Neurocentre Magendie

Les publications

IF du Neurocentre

734 publications

* equal contribution
Les IF indiqués ont été collectés par le Web of Sciences en Juillet 2017

02/02/2017 | J Neurosci Res   IF 2.5
Astroglial glutamate transporters in the brain: Regulating neurotransmitter homeostasis and synaptic transmission.
Murphy-Royal C, Dupuis J, Groc L, Oliet SH

Astrocytes, the major glial cell type in the central nervous system (CNS), are critical for brain function and have been implicated in various disorders of the central nervous system. These cells are involved in a wide range of cerebral processes including brain metabolism, control of central blood flow, ionic homeostasis, fine-tuning synaptic transmission, and neurotransmitter clearance. Such varied roles can be efficiently carried out due to the intimate interactions astrocytes maintain with neurons, the vasculature, as well as with other glial cells. Arguably, one of the most important functions of astrocytes in the brain is their control of neurotransmitter clearance. This is particularly true for glutamate whose timecourse in the synaptic cleft needs to be controlled tightly under physiological conditions to maintain point-to-point excitatory transmission, thereby limiting spillover and activation of more receptors. Most importantly, accumulation of glutamate in the extracellular space can trigger excessive activation of glutamatergic receptors and lead to excitotoxicity, a trademark of many neurodegenerative diseases. It is thus of utmost importance for both physiological and pathophysiological reasons to understand the processes that control glutamate time course within the synaptic cleft and regulate its concentrations in the extracellular space. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

01/02/2017 | Endocrinology   IF 4.3
Islet Endothelial Cell: Friend and Foe.
Mazier W, Cota D

24/01/2017 | Neuropharmacology   IF 5
CRF1 receptor-deficiency increases cocaine reward.
Contarino A, Kitchener P, Vallee M, Papaleo F, Piazza PV

Stimulant drugs produce reward but also activate stress-responsive systems. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the related hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress-responsive systems are activated by stimulant drugs. However, their role in stimulant drug-induced reward remains poorly understood. Herein, we report that CRF1 receptor-deficient (CRF1-/-), but not wild-type, mice show conditioned place preference (CPP) responses to a relatively low cocaine dose (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Conversely, wild-type, but not CRF1-/-, mice display CPP responses to a relatively high cocaine dose (20 mg/kg, i.p.), indicating that CRF1 receptor-deficiency alters the rewarding effects of cocaine. Acute pharmacological antagonism of the CRF1 receptor by antalarmin also eliminates cocaine reward. Nevertheless, CRF1-/- mice display higher stereotypy responses to cocaine than wild-type mice. Despite the very low plasma corticosterone concentration, CRF1-/- mice show higher nuclear glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in the brain region of the hippocampus than wild-type mice. Full rescue of wild-type-like corticosterone and GR circadian rhythm and level in CRF1-/- mice by exogenous corticosterone does not affect CRF1 receptor-dependent cocaine reward but induces stereotypy responses to cocaine. These results indicate a critical role for the CRF1 receptor in cocaine reward, independently of the closely related HPA axis activity.

2017 | Methods Mol Biol
Dual Anterograde and Retrograde Viral Tracing of Reciprocal Connectivity.
Haberl MG, Ginger M, Frick A

Current large-scale approaches in neuroscience aim to unravel the complete connectivity map of specific neuronal circuits, or even the entire brain. This emerging research discipline has been termed connectomics. Recombinant glycoprotein-deleted rabies virus (RABV G) has become an important tool for the investigation of neuronal connectivity in the brains of a variety of species. Neuronal infection with even a single RABV G particle results in high-level transgene expression, revealing the fine-detailed morphology of all neuronal features-including dendritic spines, axonal processes, and boutons-on a brain-wide scale. This labeling is eminently suitable for subsequent post-hoc morphological analysis, such as semiautomated reconstruction in 3D. Here we describe the use of a recently developed anterograde RABV G variant together with a retrograde RABV G for the investigation of projections both to, and from, a particular brain region. In addition to the automated reconstruction of a dendritic tree, we also give as an example the volume measurements of axonal boutons following RABV G-mediated fluorescent marker expression. In conclusion RABV G variants expressing a combination of markers and/or tools for stimulating/monitoring neuronal activity, used together with genetic or behavioral animal models, promise important insights in the structure-function relationship of neural circuits.

2017 | front mol neurosci   IF 5.1
Differential Alteration in Expression of Striatal GABAAR Subunits in Mouse Models of Huntington's Disease.
Du Z, Tertrais M, Courtand G, Leste-Lasserre T, Cardoit L, Masmejean F, Halgand C, Cho YH, Garret M

Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor symptoms that are preceded by cognitive deficits and is considered as a disorder that primarily affects forebrain striatal neurons. To gain a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with disease progression, we analyzed the expression of proteins involved in GABAergic neurotransmission in the striatum of the R6/1 transgenic mouse model. Western blot, quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted on male R6/1 mice and age-matched wild type littermates. Analyses were performed on 2 and 6 month-old animals, respectively, before and after the onset of motor symptoms. Expression of GAD 67, GAD 65, NL2, or gephyrin proteins, involved in GABA synthesis or synapse formation did not display major changes. In contrast, expression of alpha1, alpha3 and alpha5 GABAAR subunits was increased while the expression of delta was decreased, suggesting a change in tonic- and phasic inhibitory transmission. Western blot analysis of the striatum from 8 month-old Hdh Q111, a knock-in mouse model of HD with mild deficits, confirmed the alpha1 subunit increased expression. From immunohistochemical analyses, we also found that alpha1 subunit expression is increased in medium-sized spiny projection neurons (MSN) and decreased in parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons at 2 and 6 months in R6/1 mice. Moreover, alpha2 subunit labeling on the PV and MSN cell membranes was increased at 2 months and decreased at 6 months. Alteration of gene expression in the striatum and modification of GABAA receptor subtypes in both interneurons and projection neurons suggested that HD mutation has a profound effect on synaptic plasticity at an early stage, before the onset of motor symptoms. These results also indicate that cognitive and other behavioral deficits may be associated with changes in GABAergic neurotransmission that consequently could be a relevant target for early therapeutic treatment.

30/11/2016 | Diabetes   IF 8.7
Inhibiting Microglia Expansion Prevents Diet-induced Hypothalamic and Peripheral Inflammation.
Andre C, Guzman-Quevedo O, Rey C, Remus-Borel J, Clark S, Castellanos-Jankiewicz A, Ladeveze E, Leste-Lasserre T, Nadjar A, Abrous DN, Laye S, Cota D

Cell proliferation and neuroinflammation in the adult hypothalamus may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we tested whether the intertwining of these two processes has a role in the metabolic changes caused by three weeks of saturated high-fat diet (HFD) consumption.As compared to chow, HFD-fed mice rapidly increased body weight and fat mass, and specifically showed increased microglia number in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. Microglia expansion required the adequate presence of fats and carbohydrates in the diet, since feeding mice a very high-fat, very low-carbohydrate diet did not affect cell proliferation. Blocking HFD-induced cell proliferation by central delivery of the antimitotic drug arabinofuranosyl cytidine (AraC) blunted food intake, body weight gain and adiposity. AraC treatment completely prevented the increase in the number of activated microglia in the ARC, the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFalpha in microglia and the recruitment of the NF-kappaB pathway, while restoring hypothalamic leptin sensitivity. Central blockade of cell proliferation also normalized circulating levels of the cytokines leptin and IL-1beta and decreased peritoneal pro-inflammatory CD86-IR macrophages number.These findings suggest that inhibition of diet-dependent microglia expansion hinders body weight gain while preventing central and peripheral inflammatory responses due to caloric overload.

25/11/2016 | Sci Rep
Redox cofactors insertion in prokaryotic molybdoenzymes occurs via a conserved folding mechanism.
Arias-Cartin R, Ceccaldi P, Schoepp-Cothenet B, Frick K, Blanc JM, Guigliarelli B, Walburger A, Grimaldi S, Friedrich T, Receveur-Brechot V, Magalon A

A major gap of knowledge in metalloproteins is the identity of the prefolded state of the protein before cofactor insertion. This holds for molybdoenzymes serving multiple purposes for life, especially in energy harvesting. This large group of prokaryotic enzymes allows for coordination of molybdenum or tungsten cofactors (Mo/W-bisPGD) and Fe/S clusters. Here we report the structural data on a cofactor-less enzyme, the nitrate reductase respiratory complex and characterize the conformational changes accompanying Mo/W-bisPGD and Fe/S cofactors insertion. Identified conformational changes are shown to be essential for recognition of the dedicated chaperone involved in cofactors insertion. A solvent-exposed salt bridge is shown to play a key role in enzyme folding after cofactors insertion. Furthermore, this salt bridge is shown to be strictly conserved within this prokaryotic molybdoenzyme family as deduced from a phylogenetic analysis issued from 3D structure-guided multiple sequence alignment. A biochemical analysis with a distantly-related member of the family, respiratory complex I, confirmed the critical importance of the salt bridge for folding. Overall, our results point to a conserved cofactors insertion mechanism within the Mo/W-bisPGD family.

25/11/2016 | Sci Rep
Plasticity in the olfactory bulb of the maternal mouse is prevented by gestational stress.
Belnoue L, Malvaut S, Ladeveze E, Abrous DN, Koehl M

Maternal stress is associated with an altered mother-infant relationship that endangers offspring development, leading to emotional/behavioral problems. However, little research has investigated the stress-induced alterations of the maternal brain that could underlie such a disruption of mother-infant bonding. Olfactory cues play an extensive role in the coordination of mother-infant interactions, suggesting that motherhood may be associated to enhanced olfactory performances, and that this effect may be abolished by maternal stress. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the impact of motherhood under normal conditions or after gestational stress on olfactory functions in C57BL/6 J mice. We report that gestational stress alters maternal behavior and prevents both mothers' ability to discriminate pup odors and motherhood-induced enhancement in odor memory. We investigated adult bulbar neurogenesis as a potential mechanism of the enhanced olfactory function in mothers and found that motherhood was associated with an increased complexity of the dendritic tree of newborn neurons. This motherhood-evoked remodeling was totally prevented by gestational stress. Altogether, our results may thus provide insight into the neural changes that could contribute to altered maternal behavior in stressed mothers.

12/11/2016 | Brain Behav Immun   IF 6
Selective dentate gyrus disruption causes memory impairment at the early stage of experimental multiple sclerosis.
Planche V, Panatier A, Hiba B, Ducourneau EG, Raffard G, Dubourdieu N, Maitre M, Leste-Lasserre T, Brochet B, Dousset V, Desmedt A, Oliet SH, Tourdias T

Memory impairment is an early and disabling manifestation of multiple sclerosis whose anatomical and biological substrates are still poorly understood. We thus investigated whether memory impairment encountered at the early stage of the disease could be explained by a differential vulnerability of particular hippocampal subfields. By using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we identified that early memory impairment was associated with selective alteration of the dentate gyrus as pinpointed in vivo with diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI). Neuromorphometric analyses and electrophysiological recordings confirmed dendritic degeneration, alteration in glutamatergic synaptic transmission and impaired long-term synaptic potentiation selectively in the dentate gyrus, but not in CA1, together with a more severe pattern of microglial activation in this subfield. Systemic injections of the microglial inhibitor minocycline prevented DTI, morphological, electrophysiological and behavioral impairments in EAE-mice. Furthermore, daily infusions of minocycline specifically within the dentate gyrus were sufficient to prevent memory impairment in EAE-mice while infusions of minocycline within CA1 were inefficient. We conclude that early memory impairment in EAE is due to a selective disruption of the dentate gyrus associated with microglia activation. These results open new pathophysiological, imaging, and therapeutic perspectives for memory impairment in multiple sclerosis.

09/11/2016 | Nature   IF 40.1
A cannabinoid link between mitochondria and memory.
Hebert-Chatelain E, Desprez T, Serrat R, Bellocchio L, Soria-Gomez E, Busquets-Garcia A, Zottola AC, Delamarre A, Cannich A, Vincent P, Varilh M, Robin LM, Terral G, Garcia-Fernandez MD, Colavita M, Mazier W, Drago F, Puente N, Reguero L, Elezgarai I, Dupuy JW, Cota D, Lopez-Rodriguez ML, Barreda-Gomez G, Massa F, Grandes P, Benard G, Marsicano G

Cellular activity in the brain depends on the high energetic support provided by mitochondria, the cell organelles which use energy sources to generate ATP. Acute cannabinoid intoxication induces amnesia in humans and animals, and the activation of type-1 cannabinoid receptors present at brain mitochondria membranes (mtCB1) can directly alter mitochondrial energetic activity. Although the pathological impact of chronic mitochondrial dysfunctions in the brain is well established, the involvement of acute modulation of mitochondrial activity in high brain functions, including learning and memory, is unknown. Here, we show that acute cannabinoid-induced memory impairment in mice requires activation of hippocampal mtCB1 receptors. Genetic exclusion of CB1 receptors from hippocampal mitochondria prevents cannabinoid-induced reduction of mitochondrial mobility, synaptic transmission and memory formation. mtCB1 receptors signal through intra-mitochondrial Galphai protein activation and consequent inhibition of soluble-adenylyl cyclase (sAC). The resulting inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of specific subunits of the mitochondrial electron transport system eventually leads to decreased cellular respiration. Hippocampal inhibition of sAC activity or manipulation of intra-mitochondrial PKA signalling or phosphorylation of the Complex I subunit NDUFS2 inhibit bioenergetic and amnesic effects of cannabinoids. Thus, the G protein-coupled mtCB1 receptors regulate memory processes via modulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. By directly linking mitochondrial activity to memory formation, these data reveal that bioenergetic processes are primary acute regulators of cognitive functions.