favors glutamate synapse activity. Furthermore, human autoantibodies directed against AQP4 from neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients impaired AQP4-M23 dynamic distribution and, consequently, astrocyte process and synaptic activity. Collectively, it emerges that the membrane dynamics of AQP4 isoform regulate brain cell assemblies in health and autoimmune brain disease targeting AQP4.





22/05/2019 | J Neurosci   IF 6.1
Hippocampal Mossy Fibers Synapses in CA3 Pyramidal Cells Are Altered at an Early Stage in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.
Viana da Silva S, Zhang P, Haberl MG, Labrousse V, Grosjean N, Blanchet C, Frick A, Mulle C

Abstract:
Early Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects the brain non-uniformly, causing hippocampal memory deficits long before wide-spread brain degeneration becomes evident. Here we addressed whether mossy fiber inputs from the dentate gyrus onto CA3 principal cells are affected in an AD mouse model before amyloid beta plaque deposition. We recorded from CA3 pyramidal cells in a slice preparation from 6-month-old male APP/PS1 mice, and studied synaptic properties and intrinsic excitability. In parallel we performed a morphometric analysis of mossy fiber synapses following viral based labeling and 3D-reconstruction. We found that the basal structural and functional properties as well as presynaptic short-term plasticity at mossy fiber synapses are unaltered at 6 months in APP/PS1 mice. However, transient potentiation of synaptic transmission mediated by activity-dependent release of lipids was abolished. Whereas the presynaptic form of mossy fiber long-term potentiation (LTP) was not affected, the postsynaptic LTP of NMDAR-EPSCs was reduced. In addition, we also report an impairment in feedforward inhibition in CA3 pyramidal cells. This study, together with our previous work describing deficits at CA3-CA3 synapses, provides evidence that early AD affects synapses in a projection-dependent manner at the level of a single neuronal population.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Because loss of episodic memory is considered the cognitive hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is important to study whether synaptic circuits involved in the encoding of episodic memory are compromised in AD mouse models. Here we probe alterations in the synaptic connections between the dentate gyrus and CA3, which are thought to be critical for enabling episodic memories to be formed and stored in CA3. We found that forms of synaptic plasticity specific to these synaptic connections are markedly impaired at an early stage in a mouse model of AD, before deposition of beta amyloid plaques. Together with previous work describing deficits at CA3-CA3 synapses, we provide evidence that early AD affects synapses in an input-dependent manner within a single neuronal population.





12/04/2019 | Science   IF 41
Perspective - Do antidepressants restore lost synapses?
Beyeler A



02/04/2019 | J Clin Invest   IF 12.3
The gliotransmitter ACBP controls feeding and energy homeostasis via the melanocortin system.
Bouyakdan K, Martin H, Lienard F, Budry L, Taib B, Rodaros D, Chretien C, Biron E, Husson Z, Cota D, Penicaud L, Fulton S, Fioramonti X, Alquier T

Abstract:
Glial cells have emerged as key players in the central control of energy balance and etiology of obesity. Astrocytes play a central role in neural communication via the release of gliotransmitters. Acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP)-derived endozepines are secreted peptides that modulate the GABAA receptor. In the hypothalamus, ACBP is enriched in arcuate nucleus (ARC) astrocytes, ependymocytes and tanycytes. Central administration of the endozepine octadecaneuropeptide (ODN) reduces feeding and improves glucose tolerance, yet the contribution of endogenous ACBP in energy homeostasis is unknown. We demonstrated that ACBP deletion in GFAP+ astrocytes, but not in Nkx2.1-lineage neural cells, promoted diet-induced hyperphagia and obesity in both male and female mice, an effect prevented by viral rescue of ACBP in ARC astrocytes. ACBP-astrocytes were observed in apposition with proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons and ODN selectively activated POMC neurons through the ODN-GPCR but not GABAA, and supressed feeding while increasing carbohydrate utilization via the melanocortin system. Similarly, ACBP overexpression in ARC astrocytes reduced feeding and weight gain. Finally, the ODN-GPCR agonist decreased feeding and promoted weight loss in ob/ob mice. These findings uncover ACBP as an ARC gliopeptide playing a key role in energy balance control and exerting strong anorectic effects via the central melanocortin system.





08/03/2019 | Nat Commun   IF 11.9
Deciphering the complex role of thrombospondin-1 in glioblastoma development.
Daubon T, Leon C, Clarke K, Andrique L, Salabert L, Darbo E, Pineau R, Guerit S, Maitre M, Dedieu S, Jeanne A, Bailly S, Feige JJ, Miletic H, Rossi M, Bello L, Falciani F, Bjerkvig R, Bikfalvi A

Abstract:
We undertook a systematic study focused on the matricellular protein Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) to uncover molecular mechanisms underlying the role of THBS1 in glioblastoma (GBM) development. THBS1 was found to be increased with glioma grades. Mechanistically, we show that the TGFbeta canonical pathway transcriptionally regulates THBS1, through SMAD3 binding to the THBS1 gene promoter. THBS1 silencing inhibits tumour cell invasion and growth, alone and in combination with anti-angiogenic therapy. Specific inhibition of the THBS1/CD47 interaction using an antagonist peptide decreases cell invasion. This is confirmed by CD47 knock-down experiments. RNA sequencing of patient-derived xenograft tissue from laser capture micro-dissected peripheral and central tumour areas demonstrates that THBS1 is one of the gene with the highest connectivity at the tumour borders. All in all, these data show that TGFbeta1 induces THBS1 expression via Smad3 which contributes to the invasive behaviour during GBM expansion. Furthermore, tumour cell-bound CD47 is implicated in this process.





07/03/2019 | JCI Insight   IF 6
The motivation for exercise over palatable food is dictated by cannabinoid type-1 receptors.
Muguruza C, Redon B, Fois GR, Hurel I, Scocard A, Nguyen C, Stevens C, Soria-Gomez E, Varilh M, Cannich A, Daniault J, Busquets-Garcia A, Pelliccia T, Caille S, Georges F, Marsicano G, Chaouloff F

Abstract:
The lack of intrinsic motivation to engage in, and adhere to, physical exercise has major health consequences. However, the neurobiological bases of exercise motivation are still unknown. This study aimed at examining whether the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in this process. To do so, we developed an operant conditioning paradigm wherein mice unlocked a running wheel with nose pokes. Using pharmacological tools and conditional mutants for cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors, we provide evidence that CB1 receptors located on GABAergic neurons are both necessary and sufficient to positively control running motivation. Conversely, this receptor population proved dispensable for the modulation of running duration per rewarded sequence. Although the ECS mediated the motivation for another reward, namely palatable food, such a regulation was independent from CB1 receptors on GABAergic neurons. In addition, we report that the lack of CB1 receptors on GABAergic neurons decreases the preference for running over palatable food when mice were proposed an exclusive choice between the two rewards. Beyond providing a paradigm that enables motivation processes for exercise to be dissected either singly or in concurrence, this study is the first to our knowledge to identify a neurobiological mechanism that might contribute to sedentary behavior.





24/01/2019 | Neurobiol Dis   IF 5.2
Cannabinoid type-1 receptor blockade restores neurological phenotypes in two models for Down syndrome.
Navarro-Romero A, Vazquez-Oliver A, Gomis-Gonzalez M, Garzon-Montesinos C, Falcon-Moya R, Pastor A, Martin-Garcia E, Pizarro N, Busquets-Garcia A, Revest JM, Piazza PV, Bosch F, Dierssen M, de la Torre R, Rodriguez-Moreno A, Maldonado R, Ozaita A

Abstract:
Intellectual disability is the most limiting hallmark of Down syndrome, for which there is no gold-standard clinical treatment yet. The endocannabinoid system is a widespread neuromodulatory system involved in multiple functions including learning and memory processes. Alterations of this system contribute to the pathogenesis of several neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome has not been explored before. We used the best-characterized preclinical model of Down syndrome, the segmentally trisomic Ts65Dn model. In male Ts65Dn mice, cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) expression was enhanced and its function increased in hippocampal excitatory terminals. Knockdown of CB1R in the hippocampus of male Ts65Dn mice restored hippocampal-dependent memory. Concomitant with this result, pharmacological inhibition of CB1R restored memory deficits, hippocampal synaptic plasticity and adult neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Notably, the blockade of CB1R also normalized hippocampal-dependent memory in female Ts65Dn mice. To further investigate the mechanisms involved, we used a second transgenic mouse model overexpressing a single gene candidate for Down syndrome cognitive phenotypes, the dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A). CB1R pharmacological blockade similarly improved cognitive performance, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis in transgenic male Dyrk1A mice. Our results identify CB1R as a novel druggable target potentially relevant for the improvement of cognitive deficits associated with Down syndrome.





07/01/2019 | Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med   IF 5.6
Development and Patterning of the Cochlea: From Convergent Extension to Planar Polarity.
Montcouquiol M, Kelley MW

Abstract:
Within the mammalian cochlea, sensory hair cells and supporting cells are aligned in curvilinear rows that extend along the length of the tonotopic axis. In addition, all of the cells within the epithelium are uniformly polarized across the orthogonal neural-abneural axis. Finally, each hair cell is intrinsically polarized as revealed by the presence of an asymmetrically shaped and apically localized stereociliary bundle. It has been known for some time that many of the developmental processes that regulate these patterning events are mediated, to some extent, by the core planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. This article will review more recent work demonstrating how components of the PCP pathway interact with cytoskeletal motor proteins to regulate cochlear outgrowth. Finally, a signaling pathway originally identified for its role in asymmetric cell divisions has recently been shown to mediate several aspects of intrinsic hair cell polarity, including kinocilia migration, bundle shape, and elongation.





2019 | Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences   IF 3.4
Valence Coding in Amygdala Circuits
Pignatelli M, Beyeler A

Abstract:
The neural mechanisms underlying emotional valence are at the interface between perception and action, integrating inputs from the external environment with past experiences to guide the behavior of an organism. Depending on the positive or negative valence assigned to an environmental stimulus, the organism will approach or avoid the source of the stimulus. Multiple convergent studies have demonstrated that the amygdala complex is a critical node of the circuits assigning valence. Here we examine the current progress in identifying valence coding properties of neural populations in different nuclei of the amygdala, based on their activity, connectivity, and gene expression profile.





2019 | front pharmacol   IF 3.8
Beyond the Activity-Based Anorexia Model: Reinforcing Values of Exercise and Feeding Examined in Stressed Adolescent Male and Female Mice.
Hurel I, Redon B, Scocard A, Malezieux M, Marsicano G, Chaouloff F

Abstract:
Anorexia nervosa (AN), mostly observed in female adolescents, is the most fatal mental illness. Its core is a motivational imbalance between exercise and feeding in favor of the former. The most privileged animal model of AN is the 'activity-based anorexia' (ABA) model wherein partly starved rodents housed with running wheels exercise at the expense of feeding. However, the ABA model bears face and construct validity limits, including its inability to specifically assess running motivation and feeding motivation. As infant/adolescent trauma is a precipitating factor in AN, this study first analyzed post-weaning isolation rearing (PWIR) impacts on body weights and wheel-running performances in female mice exposed to an ABA protocol. Next, we studied through operant conditioning protocols i) whether food restriction affects in a sex-dependent manner running motivation before ii) investigating how PWIR and sex affect running and feeding drives under ad libitum fed conditions and food restriction. Besides amplifying ABA-elicited body weight reductions, PWIR stimulated wheel-running activities in anticipation of feeding in female mice, suggesting increased running motivation. To confirm this hypothesis, we used a cued-reward motivated instrumental task wherein wheel-running was conditioned by prior nose poke responses. It was first observed that food restriction increased running motivation in male, but not female, mice. When fed grouped and PWIR mice were tested for their running and palatable feeding drives, all mice, excepted PWIR males, displayed increased nose poke responses for running over feeding. This was true when rewards were proposed alone or within a concurrent test. The increased preference for running over feeding in fed females did not extend to running performances (time, distance) during each rewarded sequence, confirming that motivation for, and performance during, running are independent entities. With food restriction, mice displayed a sex-independent increase in their preference for feeding over running in both group-housed and PWIR conditions. This study shows that the ABA model does not specifically capture running and feeding drives, i.e. components known to be affected in AN.