Publications du Neurocentre Magendie

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IF du Neurocentre

692 publications

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The aim of the present study was to test whether intrastriatal implants of embryonic dopaminergic neurons are able to normalize the lesion-induced hypersensitivity of striatal dopaminergic receptors. The ascending dopaminergic pathway of adult rats was unilaterally lesioned using 6-hydroxydopamine. Three weeks later a cell suspension obtained from the mesencephali of ED 14 rat embryos was implanted into the denervated striatum. Rotational responses to dopaminergic agonists were tested five months after implantation. One month later animals were killed and striatal dopaminergic receptor densities were quantified using autoradiography, the dopaminergic reinnervation of the host striatum being visualized with [3H]GBR 12935, a ligand labelling dopamine uptake sites. The lesion induced a behavioural hypersensitivity to dopaminergic agonists and lesioned animals displayed a strong rotation contralateral to the lesion in response to a test dose of the D1 agonist compound SKF 38393 (2.5 mg/kg) or of the D2 agonist LY 171555 (0.15 mg/kg). These responses were completely abolished by the graft. The normal distribution of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors in the rat striatum was similar to that described previously. Seven months after the lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, the density of D1 receptors was not significantly affected while the density of D2 receptors was increased by about 25-50%. The implantation of embryonic dopaminergic neurons into the denervated striatum led to a slight decrease of D1 receptor densities and to a reversal of the lesion-induced increase of striatal dopaminergic D2 receptors six months later. Moreover, this reversal concerned not only the reinnervated striatal region but also extended into non-reinnervated areas of the striatum. It is concluded that grafts of embryonic dopaminergic neurons can normalize the density of dopaminergic D2 receptors.

1992 | Exp Brain Res   IF 1.8
Intrastriatal dopamine-rich grafts induce a hyperexpression of Fos protein when challenged with amphetamine.
Abrous DN, Torres EM, Annett LE, Reading PJ, Dunnett SB

The aim of the present experiment was to characterize the effect of intrastriatal grafts of embryonic dopaminergic neurones on the expression of Fos protein in the striatum when challenged with amphetamine. Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway were made in adult rats and grafting was performed 3 weeks later. The numbers of Fos-positive nuclei in the ipsi- and contralateral striata were counted on coronal sections following immunohistochemical staining 5 months after grafting. Administration of d-amphetamine induced an increase in the density of Fos-positive nuclei in the intact striatum. This stimulatory effect of amphetamine on c-fos expression was blocked by 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide lesions and was restored in the striata bearing transplants. However, an overshoot was observed as the density of Fos-positive cells within the grafted striatum was larger than that observed within the intact striatum. This hyperexpression of Fos-positive nuclei was correlated with the exaggerated compensation of amphetamine-induced rotation in the same animals.

1. The sensitivity of cromakalim-activated current (Icrom) to manipulations of extracellular cationic composition was examined in whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from freshly-dispersed, adult guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. In bathing media with different concentrations of K+ (1, 2.5, 5.4 and 12 mM) the Icrom reversal potential (Erev) varied in strict correspondance with the K+ equilibrium potential and inward Icrom amplitude was proportional to the external K+ concentration. 2. Replacement of 12mM K+ with 12mM Rb+ induced a slight positive shift of Erev indicating that PRb+/PK+ = 1.06. K+ replacement with 12mM Cs+ reduced or abolished inward Icrom and produced a negative shift of Erev by at least 50 mV; an upper limit of PCs+/PK+ was fixed at 0.18. 3. Addition of Rb+ (1-30 mM) to 2.5 mM K(+)-containing medium produced a concentration-dependent increase in inward Icrom and positive shift of Erev suggesting that K+ and Rb+ have similar permeabilities and conductivities and do not interfere with each other in the channel. 4. CS+ (0.01-30 mM), added to medium containing 12 mM Rb+, induced a potent, voltage-dependent inhibition of inwardly rectifying current (IK1; IC50 = 0.2-3 mM). Voltage-dependent inhibition of inward Icrom was observed only at considerably higher CS+ concentrations (IC50 = 4-30 mM). Extracellular Rb+ and CS+ did not substantially alter the amplitude of outward Icrom. 5. The results support the contention that the ATP-sensitive K+ channel is the primary target of cromakalim action in ventricular myocytes.

02/1991 | Behav Pharmacol   IF 1.9
Effects of tianeptine on spontaneous alternation, simple and concurrent spatial
Jaffard R, Mocaer E, Poignant JC, Micheau J, Marighetto A, Meunier M, Beracochea D

The effects of systemic administration of tianeptine, a new psychotropic agent

The aim of the present study was to test whether intrastriatal implants of embryonic dopaminergic neurons are able to normalize the lesion-induced dysfunction of striatal enkephalinergic neurons, one of the major output systems of the striatum. The ascending dopaminergic pathway of adult rats was unilaterally lesioned. Three weeks later a cell suspension obtained from the mesencephali of ED14 rat embryos was implanted into the denervated striatum and striatal methionin enkephalin immunostaining was quantified six months later by the use of an image analyser. Methionin enkephalin immunostaining was unevenly distributed in the striatum of control animals. Besides the classical patch/matrix pattern, a mediolateral gradient was also present and, moreover, immunostaining decreased towards caudal levels. Seven months after the lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, methionin enkephalin immunostaining was found to be increased in the denervated striatum by about 50%. However, relative increases were more sustained in the areas where basal methionin enkephalin immunostaining were lowest, i.e. the lateral striatum and posterior striatal areas. This resulted in an attenuation of the global gradients seen in the normal striatum. Increased immunostaining was also found in the ipsilateral globus pallidus. The implantation, into the denervated striatum, of embryonic dopaminergic neurons led to a reversal of the lesion-induced increase of striatal and pallidal methionin enkephalin immunostaining six months later. Moreover, this reversal resulted in an overshoot, as the level of immunostaining in the graft-bearing striatum was found to be lower than the levels found in the normal striatum. It is concluded that grafts of embryonic dopaminergic neurons can normalize the function of one of the major output systems of the striatum and, through it, influence more distant targets of this structure. This suggests a physiological basis for the behavioral effects observed previously with such grafts.

The anatomical and functional characteristics of dopamine neuron-rich grafts implanted into rat pups were compared with those of identical grafts implanted into adult hosts. The host nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway was unilaterally destroyed by an intrahypothalamic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine. This was followed five days later by the implantation of a cellular suspension obtained from rat embryonic mesencephali. Identical operations were carried out on adult and infant (PD3) rats. The survival rate of implanted tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells was lower in the neonates. On the other hand, in the neonate hosts, surviving immunoreactive cells migrated extensively throughout the host striatum coursing preferentially below the corpus callosum and towards the subependymal zone. The structural integrity of the host parenchyma was well maintained after the neonatal implantation, in contrast to that observed in the adults. Despite a difference in the cell survival rate, there was no major difference in reinnervation density between the two types of host. The functional capacities of the implants were evaluated by measuring the rotational responses of the animals to dopaminergic agonists. The implants compensated the lesion-induced contralateral rotational response to the mixed agonist apomorphine and the D1 agonist SCH-38393 in both neonates and adults. However, the response to the D2 agonist LY-171555 was not significantly attenuated by the implant. The ipsilateral rotational response to amphetamine observed in the lesioned animals was also compensated and even reversed by the graft. It is concluded that with respect to rotational behavior, similar functional benefits were observed following adult stage or neonatal implantation, despite differences in their anatomical development.

The ascending dopaminergic system of adult or 3-day-old rats has been unilaterally lesioned by the intraparenchymal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine aimed at the medial forebrain bundle at the level of the lateral hypothalamus. Nigral dopaminergic neurons disappeared following the lesion on the lesioned side in both experimental groups while the depletion of the ventral tegmental area was less extensive, especially following the neonatal lesion. Striatal regions were markedly depleted of their dopaminergic innervation, although the magnitude of the depletion was slightly higher following the adult stage lesion as judged on the basis of biochemical measurements (99% vs. 96%). Amphetamine (5 mg/kg) evoked an identical ipsilateral rotational response in both experimental groups. Moreover, this rotational response was blocked both by the specific D1 receptor blocker SCH-23390 (0.1 mg/kg) and the specific D2 receptor antagonist raclopride (2 mg/kg). Likewise, contralateral rotational responses to the directly acting D1 and D2 dopamine receptor agonists SKF-38393 (2.5 mg/kg) and LY-171555 (0.15 mg/kg) were similar in both experimental groups, both qualitatively and quantitatively. These results confirm conclusions obtained in earlier works, and indicate that reported differences in behavioral deficits between animals lesioned as neonates or adults are not related to differing modifications of striatal DA receptor sensitivities.

09/1990 | Neurobiol Aging   IF 4.5
A comparison of the working memory performances of young and aged mice combined
Lebrun C, Durkin TP, Marighetto A, Jaffard R

The spatial working memory performances of young (2 months) and aged (24-26

The ascending mesotelencephalic dopaminergic systems of rat pups of 3 days of age were bilaterally lesioned using 6-hydroxydopamine injected at the level of the lateral hypothalamus. A sub-group of lesioned pups received, 5 days after the lesion, a dopamine neuron-rich cell suspension graft implanted bilaterally into the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Behavioral tests were conducted 6 months later. The lesion induced an increase in the locomotor activation induced by D-Ala2-Met5-enkephalinamide injected into the nucleus accumbens (2.5 micrograms/side) as compared to the activation observed in control animals. Locomotor activation by systemic apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) was also increased while that induced by amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg i.p.) was abolished. The presence of DA neuron implants reversed each of these post-lesion modifications.

The aim of the present experiments was to test whether adrenal chromaffin cells implanted into the striatum of rats could exert a functional effect through a release of catecholamines. A cell suspension obtained from bovine adrenal medulla was implanted unilaterally into the striatum. The striatal dopaminergic input was extensively destroyed beforehand to preclude the possibility of reinnervation of the striatum by endogenous dopaminergic neurons. The functional influence of the implant was tested through the measurement of drug-induced rotation, while catecholamine release was measured subsequently in the same animals by in vivo electrochemistry. Transplant survival, as shown by the immunohistochemical analysis performed at the end of the in vivo experiments, was highly variable. Surviving chromaffin cells maintained their endocrine morphology and no reinnervation of the host striatum could be detected. Rotation of the animals evoked by apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg, sc) or amphetamine (5.0 mg/kg, ip) following the lesion was left uninfluenced following transplantation, even when a large transplant was recovered. On the other hand, nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, sc) evoked a strong contraversive rotational response in the transplant-bearing animals. This response could not be ascribed to the central effect of substances released peripherally and entering the nervous system through the blood-brain barrier opened by the implantation procedure, as it could not be found in animals bearing implants of other peripheral endocrine tissue, viz, pituitary. The effect of nicotine was not blocked by the pretreatment of the animals with either the opiate antagonist naloxone (2.5 mg/kg, 10 min) or the dopamine receptor blocker pimozide (0.5 mg/kg, 1 h), although the latter pretreatment blocked the amphetamine-evoked rotation. No spontaneous catecholamine release could be detected from the implanted chromaffin cells by in vivo electrochemistry, while treatment with amphetamine or nicotine did evoke a release. The results suggest that the functional effects of such intrastriatal grafts of chromaffin cells, reported in previous studies, cannot be explained by the secretion from the grafted cells of catecholamines into the denervated striatum. On the other hand the results obtained following the pharmacological stimulation of these cells indicate that adrenal grafts can, under suitable conditions, influence the functioning of the host nervous system.