Neurocentre Magendie

Les publications

IF du Neurocentre

734 publications

* equal contribution
Les IF indiqués ont été collectés par le Web of Sciences en Juillet 2017

1. The sensitivity of cromakalim-activated current (Icrom) to manipulations of extracellular cationic composition was examined in whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from freshly-dispersed, adult guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. In bathing media with different concentrations of K+ (1, 2.5, 5.4 and 12 mM) the Icrom reversal potential (Erev) varied in strict correspondance with the K+ equilibrium potential and inward Icrom amplitude was proportional to the external K+ concentration. 2. Replacement of 12mM K+ with 12mM Rb+ induced a slight positive shift of Erev indicating that PRb+/PK+ = 1.06. K+ replacement with 12mM Cs+ reduced or abolished inward Icrom and produced a negative shift of Erev by at least 50 mV; an upper limit of PCs+/PK+ was fixed at 0.18. 3. Addition of Rb+ (1-30 mM) to 2.5 mM K(+)-containing medium produced a concentration-dependent increase in inward Icrom and positive shift of Erev suggesting that K+ and Rb+ have similar permeabilities and conductivities and do not interfere with each other in the channel. 4. CS+ (0.01-30 mM), added to medium containing 12 mM Rb+, induced a potent, voltage-dependent inhibition of inwardly rectifying current (IK1; IC50 = 0.2-3 mM). Voltage-dependent inhibition of inward Icrom was observed only at considerably higher CS+ concentrations (IC50 = 4-30 mM). Extracellular Rb+ and CS+ did not substantially alter the amplitude of outward Icrom. 5. The results support the contention that the ATP-sensitive K+ channel is the primary target of cromakalim action in ventricular myocytes.

10/05/1991 | Brain Res   IF 2.7
Hippocampal type I and type II corticosteroid receptor affinities are reduced in rats predisposed to develop amphetamine self-administration.
Maccari S, Piazza PV, Deminiere JM, Angelucci L, Simon H, Le Moal M

It has been suggested that individual predisposition to develop amphetamine self-administration is associated with impairment in corticosteroid negative feedback mechanisms. Since corticosteroid receptors, particularly those in the hippocampus, are involved in corticosterone feedback sensitivity, we examined the relation between individual differences in amphetamine self-administration and characteristics of hippocampal corticosteroid receptors. Rats were selected on the basis of likelihood to self-administer amphetamine and designed as: (1) High Responding (HR) rats, who quickly acquire the response and (2) Low Responding (LR), who fail to self-administer amphetamine. We found lower affinities both for hippocampal type I and type II corticosteroid receptors in the HR animals. These data suggest that modification of hippocampal corticosteroid receptors may be responsible for the predisposition of some animals for amphetamine self-administration. Because HR rats also show a greater behavioral and endocrinological response in a novel environment, these differences in affinities suggest a relation among amphetamine self-administration, control of the corticosterone feedback loop, serum levels of corticosterone and characteristics of hippocampal corticosteroid receptors. The implication is that pharmacological manipulations of corticosteroid receptors may reveal new therapeutic strategies for drug abuse.

26/04/1991 | Brain Res   IF 2.7
Life events-induced decrease of corticosteroid type I receptors is associated with reduced corticosterone feedback and enhanced vulnerability to amphetamine self-administration.
Maccari S, Piazza PV, Deminiere JM, Lemaire V, Mormede P, Simon H, Angelucci L, Le Moal M

In this study, we attempted to find out whether a social stress-induced increase in the vulnerability to acquire amphetamine self-administration was associated with a change in number of hippocampal corticosteroid receptors. This was examined in two types of sex-mixed colonies of rats. Animals were maintained for 4 weeks in: (1) 'stable social condition', membership did not change after constitution of the colony; (2) 'unstable social condition', the males were changed daily in a random design. The animals living in the 'stable social' conditions had: (1) a lower number of hippocampal type I corticosteroid receptors; (2) a longer duration of the increase in plasma corticosterone after exposure to novelty; (3) a higher vulnerability to acquire amphetamine self-administration. These findings suggest that a decrease in hippocampal type I corticosteroid receptors may be one of the biological mechanisms responsible for the impaired corticosterone feedback control observed in vulnerable animals. These findings throw more light on the role of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in the modulation of adaptive behavior. The availability of drugs which are specific for corticosteroid receptors could represent a new approach to the therapy of certain behavioral disturbances.

15/03/1991 | Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A   IF 9.6
Corticosterone levels determine individual vulnerability to amphetamine self-administration.
Piazza PV, Maccari S, Deminiere JM, Le Moal M, Mormede P, Simon H

Individual vulnerability to the reinforcing properties of drugs appears to be an essential characteristic predisposing humans to addiction. In animals, a greater behavioral reactivity to a mild stress, such as exposure to a novel environment, is an index of the vulnerability to acquire amphetamine self-administration. Biological responses to stress as well as behavioral reactivity may predict such a vulnerability. In the present study, rats with a longer duration of corticosterone secretion after exposure to novelty showed facilitation of acquisition of amphetamine self-administration. Furthermore, corticosterone administration in nonpredisposed individuals increased the reinforcing value of the drug and facilitated the acquisition of amphetamine self-administration. These results indicate that the stress-related activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may play a role in the pathogenesis of psychostimulant addiction.

01/03/1991 | Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A   IF 9.6
Association of the Ras-antagonistic Rap1/Krev-1 proteins with the Golgi complex.
Beranger F, Goud B, Tavitian A, de Gunzburg J

Ras oncogenes encode 21-kDa GTP-binding proteins that are capable of transforming immortalized cells in culture. Ras proteins are bound to the inner face of the plasma membrane by their C-terminal extremity and are thought to transmit their mitogenic signals via an 'effector' domain spanning amino acids 32-42. Two ras-related human genes rap1A and rap1B encode 95% homologous 21-kDa proteins that share with Ras p21 the same effector domain and a similar C-terminal Cys-Ali-Ali-Xaa sequence (where Ali is an aliphatic amino acid; also known as a CAAX sequence). The product of the rap1A gene is identical to that of the Krev-1 cDNA, whose overexpression is capable of reverting the phenotype of Ki-ras-transformed NIH 3T3 cells. Antibodies that do not cross-react with Ras and other Ras-related proteins were obtained by immunizing rabbits with a peptide encompassing residues 121-137 of Rap1 proteins. These antibodies were used to investigate the subcellular localization of Rap1 proteins by indirect immunofluorescence and fractionation techniques. Rap1 proteins were found to be tightly bound to cellular membranes. They did not colocalize with Ras proteins on the plasma membrane and were discovered to be associated with the Golgi complex.

02/1991 | Behav Pharmacol   IF 2.2
Effects of tianeptine on spontaneous alternation, simple and concurrent spatial
Jaffard R, Mocaer E, Poignant JC, Micheau J, Marighetto A, Meunier M, Beracochea D

The effects of systemic administration of tianeptine, a new psychotropic agent

The aim of the present study was to test whether intrastriatal implants of embryonic dopaminergic neurons are able to normalize the lesion-induced dysfunction of striatal enkephalinergic neurons, one of the major output systems of the striatum. The ascending dopaminergic pathway of adult rats was unilaterally lesioned. Three weeks later a cell suspension obtained from the mesencephali of ED14 rat embryos was implanted into the denervated striatum and striatal methionin enkephalin immunostaining was quantified six months later by the use of an image analyser. Methionin enkephalin immunostaining was unevenly distributed in the striatum of control animals. Besides the classical patch/matrix pattern, a mediolateral gradient was also present and, moreover, immunostaining decreased towards caudal levels. Seven months after the lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, methionin enkephalin immunostaining was found to be increased in the denervated striatum by about 50%. However, relative increases were more sustained in the areas where basal methionin enkephalin immunostaining were lowest, i.e. the lateral striatum and posterior striatal areas. This resulted in an attenuation of the global gradients seen in the normal striatum. Increased immunostaining was also found in the ipsilateral globus pallidus. The implantation, into the denervated striatum, of embryonic dopaminergic neurons led to a reversal of the lesion-induced increase of striatal and pallidal methionin enkephalin immunostaining six months later. Moreover, this reversal resulted in an overshoot, as the level of immunostaining in the graft-bearing striatum was found to be lower than the levels found in the normal striatum. It is concluded that grafts of embryonic dopaminergic neurons can normalize the function of one of the major output systems of the striatum and, through it, influence more distant targets of this structure. This suggests a physiological basis for the behavioral effects observed previously with such grafts.

The anatomical and functional characteristics of dopamine neuron-rich grafts implanted into rat pups were compared with those of identical grafts implanted into adult hosts. The host nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway was unilaterally destroyed by an intrahypothalamic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine. This was followed five days later by the implantation of a cellular suspension obtained from rat embryonic mesencephali. Identical operations were carried out on adult and infant (PD3) rats. The survival rate of implanted tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells was lower in the neonates. On the other hand, in the neonate hosts, surviving immunoreactive cells migrated extensively throughout the host striatum coursing preferentially below the corpus callosum and towards the subependymal zone. The structural integrity of the host parenchyma was well maintained after the neonatal implantation, in contrast to that observed in the adults. Despite a difference in the cell survival rate, there was no major difference in reinnervation density between the two types of host. The functional capacities of the implants were evaluated by measuring the rotational responses of the animals to dopaminergic agonists. The implants compensated the lesion-induced contralateral rotational response to the mixed agonist apomorphine and the D1 agonist SCH-38393 in both neonates and adults. However, the response to the D2 agonist LY-171555 was not significantly attenuated by the implant. The ipsilateral rotational response to amphetamine observed in the lesioned animals was also compensated and even reversed by the graft. It is concluded that with respect to rotational behavior, similar functional benefits were observed following adult stage or neonatal implantation, despite differences in their anatomical development.

The atypical neuroleptic clozapine has clinical and behavioral properties that differ not only from the typical compounds, but also from atypical ones. It interacts with the dopaminergic systems, but also produces effects on the serotoninergic, GABA-ergic, cholinergic systems. In spite of the amount of papers devoted to its study, the profile of the neurochemical action of this drug is still confuse. In this paper we investigated the DA2-, opiate- and benzodiazepine-receptor modifications induced by the long term (21 days) treatment with clozapine 20 mg/kg/day in the rat brain. We found a decrease of DA2 receptor density in the target areas of the mesolimbocortical system (ventral n. caudate-putamen, cerebral cortex except for the anterior cingulate at the most anterior level and the n. accumbens) and a decrease of opiate and benzodiazepine receptors in the cerebral cortex and in the olfactory tubercle. Opiate receptors increase in the patches of the striatum. We also compared these effects with those produced by long-term (21 days), low-dosage (0.5 mg/kg day) haloperidol.

Typical and atypical neuroleptic drugs show several clinical and behavioral effects, possibly related to the different anatomical sites of the action in the mesolimbocortical or mesostriatal dopaminergic systems. Because of the interaction between dopamine (DA) and neurotensin (NT) in the target areas of these systems, and in order to study if the different action of typical and atypical neuroleptic drugs could be related to a modification of the DA/NT balance, we investigated DA2 and NT receptor modifications--by means of quantitative receptor autoradiography--after chronic treatment with low dosage of haloperidol, chlorpromazine, thioridazine and clozapine. We described a decrease of NT receptor density in the target areas of the mesolimbocortical system produced by all the treatments. This effect does not match with DA2 receptor modifications. On the contrary, the block of DA transmission obtained by high dosage of haloperidol induces an increase of NT receptor density. Our results further demonstrate the regulation of NT transmission by DAergic drugs.