Publications du Neurocentre Magendie

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IF du Neurocentre

774 publications

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Les IF indiqués ont été collectés par le Web of Sciences en Juin 2019

03/07/1992 | Brain Res   IF 2.9
Repeated corticosterone administration sensitizes the locomotor response to amphetamine.
Deroche V, Piazza PV, Maccari S, Le Moal M, Simon H

Repeated exposures to stressful situations has been shown to increase individual reactivity to psychostimulants, although the biological factors involved in such stress-induced changes are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of corticosterone in the effects of stress on the response to psychostimulants. We found that repeated corticosterone administration (both 1.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally and 50 micrograms/ml in drinking water, once per day for 15 days) increased the locomotor response to amphetamine (1.15 mg/kg, i.p.). At the doses used in these experiments, corticosterone administration induced similar increases in plasma levels of the hormone to those induced by stress. These results suggest that corticosterone secretion may be one of the mechanisms by which repeated stress increases the behavioral responses to amphetamine. Since an enhanced reactivity to psychostimulants has been found to be an index of a propensity for drug self-administration and a model of certain psychopathological conditions, these findings point to a role for glucocorticoids in such abnormal states.

Changes in striatal dopamine D2 receptor mRNA levels provoked by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway were studied by in situ hybridization. The influence of embryonic dopaminergic neurons implanted into the dopamine-depleted striatum on the lesion-induced changes was also examined. Changes in D2 mRNA levels were compared with changes in D2 receptor densities measured in the same animals by receptor autoradiography using [3H]spiperone or [3H]SDZ 205-501 as ligands. The distribution of D2 mRNA in the striatum of control animals closely paralleled that of the D2 receptor itself, as assessed by autoradiography, and the highest density of D2 mRNA occurred in the lateral part of the striatum. One month after lesion, levels of D2 mRNA were 34% higher in the dorsolateral part of the dopamine-depleted striatum than in the corresponding region of the contralateral control striatum. D2 receptor density in this region was increased by 40% relative to the control level. No significant increases could be measured in the medial part of the striatum. The increases in the lateral part were similar at 7 months post-lesion; however, at this time the increase in both D2 mRNA and receptor levels had spread to the medial part of the striatum as well. In the graft-bearing striatum levels of both D2 mRNA and D2 receptors reverted to control levels. This study shows that the post-lesion increase in striatal dopamine receptor and mRNA level is a biphasic phenomenon with a late-occurring component in the medial striatum. It also shows that once the increase in striatal D2 receptor gene expression is accomplished, it is maintained unchanged for long periods, similar to that of D2 receptor levels themselves. Moreover, grafts of embryonic dopaminergic neurons are able to modulate the expression of the dopamine D2 receptor gene.

1992 | Exp Brain Res   IF 1.9
Intrastriatal dopamine-rich grafts induce a hyperexpression of Fos protein when challenged with amphetamine.
Abrous DN, Torres EM, Annett LE, Reading PJ, Dunnett SB

The aim of the present experiment was to characterize the effect of intrastriatal grafts of embryonic dopaminergic neurones on the expression of Fos protein in the striatum when challenged with amphetamine. Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway were made in adult rats and grafting was performed 3 weeks later. The numbers of Fos-positive nuclei in the ipsi- and contralateral striata were counted on coronal sections following immunohistochemical staining 5 months after grafting. Administration of d-amphetamine induced an increase in the density of Fos-positive nuclei in the intact striatum. This stimulatory effect of amphetamine on c-fos expression was blocked by 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide lesions and was restored in the striata bearing transplants. However, an overshoot was observed as the density of Fos-positive cells within the grafted striatum was larger than that observed within the intact striatum. This hyperexpression of Fos-positive nuclei was correlated with the exaggerated compensation of amphetamine-induced rotation in the same animals.

The aim of the present study was to test whether intrastriatal implants of embryonic dopaminergic neurons are able to normalize the lesion-induced hypersensitivity of striatal dopaminergic receptors. The ascending dopaminergic pathway of adult rats was unilaterally lesioned using 6-hydroxydopamine. Three weeks later a cell suspension obtained from the mesencephali of ED 14 rat embryos was implanted into the denervated striatum. Rotational responses to dopaminergic agonists were tested five months after implantation. One month later animals were killed and striatal dopaminergic receptor densities were quantified using autoradiography, the dopaminergic reinnervation of the host striatum being visualized with [3H]GBR 12935, a ligand labelling dopamine uptake sites. The lesion induced a behavioural hypersensitivity to dopaminergic agonists and lesioned animals displayed a strong rotation contralateral to the lesion in response to a test dose of the D1 agonist compound SKF 38393 (2.5 mg/kg) or of the D2 agonist LY 171555 (0.15 mg/kg). These responses were completely abolished by the graft. The normal distribution of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors in the rat striatum was similar to that described previously. Seven months after the lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, the density of D1 receptors was not significantly affected while the density of D2 receptors was increased by about 25-50%. The implantation of embryonic dopaminergic neurons into the denervated striatum led to a slight decrease of D1 receptor densities and to a reversal of the lesion-induced increase of striatal dopaminergic D2 receptors six months later. Moreover, this reversal concerned not only the reinnervated striatal region but also extended into non-reinnervated areas of the striatum. It is concluded that grafts of embryonic dopaminergic neurons can normalize the density of dopaminergic D2 receptors.

1. The sensitivity of cromakalim-activated current (Icrom) to manipulations of extracellular cationic composition was examined in whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from freshly-dispersed, adult guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. In bathing media with different concentrations of K+ (1, 2.5, 5.4 and 12 mM) the Icrom reversal potential (Erev) varied in strict correspondance with the K+ equilibrium potential and inward Icrom amplitude was proportional to the external K+ concentration. 2. Replacement of 12mM K+ with 12mM Rb+ induced a slight positive shift of Erev indicating that PRb+/PK+ = 1.06. K+ replacement with 12mM Cs+ reduced or abolished inward Icrom and produced a negative shift of Erev by at least 50 mV; an upper limit of PCs+/PK+ was fixed at 0.18. 3. Addition of Rb+ (1-30 mM) to 2.5 mM K(+)-containing medium produced a concentration-dependent increase in inward Icrom and positive shift of Erev suggesting that K+ and Rb+ have similar permeabilities and conductivities and do not interfere with each other in the channel. 4. CS+ (0.01-30 mM), added to medium containing 12 mM Rb+, induced a potent, voltage-dependent inhibition of inwardly rectifying current (IK1; IC50 = 0.2-3 mM). Voltage-dependent inhibition of inward Icrom was observed only at considerably higher CS+ concentrations (IC50 = 4-30 mM). Extracellular Rb+ and CS+ did not substantially alter the amplitude of outward Icrom. 5. The results support the contention that the ATP-sensitive K+ channel is the primary target of cromakalim action in ventricular myocytes.

02/1991 | Behav Pharmacol   IF 1.8
Effects of tianeptine on spontaneous alternation, simple and concurrent spatial
Jaffard R, Mocaer E, Poignant JC, Micheau J, Marighetto A, Meunier M, Beracochea D

The effects of systemic administration of tianeptine, a new psychotropic agent

The aim of the present study was to test whether intrastriatal implants of embryonic dopaminergic neurons are able to normalize the lesion-induced dysfunction of striatal enkephalinergic neurons, one of the major output systems of the striatum. The ascending dopaminergic pathway of adult rats was unilaterally lesioned. Three weeks later a cell suspension obtained from the mesencephali of ED14 rat embryos was implanted into the denervated striatum and striatal methionin enkephalin immunostaining was quantified six months later by the use of an image analyser. Methionin enkephalin immunostaining was unevenly distributed in the striatum of control animals. Besides the classical patch/matrix pattern, a mediolateral gradient was also present and, moreover, immunostaining decreased towards caudal levels. Seven months after the lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, methionin enkephalin immunostaining was found to be increased in the denervated striatum by about 50%. However, relative increases were more sustained in the areas where basal methionin enkephalin immunostaining were lowest, i.e. the lateral striatum and posterior striatal areas. This resulted in an attenuation of the global gradients seen in the normal striatum. Increased immunostaining was also found in the ipsilateral globus pallidus. The implantation, into the denervated striatum, of embryonic dopaminergic neurons led to a reversal of the lesion-induced increase of striatal and pallidal methionin enkephalin immunostaining six months later. Moreover, this reversal resulted in an overshoot, as the level of immunostaining in the graft-bearing striatum was found to be lower than the levels found in the normal striatum. It is concluded that grafts of embryonic dopaminergic neurons can normalize the function of one of the major output systems of the striatum and, through it, influence more distant targets of this structure. This suggests a physiological basis for the behavioral effects observed previously with such grafts.

The anatomical and functional characteristics of dopamine neuron-rich grafts implanted into rat pups were compared with those of identical grafts implanted into adult hosts. The host nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway was unilaterally destroyed by an intrahypothalamic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine. This was followed five days later by the implantation of a cellular suspension obtained from rat embryonic mesencephali. Identical operations were carried out on adult and infant (PD3) rats. The survival rate of implanted tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells was lower in the neonates. On the other hand, in the neonate hosts, surviving immunoreactive cells migrated extensively throughout the host striatum coursing preferentially below the corpus callosum and towards the subependymal zone. The structural integrity of the host parenchyma was well maintained after the neonatal implantation, in contrast to that observed in the adults. Despite a difference in the cell survival rate, there was no major difference in reinnervation density between the two types of host. The functional capacities of the implants were evaluated by measuring the rotational responses of the animals to dopaminergic agonists. The implants compensated the lesion-induced contralateral rotational response to the mixed agonist apomorphine and the D1 agonist SCH-38393 in both neonates and adults. However, the response to the D2 agonist LY-171555 was not significantly attenuated by the implant. The ipsilateral rotational response to amphetamine observed in the lesioned animals was also compensated and even reversed by the graft. It is concluded that with respect to rotational behavior, similar functional benefits were observed following adult stage or neonatal implantation, despite differences in their anatomical development.

The ascending dopaminergic system of adult or 3-day-old rats has been unilaterally lesioned by the intraparenchymal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine aimed at the medial forebrain bundle at the level of the lateral hypothalamus. Nigral dopaminergic neurons disappeared following the lesion on the lesioned side in both experimental groups while the depletion of the ventral tegmental area was less extensive, especially following the neonatal lesion. Striatal regions were markedly depleted of their dopaminergic innervation, although the magnitude of the depletion was slightly higher following the adult stage lesion as judged on the basis of biochemical measurements (99% vs. 96%). Amphetamine (5 mg/kg) evoked an identical ipsilateral rotational response in both experimental groups. Moreover, this rotational response was blocked both by the specific D1 receptor blocker SCH-23390 (0.1 mg/kg) and the specific D2 receptor antagonist raclopride (2 mg/kg). Likewise, contralateral rotational responses to the directly acting D1 and D2 dopamine receptor agonists SKF-38393 (2.5 mg/kg) and LY-171555 (0.15 mg/kg) were similar in both experimental groups, both qualitatively and quantitatively. These results confirm conclusions obtained in earlier works, and indicate that reported differences in behavioral deficits between animals lesioned as neonates or adults are not related to differing modifications of striatal DA receptor sensitivities.

09/1990 | Neurobiol Aging   IF 4.4
A comparison of the working memory performances of young and aged mice combined
Lebrun C, Durkin TP, Marighetto A, Jaffard R

The spatial working memory performances of young (2 months) and aged (24-26

The ascending mesotelencephalic dopaminergic systems of rat pups of 3 days of age were bilaterally lesioned using 6-hydroxydopamine injected at the level of the lateral hypothalamus. A sub-group of lesioned pups received, 5 days after the lesion, a dopamine neuron-rich cell suspension graft implanted bilaterally into the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Behavioral tests were conducted 6 months later. The lesion induced an increase in the locomotor activation induced by D-Ala2-Met5-enkephalinamide injected into the nucleus accumbens (2.5 micrograms/side) as compared to the activation observed in control animals. Locomotor activation by systemic apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) was also increased while that induced by amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg i.p.) was abolished. The presence of DA neuron implants reversed each of these post-lesion modifications.

The aim of the present experiments was to test whether adrenal chromaffin cells implanted into the striatum of rats could exert a functional effect through a release of catecholamines. A cell suspension obtained from bovine adrenal medulla was implanted unilaterally into the striatum. The striatal dopaminergic input was extensively destroyed beforehand to preclude the possibility of reinnervation of the striatum by endogenous dopaminergic neurons. The functional influence of the implant was tested through the measurement of drug-induced rotation, while catecholamine release was measured subsequently in the same animals by in vivo electrochemistry. Transplant survival, as shown by the immunohistochemical analysis performed at the end of the in vivo experiments, was highly variable. Surviving chromaffin cells maintained their endocrine morphology and no reinnervation of the host striatum could be detected. Rotation of the animals evoked by apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg, sc) or amphetamine (5.0 mg/kg, ip) following the lesion was left uninfluenced following transplantation, even when a large transplant was recovered. On the other hand, nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, sc) evoked a strong contraversive rotational response in the transplant-bearing animals. This response could not be ascribed to the central effect of substances released peripherally and entering the nervous system through the blood-brain barrier opened by the implantation procedure, as it could not be found in animals bearing implants of other peripheral endocrine tissue, viz, pituitary. The effect of nicotine was not blocked by the pretreatment of the animals with either the opiate antagonist naloxone (2.5 mg/kg, 10 min) or the dopamine receptor blocker pimozide (0.5 mg/kg, 1 h), although the latter pretreatment blocked the amphetamine-evoked rotation. No spontaneous catecholamine release could be detected from the implanted chromaffin cells by in vivo electrochemistry, while treatment with amphetamine or nicotine did evoke a release. The results suggest that the functional effects of such intrastriatal grafts of chromaffin cells, reported in previous studies, cannot be explained by the secretion from the grafted cells of catecholamines into the denervated striatum. On the other hand the results obtained following the pharmacological stimulation of these cells indicate that adrenal grafts can, under suitable conditions, influence the functioning of the host nervous system.

11/1989 | Pharmacol Biochem Behav   IF 2.8
Septal alpha-noradrenergic antagonism in vivo blocks the testing-induced
Marighetto A, Durkin T, Toumane A, Lebrun C, Jaffard R

In order to test the hypothesis that alpha-noradrenergic receptors in the septum

09/1989 | Behav Neural Biol
The durations of hippocampal and cortical cholinergic activation induced by
Toumane A, Durkin T, Marighetto A, Jaffard R

Sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake velocities in P2 fractions of the

1989 | Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl   IF 2.6
Experimental dissociation of memory systems in mice: behavioral and neurochemical
Jaffard R, Durkin T, Toumane A, Marighetto A, Lebrun C

Evidence for different types of memory in mice may lead to development of animal

10/1988 | Behav Brain Res   IF 2.8
Differential hippocampal and cortical cholinergic activation during the
Toumane A, Durkin T, Marighetto A, Galey D, Jaffard R

Possible differentiation of the intervention of cholinergic septohippocampal and

Male rats received a dopaminergic implant aimed either at the nucleus accumbens or the ventral tegmental area (VTA) following 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of their mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system. Exposure to electrical footshock stress 6 months later markedly activated the mesocorticolimbic neurons in control animals as shown by the increase of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels both in the nucleus accumbens and the VTA. However, no stress-induced activation was seen for the grafted neurons, irrespective of the area of implantation. These results indicate the lack of reinnervation and modulation of the grafted dopaminergic neurons by one of the important afferent systems regulating the activity of endogenous mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

The aim of the study was to obtain a description of some aspects of the development of intracerebral dopaminergic grafts, namely, the time course of the glial reaction and its relation to cell division on one hand, and the development of graft-originated innervation and its dependence on adequate matching of the implanted neurons and target site on the other hand. Cell suspensions obtained from the mesencephalon or hypothalamus of embryonic day (ED) 14 rat embryos were implanted into the striatum or lateral hypothalamus of adult rats following the destruction of the nigrostriatal system of the hosts. Animals were sacrificed at different postimplantation times, and the development of the graft was followed by immunohistochemistry by using antisera directed against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA). Furthermore, the existence of cell division at various times following implantation was examined by performing autoradiography on immunostained sections after prior intraventricular administration of 3H-thymidine to the host. The first stage of the development of intracerebral grafts was characterized by the existence of intense cell division within the grafted tissue, lasting about 2 weeks, and also in the host tissue surrounding the graft, lasting only about 6 days. The cell division in the host tissue was paralleled by the existence of a strong glial reaction which, however, did not extend into the graft itself. Glial reaction in the host tissue gradually decreased at later times and disappeared by 4 weeks postimplantation without leaving behind a noticeable glial scar. The graft itself was, however, transiently filled with a population of reactive astroglial cells between 3 and 6 weeks postimplantation. Within grafts of mesencephalic tissue located in the striatum TH-positive neurons were distributed evenly at short times postimplantation (2-6 days). At later time a compartmentation could be observed, with TH-positive neurons being aligned along the graft-host interface or clustered within the graft itself. Innervation of the host tissue by TH-positive fibers increased between 1 and 6 weeks postimplantation. On the other hand, no compartmentation and reinnervation of surrounding host tissue was observed for intrahypothalamic grafts of mesencephalic tissue or intrastriatal grafts of hypothalamic tissue. This last observation indicates that adequate matching of implanted neurons and target tissue plays an important role in the development of intracerebral dopaminergic grafts.

Local lesion of the dopaminergic (DA) terminals of the nucleus accumbens have been described to reproduce part of the behavioral deficits evoked by the lesion of the whole mesocorticolimbic DA system. The most straightforward interpretation of these results would be that the DA innervation of the nucleus accumbens is necessary for and critically involved in the normal performance of the given behaviors. However, while giving some indication as to the necessity of the integrity of this DA innervation for normal behaviors, such an approach cannot reveal whether the presence of the DA innervation of other mesocorticolimbic areas (e.g. amygdala, septum, etc.) is also required. In order to approach this question, the behavioral effects of DA grafts implanted into the nucleus accumbens of rats were evaluated following two different 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesions: a lesion restricted to the anterior DA field (DA terminals of the nucleus accumbens and to a lesser degree the frontal cortex and anteromedial striatum) or a lesion of the whole mesocorticolimbic DA system. The latter lesion induces a disappearance of the DA innervation of the nucleus accumbens as well as the amygdala, septum, etc. Both kinds of lesions led to locomotor hypoactivity, loss of locomotor activation by amphetamine, increased locomotor stimulation to apomorphine, decrease of exploratory activity and loss of hoarding behavior. These deficits were not seen in grafted animals bearing a local lesion of the DA innervation of this structure. For some of these recoveries, however, a pharmacological stimulation of the grafted neurons was required to reveal the effect of the graft. In the case of the total lesion of the mesocorticolimbic DA system, only locomotor dysfunctions were compensated by the intra-accumbens DA implants, while the other deficits remained intact, irrespective of a stimulation of the graft. These results indicate that the re-establishment of the DA innervation of the nucleus accumbens is a sufficient condition for the compensation of locomotor deficits, irrespective of the presence of the DA terminals in more posterior limbic structures, while for deficits of more complex behaviors the simultaneous presence of posterior DA innervations is also required. This latter requirement suggests the existence of some cooperativity between the different central DA terminal areas for the normal performance of behaviors.

Cortical cells obtained from rat embryos (ED14 to ED20) were implanted in various regions of rat brain and the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-, neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and Met-enkephalin (ENK)-immunoreactive neurons within the grafts were tested using an immunohistochemical approach. TH-like immunoreactive (TH-LI) neurons were present within the implants obtained from ED14, but not ED18 or ED20, embryos up to 10 months post-implantation and their presence was not dependent on the age of the host (adult or neonate) at the time of implantation. Furthermore, the density of such cells varied with the site of implantation, being the highest in the dorsomedial corner of the striatum. This distorted development seems to affect also other cell populations, such as NPY-LI neurons which could be observed within the implants in a density much higher than that found in the normal cortex and which presented generally a rather immature morphology. It has been described that the rat cortex contains TH-LI neurons only during a limited period of development. The survival of such neurons within intracerebral grafts of cortical tissue indicates that their disappearance during normal cortical development is dependent upon environmental cues. The survival of TH-LI cells in grafts implanted to neonatal hosts suggests that these cues are not some humoral factors appearing postnatally. On the other hand, the present observations are compatible with several other hypothesis concerning the nature of such cues: humoral factors present during the late embryonic period, signals dependent on neuronal connectivities (input and/or outputs) established during embryonic or postnatal life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

1988 | Exp Brain Res   IF 1.9
Intrastriatal dopaminergic grafts restore inhibitory control over striatal cholinergic neurons.
Herman JP, Lupp A, Abrous N, Le Moal M, Hertting G, Jackisch R

The aim of the study was to examine the influence of intrastriatal dopaminergic grafts on the functioning of striatal cholinergic neurons using an in vitro superfusion method. Rats bearing unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system received a cell suspension obtained from ED 14 rat embryonic mesencephali which was injected into the denervated striatum. Lesioned animals displayed an ipsilateral rotation in response to amphetamine (5 mg/kg i.p.). This rotational response disappeared following grafting and there was even a significant contralateral rotation in response to the drug. Apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) induced a contralateral rotation following the lesion. This latter response was attenuated in the grafted group. Three months after grafting 350 microns thick slices were prepared from striata from the control and experimental sides of lesioned and graft-bearing animals. The slices were preincubated either with 3H-dopamine (10(-7) M) or 3H-choline (10(-7) M) and then superfused with an oxygenated Krebs-Ringer solution. Stimulation with electrical pulses following preincubation with 3H-dopamine elicited a marked increase of tritium outflow from control slices. Stimulation-evoked overflow was of similar magnitude from slices from striata containing the graft, while it was much reduced in slices from lesioned striata. Amphetamine markedly potentiated the effect of electrical stimulation in slices obtained from control and graft-containing striata. Nomifensine (a dopamine uptake blocker) led to a significant decrease of the overflow of 3H-acetylcholine evoked by electrical stimulation from control striatal slices. This inhibition was antagonized by domperidone, a D2 dopamine receptor blocker, a finding which indicates that the action of nomifensine was indeed due to a potentiation of the action of endogenous dopamine released by the electrical stimulation. A similar, although somewhat attenuated, action of nomifensine and domperidone was observed for striatal slices containing the graft. Amphetamine inhibited the stimulation evoked overflow of 3H-acetylcholine in a dose-dependent manner from striatal slices obtained both from the intact and experimental sides of graft-bearing animals, while it had no action on slices from denervated striata. Finally, the dose-response curve for the inhibition of 3H-acetylcholine release by apomorphine was significantly shifted to the left for slices from the lesioned striata as compared with control slices. This leftward shift was totally abolished in the slices from the graft-containing striatum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

10/1987 | Neuroendocrinology   IF 6.8
Bradykinin parallels thyrotropin-releasing hormone actions on prolactin release from rat anterior pituitary cells.
Drouhault R, Abrous N, David JP, Dufy B

Bradykinin (BK), a nonapeptide, originally discovered in blood, is also present in neurons and fibers of the hypothalamus. We tested the putative releasing factor properties of BK on prolactin (PRL) release from anterior pituitary cells in vitro. BK stimulated the release of PRL in a dose-dependent manner, the threshold concentration being in the range. 0.1-1.0 nM. The release of PRL induced by BK at 1 nM concentration was about 2-fold, delayed and sustained over many minutes. Higher concentrations of BK stimulated PRL release in two phases. The shape of the BK-induced PRL release was superficially similar to that induced by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). 10 nM BK and 10 nM TRH induced about a 4-fold increase in PRL release within 5 min, followed by a gradual recovery to basal secretion. These results indicate that this peptide can act directly at the anterior pituitary gland to release PRL. Phorbol ester also promoted PRL release over the range of 1-10 nM, but the time course of the release was somewhat different.

1987 | Ann N Y Acad Sci   IF 4.3
Behavioral effects of intraaccumbens transplants in rats with lesions of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system.
Choulli K, Herman JP, Abrous N, Le Moal M