Publications plateforme Genotypage

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The indicated IF have been collected by the Web of Sciences in June 2019

13/03/2018 | Brain Behav Immun   IF 6.2
mTORC1 pathway disruption abrogates the effects of the ciliary neurotrophic factor on energy balance and hypothalamic neuroinflammation.
Andre C, Catania C, Remus-Borel J, Ladeveze E, Leste-Lasserre T, Mazier W, Binder E, Gonzales D, Clark S, Guzman-Quevedo O, Abrous DN, Laye S, Cota D

Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) potently decreases food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese mice by acting through neuronal circuits and pathways located in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. CNTF also exerts pro-inflammatory actions within the brain. Here we tested whether CNTF modifies energy balance by inducing inflammatory responses in the ARC and whether these effects depend upon the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which regulates both energy metabolism and inflammation. To this purpose, chow- and high fat diet (HFD)- fed mice lacking the S6 kinase 1 (S6K1(-/-)), a downstream target of mTORC1, and their wild-type (WT) littermates received 12 days continuous intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of the CNTF analogue axokine (CNTFAx15). Behavioral, metabolic and molecular effects were evaluated. Central chronic administration of CNTFAx15 decreased body weight and feed efficiency in WT mice only, when fed HFD, but not chow. These metabolic effects correlated with increased number of iba-1 positive microglia specifically in the ARC and were accompanied by significant increases of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic iNOS and SOCS3 mRNA, molecular markers of pro-inflammatory response, were also increased by CNTFAx15. All these changes were absent in S6K1(-/-) mice. This study reveals that CNTFAx15 requires a functional S6K1 to modulate energy balance and hypothalamic inflammation in a diet-dependent fashion. Further investigations should determine whether S6K1 is a suitable target for the treatment of pathologies characterized by a high neuroinflammatory state.

02/12/2014 | Endocrinology   IF 3.8
Cannabinoid type 1 (CB) receptors on Sim1-expressing neurons regulate energy expenditure in male mice.
Cardinal P, Bellocchio L, Guzman-Quevedo O, Andre C, Clark S, Elie M, Leste-Lasserre T, Gonzales D, Cannich A, Marsicano G, Cota D

The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) regulates energy balance by modulating not only food intake, but also energy expenditure and brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. To test the hypothesis that cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor in PVN neurons might control these processes, we used the Cre/loxP system to delete CB1 from Single minded 1 (Sim1) neurons, which account for the majority of PVN neurons. On standard chow, mice lacking CB1 receptor in Sim1 neurons (Sim1-CB1-KO) had food intake, body weight, adiposity, glucose metabolism and energy expenditure comparable to wild-type (Sim1-CB1-WT) littermates. However, maintenance on a high-fat diet (HFD) revealed a gene-by-diet interaction whereby Sim1-CB1-KO mice had decreased adiposity, improved insulin sensitivity and increased energy expenditure, while feeding behavior was similar to Sim1-CB1-WT mice. Additionally, HFD-fed Sim1-CB1-KO mice had increased mRNA expression of the beta3-adrenergic receptor, as well as of UCP-1, Cox-IV and Tfam in the BAT, all molecular changes suggestive of increased thermogenesis. Pharmacological studies using beta-blockers suggested that modulation of beta-adrenergic transmission play an important role in determining energy expenditure changes observed in Sim1-CB1-KO. Finally, chemical sympathectomy abolished the obesity-resistant phenotype of Sim1-CB1-KO mice. Altogether, these findings reveal a diet-dependent dissociation in the CB1 receptor control of food intake and energy expenditure, likely mediated by the PVN, where CB1 receptors on Sim1-positive neurons do not impact food intake, but hinder energy expenditure during dietary environmental challenges that promote body weight gain.

10/2014 | Mol Metab   IF 6.2
CB1 cannabinoid receptor in SF1-expressing neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus determines metabolic responses to diet and leptin.
Cardinal P, Andre C, Quarta C, Bellocchio L, Clark S, Elie M, Leste-Lasserre T, Maitre M, Gonzales D, Cannich A, Pagotto U, Marsicano G, Cota D

Metabolic flexibility allows rapid adaptation to dietary change, however, little is known about the CNS mechanisms regulating this process. Neurons in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMN) participate in energy balance and are the target of the metabolically relevant hormone leptin. Cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors are expressed in VMN neurons, but the specific contribution of endocannabinoid signaling in this neuronal population to energy balance regulation is unknown. Here we demonstrate that VMN CB1 receptors regulate metabolic flexibility and actions of leptin. In chow-fed mice, conditional deletion of CB1 in VMN neurons (expressing the steroidogenic factor 1, SF1) decreases adiposity by increasing sympathetic activity and lipolysis, and facilitates metabolic effects of leptin. Conversely, under high-fat diet, lack of CB1 in VMN neurons produces leptin resistance, blunts peripheral use of lipid substrates and increases adiposity. Thus, CB1 receptors in VMN neurons provide a molecular switch adapting the organism to dietary change.

27/08/2013 | Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A   IF 9.6
WNK1-related Familial Hyperkalemic Hypertension results from an increased expression of L-WNK1 specifically in the distal nephron.
Vidal-Petiot E, Elvira-Matelot E, Mutig K, Soukaseum C, Baudrie V, Wu S, Cheval L, Huc E, Cambillau M, Bachmann S, Doucet A, Jeunemaitre X, Hadchouel J

Large deletions in the first intron of the With No lysine (K) 1 (WNK1) gene are responsible for Familial Hyperkalemic Hypertension (FHHt), a rare form of human hypertension associated with hyperkalemia and hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. We generated a mouse model of WNK1-associated FHHt to explore the consequences of this intronic deletion. WNK1(+/FHHt) mice display all clinical and biological signs of FHHt. This phenotype results from increased expression of long WNK1 (L-WNK1), the ubiquitous kinase isoform of WNK1, in the distal convoluted tubule, which in turn, stimulates the activity of the Na-Cl cotransporter. We also show that the activity of the epithelial sodium channel is not altered in FHHt mice, suggesting that other mechanisms are responsible for the hyperkalemia and acidosis in this model. Finally, we observe a decreased expression of the renal outer medullary potassium channel in the late distal convoluted tubule of WNK1(+/FHHt) mice, which could contribute to the hyperkalemia. In summary, our study provides insights into the in vivo mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of WNK1-mediated FHHt and further corroborates the importance of WNK1 in ion homeostasis and blood pressure.

15/08/2012 | Biol Psychiatry   IF 11.5
Interplay of maternal care and genetic influences in programming adult hippocampal neurogenesis.
Koehl M, van der Veen R, Gonzales D, Piazza PV, Abrous DN

BACKGROUND: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which is involved in the physiopathology of hippocampal functions, is genetically determined and influenced by early life events. However, studies on the interaction of these determining forces are lacking. This prompted us to investigate whether adult hippocampal neurogenesis can be modulated by maternal care and whether this influence depends upon the genetic background of the individual. METHODS: We used a model of fostering that allows singling out the influence of the genetic make-up of the pups on the outcome of maternal behavior. Mice from two different inbred strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J) known to differ in their baseline neurogenesis as well as in their sensitivity to the influence of environmental experiences were raised by nonrelated mothers from the AKR/Ola (AKR) and C3H/He (C3H) strains exhibiting low- and high-pup-oriented behavior, respectively. Neurogenesis was then assessed in the dentate gyrus of the adult adopted C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. RESULTS: We show that both the number and the morphological features of newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus are determined by the maternal environment to which mice were exposed as pups and that this sensitivity to maternal environment is observed only in genetically vulnerable subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our data indicate interplay between early environment and the genetic envelop of an individual in determining adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Our experimental approach could thus contribute to the identification of factors determining the neurogenic potential of the adult hippocampus.

13/01/2010 | J Neurosci   IF 6.1
The transformation of a unilateral locomotor command into a symmetrical bilateral
activation in the brainstem.

Brocard F, Ryczko D , Fenelon K , Hatem R , Gonzales D , Auclair F , Dubuc R

A unilateral activation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) produces symmetrical bilateral locomotion in all vertebrate species tested to date. How this occurs remains unresolved. This study examined the possibility that the symmetry occurred at the level of the inputs from the MLR to reticulospinal (RS) cells. In lamprey semi-intact preparations, we recorded intracellular responses of pairs of large, homologous RS cells on both sides to stimulation of the MLR on one side. The synaptic responses on both sides were very similar in shape, amplitude, and threshold intensity. Increasing MLR stimulation intensity produced a symmetrical increase in the magnitude of the responses on both sides. Ca(2+) imaging confirmed the bilateral activation of smaller-sized RS cells as well. In a high-divalent cation solution, the synaptic responses of homologous RS cells persisted and exhibited a constant latency during high-frequency stimulation. Moreover, during gradual replacement of normal Ringer's solution with a Ca(2+)-free solution, the magnitude of responses showed a gradual reduction with a similar time course in the homologous RS cells. These results support the idea that the MLR projects monosynaptically to RS cells on both sides with symmetrical inputs. During locomotion of the semi-intact preparation, the discharge pattern was also very similar in homologous bilateral RS cells. Anatomical experiments confirmed the presence of MLR neurons projecting ipsilaterally to the reticular formation intermingled with neurons projecting contralaterally. We conclude that the bilaterally symmetrical MLR inputs to RS cells are likely contributors to generating symmetrical locomotor activity.

07/2008 | Faseb J   IF 5.4
Exercise-induced promotion of hippocampal cell proliferation requires beta-endorphin.
Koehl M, Meerlo P, Gonzales D, Rontal A, Turek FW, Abrous DN

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is influenced by a variety of stimuli, including exercise, but the mechanisms by which running affects neurogenesis are not yet fully understood. Because beta-endorphin, which is released in response to exercise, increases cell proliferation in vitro, we hypothesized that it could exert a similar effect in vivo and mediate the stimulatory effects of running on neurogenesis. We thus analyzed the effects of voluntary wheel-running on adult neurogenesis (proliferation, differentiation, survival/death) in wild-type and beta-endorphin-deficient mice. In wild-type mice, exercise promoted cell proliferation evaluated by sacrificing animals 24 h after the last 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse and by using endogenous cell cycle markers (Ki67 and pH(3)). This was accompanied by an increased survival of 4-wk-old BrdU-labeled cells, leading to a net increase of neurogenesis. Beta-endorphin deficiency had no effect in sedentary mice, but it completely blocked the running-induced increase in cell proliferation; this blockade was accompanied by an increased survival of 4-wk-old cells and a decreased cell death. Altogether, adult neurogenesis was increased in response to exercise in knockout mice. We conclude that beta-endorphin released during running is a key factor for exercise-induced cell proliferation and that a homeostatic balance may regulate the final number of new neurons.

The effect of breed [Creole (CR) vs. Large White (LW)] on performance and physiological responses during acclimation to high ambient temperature was studied in 2 experiments involving 24 (12/breed) growing pigs each. Pigs were exposed to 24 degrees C for 10 d (d -10 to -1) and thereafter to a constant temperature of 31 degrees C for 16 d (d 1 to d 16) in Exp. 1 and for 20 d (d 1 to d 20) in Exp. 2. For both experiments, the temperature change was achieved over 4 h on d 0. The first experiment began at 105 d of age, and the average BW of CR and LW pigs was 36.6 +/- 2.5 kg and 51.7 +/- 3.0 kg, respectively. The second experiment was designed to compare both breeds at a similar BW (about 52 kg on d 0). Pigs were individually housed and given ad libitum access to feed. At 24 degrees C, ADG was lower (P < 0.01) in CR than in LW (602 vs. 913 g/d and 605 vs. 862 g/d in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively), but the ADFI was not affected by breed (190 and 221 g x d(-1) x kg(-0.60) in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively). Short-term thermoregulatory responses during the 4-h transition from 24 to 31 degrees C (d 0) were analyzed according to a linear plateau model to determine the break point temperature, above which rectal temperature (RT), cutaneous temperature (CT), and respiratory rate (RR) began to change. The CT increased linearly with temperature increase (0.22 degrees C/ degrees C) and was less (P < 0.05) in CR than in LW (by -0.3 degrees C on average). In both experiments, the break point temperature for RT was not affected by breed (27.6 degrees C on average), whereas for RR it was greater (P < 0.05) in CR than in LW (27.5 vs. 25.5 degrees C, P < 0.01). On average, ADFI declined by about 50 g x d(-1) x kg(-0.60) from d -1 to d 1 (P < 0.01), and thereafter at 31 degrees C, it gradually increased (23 g x d(-1) x kg(-0.60); P < 0.05), suggesting an acclimation to high exposure. This response was not influenced by breed. After the day that marked the beginning of the acclimation response (i.e., the threshold day), RR, CT, and RT declined over the duration of exposure to 31 degrees C (P < 0.05) in both experiments. During this period, RT and CT were less in CR than in LW pigs (39.6 vs. 39.9 degrees C and 37.9 vs. 38.2 degrees C, respectively; P < 0.05), whereas RR was not affected by breed. The threshold day at which RT began to decline was less in CR than in LW pigs (0.18 vs. 1.17 d and 0.39 vs. 0.93 d in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively; P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study suggests that short- and long-term physiological reactions during heat acclimation differed when CR and LW pigs were compared at the same age or BW.