Publications










IF du Neurocentre
IF1234567891011121314151617181920253035404550
Nombre0016575143352411127810612133514374601
%00266543221121221111111101


978 publications

* equal contribution
The indicated IF have been collected by the Web of Sciences in June 2020



01/2020 | addiction   IF 6.3
The relevance of animal models of addiction.
Deroche-Gamonet V



2020 | Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience
Neuronal diversity of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis
Beyeler A, Dabrowska J

Abstract:
The amygdala complex is a diverse group of more than thirteen nuclei, segregated in five major groups: the basolateral (BLA), central (CeA), medial (MeA), cortical (CoA) and basomedial (BMA) amygdala nuclei. These nuclei can be distinguished depending on their cytoarchitectonic properties, connectivity, genetic and molecular identity, and most importantly, on their functional role in animal behavior. The extended amygdala includes the CeA, as well as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Both CeA and the BNST share similar cellular organization, including common neuron types, reciprocal connectivity, and many overlapping downstream targets. In this section, we describe the advances of our knowledge on neuronal diversity in the amygdala complex and BNST, based on recent functional studies, performed at genetic, molecular, physiological and anatomical levels in rodent models, especially rats and mice. Molecular and connection property can be used separately, or in combinations, to define neuronal populations, leading to a multiplexed neuronal diversity supporting different functional roles.





2020 | Front Cell Neurosci   IF 3.9
Spinal Inhibition of GABAB Receptors by the Extracellular Matrix Protein Fibulin-2 in Neuropathic Rats.
Papon MA, Le Feuvre Y, Barreda-Gomez G, Favereaux A, Farrugia F, Bouali-Benazzouz R, Nagy F, Rodriguez-Puertas R, Landry M

Abstract:
In the central nervous system, the inhibitory GABAB receptor is the archetype of heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Receptor interaction with partner proteins has emerged as a novel mechanism to alter GPCR signaling in pathophysiological conditions. We propose here that GABAB activity is inhibited through the specific binding of fibulin-2, an extracellular matrix protein, to the B1a subunit in a rat model of neuropathic pain. We demonstrate that fibulin-2 hampers GABAB activation, presumably through decreasing agonist-induced conformational changes. Fibulin-2 regulates the GABAB-mediated presynaptic inhibition of neurotransmitter release and weakens the GABAB-mediated inhibitory effect in neuronal cell culture. In the dorsal spinal cord of neuropathic rats, fibulin-2 is overexpressed and colocalized with B1a. Fibulin-2 may thus interact with presynaptic GABAB receptors, including those on nociceptive afferents. By applying anti-fibulin-2 siRNA in vivo, we enhanced the antinociceptive effect of intrathecal baclofen in neuropathic rats, thus demonstrating that fibulin-2 limits the action of GABAB agonists in vivo. Taken together, our data provide an example of an endogenous regulation of GABAB receptor by extracellular matrix proteins and demonstrate its functional impact on pathophysiological processes of pain sensitization.





2020 | Front Behav Neurosci   IF 2.5
False Opposing Fear Memories Are Produced as a Function of the Hippocampal Sector Where Glucocorticoid Receptors Are Activated.
Kaouane N, Ducourneau EG, Marighetto A, Segal M, Desmedt A

Abstract:
Injection of corticosterone (CORT) in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) can mimic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related memory in mice: both maladaptive hypermnesia for a salient but irrelevant simple cue and amnesia for the traumatic context. However, accumulated evidence indicates a functional dissociation within the hippocampus such that contextual learning is primarily associated with the DH whereas emotional processes are more linked to the ventral hippocampus (VH). This suggests that CORT might have different effects on fear memories as a function of the hippocampal sector preferentially targeted and the type of fear learning (contextual vs. cued) considered. We tested this hypothesis in mice using CORT infusion into the DH or VH after fear conditioning, during which a tone was either paired (predicting-tone) or unpaired (predicting-context) with the shock. We first replicate our previous results showing that intra-DH CORT infusion impairs contextual fear conditioning while inducing fear responses to the not predictive tone. Second, we show that, in contrast, intra-VH CORT infusion has opposite effects on fear memories: in the predicting-tone situation, it blocks tone fear conditioning while enhancing the fear responses to the context. In both situations, a false fear memory is formed based on an erroneous selection of the predictor of the threat. Third, these opposite effects of CORT on fear memory are both mediated by glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation, and reproduced by post-conditioning stress or systemic CORT injection. These findings demonstrate that false opposing fear memories can be produced depending on the hippocampal sector in which the GRs are activated.





2020 | Front Neural Circuits   IF 3.2
In silico Hierarchical Clustering of Neuronal Populations in the Rat Ventral Tegmental Area Based on Extracellular Electrophysiological Properties.
Di Miceli M, Husson Z, Ruel P, Laye S, Cota D, Fioramonti X, Bosch-Bouju C, Gronier B

Abstract:
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is a heterogeneous brain region, containing different neuronal populations. During in vivo recordings, electrophysiological characteristics are classically used to distinguish the different populations. However, the VTA is also considered as a region harboring neurons with heterogeneous properties. In the present study, we aimed to classify VTA neurons using in silico approaches, in an attempt to determine if homogeneous populations could be extracted. Thus, we recorded 291 VTA neurons during in vivo extracellular recordings in anesthetized rats. Initially, 22 neurons with high firing rates (>10 Hz) and short-lasting action potentials (AP) were considered as a separate subpopulation, in light of previous studies. To segregate the remaining 269 neurons, presumably dopaminergic (DA), we performed in silico analyses, using a combination of different electrophysiological parameters. These parameters included: (1) firing rate; (2) firing rate coefficient of variation (CV); (3) percentage of spikes in a burst; (4) AP duration; (5) Deltat1 duration (i.e., time from initiation of depolarization until end of repolarization); and (6) presence of a notched AP waveform. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering revealed two neuronal populations that differed in their bursting activities. The largest population presented low bursting activities (<17.5% of total spikes in burst), while the remaining neurons presented higher bursting activities (>17.5%). Within non-high-firing neurons, a large heterogeneity was noted concerning AP characteristics. In conclusion, this analysis based on conventional electrophysiological criteria clustered two subpopulations of putative DA VTA neurons that are distinguishable by their firing patterns (firing rates and bursting activities) but not their AP properties.





09/12/2019 | J Neurosci Methods   IF 2.8
Alpha technology: A powerful tool to detect mouse brain intracellular signaling events.
Zanese M*, Tomaselli G*, Roullot-Lacarriere V, Moreau M, Bellocchio L, Grel A, Marsicano G, Sans N, Vallee M, Revest JM

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Phosphorylation by protein kinases is a fundamental molecular process involved in the regulation of signaling activities in living organisms. Understanding this complex network of phosphorylation, especially phosphoproteins, is a necessary step for grasping the basis of cellular pathophysiology. Studying brain intracellular signaling is a particularly complex task due to the heterogeneous complex nature of the brain tissue, which consists of many embedded structures. NEW METHOD: Overcoming this degree of complexity requires a technology with a high throughput and economical in the amount of biological material used, so that a large number of signaling pathways may be analyzed in a large number of samples. We have turned to Alpha (Amplified Luminescent Proximity Homogeneous Assay) technology. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHOD: Western blot is certainly the most commonly used method to measure the phosphorylation state of proteins. Even though Western blot is an accurate and reliable method for analyzing modifications of proteins, it is a time-consuming and large amounts of samples are required. Those two parameters are critical when the goal of the research is to comprehend multi-signaling proteic events so as to analyze several targets from small brain areas. RESULT: Here we demonstrate that Alpha technology is particularly suitable for studying brain signaling pathways by allowing rapid, sensitive, reproducible and semi-quantitative detection of phosphoproteins from individual mouse brain tissue homogenates and from cell fractionation and synaptosomal preparations of mouse hippocampus. CONCLUSION: Alpha technology represents a major experimental step forward in unraveling the brain phosphoprotein-related molecular mechanisms involved in brain-related disorders.





02/11/2019 | Neuroscience   IF 3.2
POMC Neurons Dysfunction in Diet-induced Metabolic Disease: Hallmark or Mechanism of Disease?
Quarta C, Fioramonti X, Cota D

Abstract:
One important lesson from the last decade of studies in the field of systemic energy metabolism is that obesity is first and foremost a brain disease. Hypothalamic neurons dysfunction observed in response to chronic metabolic stress is a key pathogenic node linking consumption of hypercaloric diets with body weight gain and associated metabolic sequelae. A key hypothalamic neuronal population expressing the neuropeptide Pro-opio-melanocortin (POMC) displays altered electrical activity and dysregulated neuropeptides production capacity after long-term feeding with hypercaloric diets. However, whether such neuronal dysfunction represents a consequence or a mechanism of disease, remains a subject of debate. Here, we will review and highlight emerging pathogenic mechanisms that explain why POMC neurons undergo dysfunctional activity in response to caloric overload, and critically address whether these mechanisms may be causally implicated in the physiopathology of obesity and of its associated co-morbidities.





11/2019 | neurobiol stress
Neurobiological links between stress and anxiety.
Daviu N, Bruchas MR, Moghaddam B, Sandi C, Beyeler A

Abstract:
Stress and anxiety have intertwined behavioral and neural underpinnings. These commonalities are critical for understanding each state, as well as their mutual interactions. Grasping the mechanisms underlying this bidirectional relationship will have major clinical implications for managing a wide range of psychopathologies. After briefly defining key concepts for the study of stress and anxiety in pre-clinical models, we present circuit, as well as cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in either or both stress and anxiety. First, we review studies on divergent circuits of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) underlying emotional valence processing and anxiety-like behaviors, and how norepinephrine inputs from the locus coeruleus (LC) to the BLA are responsible for acute-stress induced anxiety. We then describe recent studies revealing a new role for mitochondrial function within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), defining individual trait anxiety in rodents, and participating in the link between stress and anxiety. Next, we report findings on the impact of anxiety on reward encoding through alteration of circuit dynamic synchronicity. Finally, we present work unravelling a new role for hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in controlling anxiety-like and stress-induce behaviors. Altogether, the research reviewed here reveals circuits sharing subcortical nodes and underlying the processing of both stress and anxiety. Understanding the neural overlap between these two psychobiological states, might provide alternative strategies to manage disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).





24/10/2019 | Psychoneuroendocrinology   IF 4
The ergogenic impact of the glucocorticoid prednisolone does not translate into increased running motivation in mice.
Redon B, Violleau C, Georges F, Marsicano G, Chaouloff F

Abstract:
Glucocorticoids, such as prednisolone, are considered sport doping agents owing to their ergogenic properties. These are accounted for by peripheral mechanisms associated with energetic and anti-inflammatory processes. However, because glucocorticoids target brain tissues, it is likely that these ergogenic impacts are associated with central effects. One of these might be reward motivation, which relies on glucocorticoid receptor-expressing mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic neurons. In keeping with this possibility, this study has explored in mice whether repeated prednisolone administration (5 or 15mug/ml of drinking water for 10 days) affected intrinsic motivation for running, a strong reinforcer in rodents. Running motivation was assessed by means of a cued-reward motivated instrumental task wherein wheel-running was conditioned by prior nose poke responses under fixed (FR), and then progressive (PR), ratio reinforcement schedules. Sub-chronic ingestion of prednisolone decreased the running distance covered during each rewarded sequence under FR schedules. This finding did not extend to wheel-running performances in mice provided free (i.e. unconditioned) wheel-running opportunities. Running motivation, as estimated under a PR reinforcement schedule, was found to be decreased (lowest concentration) or to remain unaffected (highest concentration) by prednisolone concentration. Lastly, an inter-individual analysis of the respective effects of prednisolone on muscular endurance (as assessed in the wire grid-hanging test) and on running motivation indicated that the former was not predictive of the latter. This observation suggests that prednisolone ergogenic impacts might occur without any concomitant increase in intrinsic exercise motivation.





17/10/2019 | Behav Brain Res   IF 2.8
Insult-induced aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis: Functional consequences and possible therapeutic strategies.
Bielefeld P, Dura I, Danielewicz J, Lucassen PJ, Baekelandt V, Abrous DN, Encinas JM, Fitzsimons CP

Abstract:
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a critical role in a wide spectrum of hippocampus-dependent functions. Brain pathologies that involve the hippocampus like epilepsy, stroke, and traumatic brain injury, are commonly associated with cognitive impairments and mood disorders. These insults can affect neural stem cells and the subsequent neurogenic cascade in the hippocampus, resulting in the induction of aberrant neurogenesis, which is thought to compromise hippocampal network function, thereby hampering hippocampus-dependent behavior. We here summarize recent preclinical literature on hippocampal insult-induced changes in neurogenesis and based on that, we propose that normalizing aberrant neurogenesis post-insult may help to prevent or rescue behavioral deficits which could help develop novel therapeutic strategies.





21/09/2019 | Nutrients   IF 4.2
Effects of a High-Protein/Moderate-Carbohydrate Diet on Appetite, Gut Peptides, and Endocannabinoids-A Preview Study.
Tischmann L, Drummen M, Gatta-Cherifi B, Raben A, Fogelholm M, Hartmann B, Holst JJ, Matias I, Cota D, Mensink RP, Joris PJ, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Adam TC

Abstract:
Favorable effects of a high-protein/moderate-carbohydrate (HP/MCHO) diet after weight loss on body weight management have been shown. To extend these findings, associations between perception of hunger and satiety with endocannabinoids, and with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and polypeptide YY (PYY) were assessed. At approximately 34 months after weight loss, 22 female and 16 male participants (mean age 64.5 +/- 5.9 years; body mass index (BMI) 28.9 +/- 3.9 kg/m(2)) completed a 48 h respiration chamber study. Participants were fed in energy balance with a HP/MCHO diet with 25%:45%:30% or a moderate-protein/high-carbohydrate (MP/HCHO) diet with 15%:55%:30% of energy from protein:carbohydrate:fat. Endocannabinoids and related compounds, relevant postprandial hormones (GLP-1, PYY), hunger, satiety, and ad libitum food intake were assessed. HP/MCHO versus MP/HCHO reduced hunger perception. The lower decremental area under the curve (dAUC) for hunger in the HP/MCHO diet (-56.6% compared to MP, p < 0.05) was associated with the higher AUC for 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) concentrations (p < 0.05). Hunger was inversely associated with PYY in the HP/MCHO group (r = -0.7, p < 0.01). Ad libitum food intake, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and incremental AUCs for gut peptides were not different between conditions. HP/MCHO versus MP/HCHO diet-induced reduction in hunger was present after 34 months weight maintenance in the post-obese state. HP/MCHO diet-induced decrease of hunger is suggested to interact with increased 2-AG and PYY concentrations.





11/08/2019 | j pers   IF 3.1
Stability and change of basic personal values in early adolescence: A 2-year longitudinal study.
Vecchione M, Schwartz SH, Davidov E, Cieciuch J, Alessandri G, Marsicano G

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: We examined patterns of change and stability in the whole set of 10 Schwartz values over 2 years during early adolescence. METHOD: Participants completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire repeatedly throughout the junior high school years. The study involved six waves of data and a total of 382 respondents aged 10 years at the first measurement occasion (43% female). We investigated multiple types of stability in the values: mean-level, rank-order, and ipsative stability. RESULTS: At the mean-level, self-enhancement, and Openness to change values increased in importance. Self-direction and hedonism values showed the greatest increase-about one-third of a standard deviation. Conservation and self-transcendence values did not change with the exception of tradition, which decreased slightly. After correcting for measurement error, rank-order stability coefficients ranged from .39 (hedonism) to .77 (power). Correlations between value hierarchies measured 2 years apart were >/=.85 for 75% of respondents, and </=.12 for 5% of the respondents. Thus only a small proportion of participants experienced a marked change in the relative importance they ascribed to the 10 values. CONCLUSIONS: Results are discussed and related to earlier findings on patterns and magnitude of value change during other periods of the life span.





Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a key target of the melanocortin system, which orchestrates behavioral and metabolic responses depending on energy availability. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and the endocannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) pathways are two key signaling systems involved in the regulation of energy balance whose activity closely depends upon energy availability. Here we tested the hypothesis that modulation of mTORC1 and CB1R signaling regulates excitatory glutamatergic inputs onto the PVN. METHODS: Patch-clamp recordings in C57BL/6J mice, in mice lacking the mTORC1 component Rptor or CB1R in pro-opio-melanocortin (POMC) neurons, combined with pharmacology targeting mTORC1, the melanocortin receptor type 4 (MC4R), or the endocannabinoid system under chow or a hypercaloric diet. RESULTS: Acute pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 in C57BL/6J mice decreased glutamatergic inputs onto the PVN via a mechanism requiring modulation of MC4R, endocannabinoid 2-AG mobilization by PVN parvocellular neurons, and retrograde activation of presynaptic CB1R. Further electrophysiology studies using mice lacking mTORC1 activity or CB1R in POMC neurons indicated that the observed effects involved mTORC1 and CB1R-dependent regulation of glutamate release from POMC neurons. Finally, energy surfeit caused by hypercaloric high-fat diet feeding, rapidly and time-dependently altered the glutamatergic inputs onto parvocellular neurons and the ability of mTORC1 and CB1R signaling to modulate such excitatory activity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings pinpoint the relationship between mTORC1 and endocannabinoid-CB1R signaling in the regulation of the POMC-mediated glutamatergic inputs onto PVN parvocellular neurons and its rapid alteration in conditions favoring the development of obesity.





02/07/2019 | Curr Biol   IF 9.2
CB1 Receptors in the Anterior Piriform Cortex Control Odor Preference Memory.
Terral G, Busquets-Garcia A, Varilh M, Achicallende S, Cannich A, Bellocchio L, Bonilla-Del Rio I, Massa F, Puente N, Soria-Gomez E, Grandes P, Ferreira G, Marsicano G

Abstract:
The retrieval of odor-related memories shapes animal behavior. The anterior piriform cortex (aPC) is the largest part of the olfactory cortex, and it plays important roles in olfactory processing and memory. However, it is still unclear whether specific cellular mechanisms in the aPC control olfactory memory, depending on the appetitive or aversive nature of the stimuli involved. Cannabinoid-type 1 (CB1) receptors are present in the aPC (aPC-CB1), but their potential impact on olfactory memory was never explored. Here, we used a combination of behavioral, genetic, anatomical, and electrophysiological approaches to characterize the functions of aPC-CB1 receptors in the regulation of appetitive and aversive olfactory memory. Pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of aPC-CB1 receptors specifically impaired the retrieval of conditioned odor preference (COP). Interestingly, expression of conditioned odor aversion (COA) was unaffected by local CB1 receptor blockade, indicating that the role of aPC endocannabinoid signaling is selective for retrieval of appetitive memory. Anatomical investigations revealed that CB1 receptors are highly expressed on aPC GABAergic interneurons, and ex vivo electrophysiological recordings showed that their pharmacological activation reduces miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) onto aPC semilunar (SL), but not pyramidal principal neurons. COP retrieval, but not COA, was associated with a specific CB1-receptor-dependent decrease of mIPSCs in SL cells. Altogether, these data indicate that aPC-CB1 receptor-dependent mechanisms physiologically control the retrieval of olfactory memory, depending on odor valence and engaging modulation of local inhibitory transmission.





25/06/2019 | Cell Rep   IF 7.8
Aquaporin-4 Surface Trafficking Regulates Astrocytic Process Motility and Synaptic Activity in Health and Autoimmune Disease.
Ciappelloni S, Bouchet D, Dubourdieu N, Boue-Grabot E, Kellermayer B, Manso C, Marignier R, Oliet SHR, Tourdias T, Groc L

Abstract:
Astrocytes constantly adapt their ramified morphology in order to support brain cell assemblies. Such plasticity is partly mediated by ion and water fluxes, which rely on the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). The mechanism by which this channel locally contributes to process dynamics has remained elusive. Using a combination of single-molecule and calcium imaging approaches, we here investigated in hippocampal astrocytes the dynamic distribution of the AQP4 isoforms M1 and M23. Surface AQP4-M1 formed small aggregates that contrast with the large AQP4-M23 clusters that are enriched near glutamatergic synapses. Strikingly, stabilizing surface AQP4-M23 tuned the motility of astrocyte processes and favors glutamate synapse activity. Furthermore, human autoantibodies directed against AQP4 from neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients impaired AQP4-M23 dynamic distribution and, consequently, astrocyte process and synaptic activity. Collectively, it emerges that the membrane dynamics of AQP4 isoform regulate brain cell assemblies in health and autoimmune brain disease targeting AQP4.





22/05/2019 | J Neurosci   IF 6.1
Hippocampal Mossy Fibers Synapses in CA3 Pyramidal Cells Are Altered at an Early Stage in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.
Viana da Silva S, Zhang P, Haberl MG, Labrousse V, Grosjean N, Blanchet C, Frick A, Mulle C

Abstract:
Early Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects the brain non-uniformly, causing hippocampal memory deficits long before wide-spread brain degeneration becomes evident. Here we addressed whether mossy fiber inputs from the dentate gyrus onto CA3 principal cells are affected in an AD mouse model before amyloid beta plaque deposition. We recorded from CA3 pyramidal cells in a slice preparation from 6-month-old male APP/PS1 mice, and studied synaptic properties and intrinsic excitability. In parallel we performed a morphometric analysis of mossy fiber synapses following viral based labeling and 3D-reconstruction. We found that the basal structural and functional properties as well as presynaptic short-term plasticity at mossy fiber synapses are unaltered at 6 months in APP/PS1 mice. However, transient potentiation of synaptic transmission mediated by activity-dependent release of lipids was abolished. Whereas the presynaptic form of mossy fiber long-term potentiation (LTP) was not affected, the postsynaptic LTP of NMDAR-EPSCs was reduced. In addition, we also report an impairment in feedforward inhibition in CA3 pyramidal cells. This study, together with our previous work describing deficits at CA3-CA3 synapses, provides evidence that early AD affects synapses in a projection-dependent manner at the level of a single neuronal population.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Because loss of episodic memory is considered the cognitive hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is important to study whether synaptic circuits involved in the encoding of episodic memory are compromised in AD mouse models. Here we probe alterations in the synaptic connections between the dentate gyrus and CA3, which are thought to be critical for enabling episodic memories to be formed and stored in CA3. We found that forms of synaptic plasticity specific to these synaptic connections are markedly impaired at an early stage in a mouse model of AD, before deposition of beta amyloid plaques. Together with previous work describing deficits at CA3-CA3 synapses, we provide evidence that early AD affects synapses in an input-dependent manner within a single neuronal population.





12/04/2019 | Science   IF 41
Perspective - Do antidepressants restore lost synapses?
Beyeler A



02/04/2019 | J Clin Invest   IF 12.3
The gliotransmitter ACBP controls feeding and energy homeostasis via the melanocortin system.
Bouyakdan K, Martin H, Lienard F, Budry L, Taib B, Rodaros D, Chretien C, Biron E, Husson Z, Cota D, Penicaud L, Fulton S, Fioramonti X, Alquier T

Abstract:
Glial cells have emerged as key players in the central control of energy balance and etiology of obesity. Astrocytes play a central role in neural communication via the release of gliotransmitters. Acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP)-derived endozepines are secreted peptides that modulate the GABAA receptor. In the hypothalamus, ACBP is enriched in arcuate nucleus (ARC) astrocytes, ependymocytes and tanycytes. Central administration of the endozepine octadecaneuropeptide (ODN) reduces feeding and improves glucose tolerance, yet the contribution of endogenous ACBP in energy homeostasis is unknown. We demonstrated that ACBP deletion in GFAP+ astrocytes, but not in Nkx2.1-lineage neural cells, promoted diet-induced hyperphagia and obesity in both male and female mice, an effect prevented by viral rescue of ACBP in ARC astrocytes. ACBP-astrocytes were observed in apposition with proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons and ODN selectively activated POMC neurons through the ODN-GPCR but not GABAA, and supressed feeding while increasing carbohydrate utilization via the melanocortin system. Similarly, ACBP overexpression in ARC astrocytes reduced feeding and weight gain. Finally, the ODN-GPCR agonist decreased feeding and promoted weight loss in ob/ob mice. These findings uncover ACBP as an ARC gliopeptide playing a key role in energy balance control and exerting strong anorectic effects via the central melanocortin system.





08/03/2019 | Nat Commun   IF 11.9
Deciphering the complex role of thrombospondin-1 in glioblastoma development.
Daubon T, Leon C, Clarke K, Andrique L, Salabert L, Darbo E, Pineau R, Guerit S, Maitre M, Dedieu S, Jeanne A, Bailly S, Feige JJ, Miletic H, Rossi M, Bello L, Falciani F, Bjerkvig R, Bikfalvi A

Abstract:
We undertook a systematic study focused on the matricellular protein Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) to uncover molecular mechanisms underlying the role of THBS1 in glioblastoma (GBM) development. THBS1 was found to be increased with glioma grades. Mechanistically, we show that the TGFbeta canonical pathway transcriptionally regulates THBS1, through SMAD3 binding to the THBS1 gene promoter. THBS1 silencing inhibits tumour cell invasion and growth, alone and in combination with anti-angiogenic therapy. Specific inhibition of the THBS1/CD47 interaction using an antagonist peptide decreases cell invasion. This is confirmed by CD47 knock-down experiments. RNA sequencing of patient-derived xenograft tissue from laser capture micro-dissected peripheral and central tumour areas demonstrates that THBS1 is one of the gene with the highest connectivity at the tumour borders. All in all, these data show that TGFbeta1 induces THBS1 expression via Smad3 which contributes to the invasive behaviour during GBM expansion. Furthermore, tumour cell-bound CD47 is implicated in this process.





07/03/2019 | JCI Insight   IF 6
The motivation for exercise over palatable food is dictated by cannabinoid type-1 receptors.
Muguruza C, Redon B, Fois GR, Hurel I, Scocard A, Nguyen C, Stevens C, Soria-Gomez E, Varilh M, Cannich A, Daniault J, Busquets-Garcia A, Pelliccia T, Caille S, Georges F, Marsicano G, Chaouloff F

Abstract:
The lack of intrinsic motivation to engage in, and adhere to, physical exercise has major health consequences. However, the neurobiological bases of exercise motivation are still unknown. This study aimed at examining whether the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in this process. To do so, we developed an operant conditioning paradigm wherein mice unlocked a running wheel with nose pokes. Using pharmacological tools and conditional mutants for cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors, we provide evidence that CB1 receptors located on GABAergic neurons are both necessary and sufficient to positively control running motivation. Conversely, this receptor population proved dispensable for the modulation of running duration per rewarded sequence. Although the ECS mediated the motivation for another reward, namely palatable food, such a regulation was independent from CB1 receptors on GABAergic neurons. In addition, we report that the lack of CB1 receptors on GABAergic neurons decreases the preference for running over palatable food when mice were proposed an exclusive choice between the two rewards. Beyond providing a paradigm that enables motivation processes for exercise to be dissected either singly or in concurrence, this study is the first to our knowledge to identify a neurobiological mechanism that might contribute to sedentary behavior.





24/01/2019 | Neurobiol Dis   IF 5.2
Cannabinoid type-1 receptor blockade restores neurological phenotypes in two models for Down syndrome.
Navarro-Romero A, Vazquez-Oliver A, Gomis-Gonzalez M, Garzon-Montesinos C, Falcon-Moya R, Pastor A, Martin-Garcia E, Pizarro N, Busquets-Garcia A, Revest JM, Piazza PV, Bosch F, Dierssen M, de la Torre R, Rodriguez-Moreno A, Maldonado R, Ozaita A

Abstract:
Intellectual disability is the most limiting hallmark of Down syndrome, for which there is no gold-standard clinical treatment yet. The endocannabinoid system is a widespread neuromodulatory system involved in multiple functions including learning and memory processes. Alterations of this system contribute to the pathogenesis of several neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome has not been explored before. We used the best-characterized preclinical model of Down syndrome, the segmentally trisomic Ts65Dn model. In male Ts65Dn mice, cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) expression was enhanced and its function increased in hippocampal excitatory terminals. Knockdown of CB1R in the hippocampus of male Ts65Dn mice restored hippocampal-dependent memory. Concomitant with this result, pharmacological inhibition of CB1R restored memory deficits, hippocampal synaptic plasticity and adult neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Notably, the blockade of CB1R also normalized hippocampal-dependent memory in female Ts65Dn mice. To further investigate the mechanisms involved, we used a second transgenic mouse model overexpressing a single gene candidate for Down syndrome cognitive phenotypes, the dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A). CB1R pharmacological blockade similarly improved cognitive performance, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis in transgenic male Dyrk1A mice. Our results identify CB1R as a novel druggable target potentially relevant for the improvement of cognitive deficits associated with Down syndrome.





07/01/2019 | Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med   IF 5.6
Development and Patterning of the Cochlea: From Convergent Extension to Planar Polarity.
Montcouquiol M, Kelley MW

Abstract:
Within the mammalian cochlea, sensory hair cells and supporting cells are aligned in curvilinear rows that extend along the length of the tonotopic axis. In addition, all of the cells within the epithelium are uniformly polarized across the orthogonal neural-abneural axis. Finally, each hair cell is intrinsically polarized as revealed by the presence of an asymmetrically shaped and apically localized stereociliary bundle. It has been known for some time that many of the developmental processes that regulate these patterning events are mediated, to some extent, by the core planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. This article will review more recent work demonstrating how components of the PCP pathway interact with cytoskeletal motor proteins to regulate cochlear outgrowth. Finally, a signaling pathway originally identified for its role in asymmetric cell divisions has recently been shown to mediate several aspects of intrinsic hair cell polarity, including kinocilia migration, bundle shape, and elongation.





2019 | Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences   IF 3.4
Valence Coding in Amygdala Circuits
Pignatelli M, Beyeler A

Abstract:
The neural mechanisms underlying emotional valence are at the interface between perception and action, integrating inputs from the external environment with past experiences to guide the behavior of an organism. Depending on the positive or negative valence assigned to an environmental stimulus, the organism will approach or avoid the source of the stimulus. Multiple convergent studies have demonstrated that the amygdala complex is a critical node of the circuits assigning valence. Here we examine the current progress in identifying valence coding properties of neural populations in different nuclei of the amygdala, based on their activity, connectivity, and gene expression profile.





2019 | front pharmacol   IF 3.8
Beyond the Activity-Based Anorexia Model: Reinforcing Values of Exercise and Feeding Examined in Stressed Adolescent Male and Female Mice.
Hurel I, Redon B, Scocard A, Malezieux M, Marsicano G, Chaouloff F

Abstract:
Anorexia nervosa (AN), mostly observed in female adolescents, is the most fatal mental illness. Its core is a motivational imbalance between exercise and feeding in favor of the former. The most privileged animal model of AN is the 'activity-based anorexia' (ABA) model wherein partly starved rodents housed with running wheels exercise at the expense of feeding. However, the ABA model bears face and construct validity limits, including its inability to specifically assess running motivation and feeding motivation. As infant/adolescent trauma is a precipitating factor in AN, this study first analyzed post-weaning isolation rearing (PWIR) impacts on body weights and wheel-running performances in female mice exposed to an ABA protocol. Next, we studied through operant conditioning protocols i) whether food restriction affects in a sex-dependent manner running motivation before ii) investigating how PWIR and sex affect running and feeding drives under ad libitum fed conditions and food restriction. Besides amplifying ABA-elicited body weight reductions, PWIR stimulated wheel-running activities in anticipation of feeding in female mice, suggesting increased running motivation. To confirm this hypothesis, we used a cued-reward motivated instrumental task wherein wheel-running was conditioned by prior nose poke responses. It was first observed that food restriction increased running motivation in male, but not female, mice. When fed grouped and PWIR mice were tested for their running and palatable feeding drives, all mice, excepted PWIR males, displayed increased nose poke responses for running over feeding. This was true when rewards were proposed alone or within a concurrent test. The increased preference for running over feeding in fed females did not extend to running performances (time, distance) during each rewarded sequence, confirming that motivation for, and performance during, running are independent entities. With food restriction, mice displayed a sex-independent increase in their preference for feeding over running in both group-housed and PWIR conditions. This study shows that the ABA model does not specifically capture running and feeding drives, i.e. components known to be affected in AN.





2019 | Front Behav Neurosci   IF 2.6
Varenicline Targets the Reinforcing-Enhancing Effect of Nicotine on Its Associated Salient Cue During Nicotine Self-administration in the Rat.
Garcia-Rivas V, Fiancette JF, Cannella N, Carbo-Gas M, Renault P, Tostain J, Deroche-Gamonet V

Abstract:
Nicotine is acknowledged as the key addictive compound of tobacco. Varenicline (Champix((R)) or Chantix((R))), mainly acting as a partial agonist at the alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor, is an approved smoking cessation pharmacotherapy, although with efficacy limited to a portion of smokers. Smokers differ in the motives that drive their drug seeking and Varenicline might be more efficient in some groups more than others. Studies in rodents revealed that nicotine-seeking is strongly supported by complex interactions between nicotine and environmental cues, and notably the ability of nicotine to enhance the reinforcing properties of salient environmental stimuli. It is not yet understood whether the decrease of nicotine-seeking by acute Varenicline in rats results from antagonism of the primary reinforcing effects of nicotine, of the reinforcement-enhancing effect of nicotine on cues, or of a combination of both. Thanks to a protocol that allows assessment of the reinforcement-enhancing effect of nicotine on cues during self-administration in rats, we showed that Varenicline targets both nicotine reinforcing effects and reinforcement-enhancing effect of nicotine on cues. Importantly, individual variations in the latter determined the amplitude of acute Varenicline-induced decrease in seeking. These results suggest that Varenicline might be more beneficial in smokers who are more sensitive to nicotine effects on surrounding stimuli.





20/12/2018 | j neuroinflammation   IF 5.2
Sequential alteration of microglia and astrocytes in the rat thalamus following spinal nerve ligation.
Blaszczyk L, Maitre M, Leste-Lasserre T, Clark S, Cota D, Oliet SHR, Fenelon VS

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Spinal reactive astrocytes and microglia are known to participate to the initiation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. However, whether reactive astrocytes and microglia in thalamic nuclei that process sensory-discriminative aspects of pain play a role in pain behavior remains poorly investigated. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether the presence of reactive glia (hypertrophy, increased number and upregulation of glial markers) in the ventral posterolateral thalamic nucleus (VPL) correlates with pain symptoms, 14 and 28 days after unilateral L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats. METHODS: Mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia (von Frey filament stimulation) as well as ambulatory pain (dynamic weight bearing apparatus) were assessed. Levels of nine glial transcripts were determined by quantitative real-time PCR on laser microdissected thalamic nuclei, and levels of proteins were assessed by Western blot. We also studied by immunohistofluorescence the expression of glial markers that label processes (GFAP for astrocytes and iba-1 for microglia) and cell body (S100beta for astrocytes and iba-1 for microglia) and quantified the immunostained surface and the number of astrocytes and microglia (conventional counts and optical dissector method of stereological counting). RESULTS: Differential, time-dependent responses were observed concerning microglia and astrocytes. Specifically, at day 14, iba-1 immunostained area and number of iba-1 immunopositive cells were decreased in the VPL of SNL as compared to naive rats. By contrast, at day 28, GFAP-immunostained area was increased in the VPL of SNL as compared to naive rats while number of GFAP/S100beta immunopositive cells remained unchanged. Using quantitative real-time PCR of laser microdissected VPL, we found a sequential increase in mRNA expression of cathepsin S (day 14), fractalkine (day 28), and fractalkine receptor (day 14), three well-known markers of microglial reactivity. Using Western blot, we confirmed an increase in protein expression of fractalkine receptor at day 14. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a sequential alteration of microglia and astrocytes in the thalamus of animals with lesioned peripheral nerves. Furthermore, our data report unprecedented concomitant molecular signs of microglial activation and morphological signs of microglial decline in the thalamus of these animals.





23/11/2018 | Int J Mol Sci   IF 3.7
Heterogeneity in Colorectal Cancer: A Challenge for Personalized Medicine?
Molinari C, Marisi G, Passardi A, Matteucci L, De Maio G, Ulivi P

Abstract:
High inter-patient variability and high spatial heterogeneity are features of colorectal cancer (CRC). This may influence the molecular characterization of tumor tissue, now mandatory for patients with metastatic CRC who are candidates for treatment with an anti-EGFR mAb, as false-negative results can occur, leading to non optimal therapy. Moreover, temporal molecular heterogeneity during treatment is known to influence the response to therapy and prognosis. We present a literature overview of advances made in characterizing molecular heterogeneity in CRC, underlining that the analysis of liquid biopsy could represent an efficient non-invasive tool to overcome the problem. We believe that understanding CRC heterogeneity is fundamental for a more accurate diagnosis, for selecting the best targets to ensure prolonged antitumor response, and for monitoring minimal residual disease and the onset of resistance to therapy, all essential components of successful personalized treatment.





20/11/2018 | ann surg   IF 9.2
Oea Signaling Pathways and the Metabolic Benefits of Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy.
Hutch CR, Trakimas DR, Roelofs K, Pressler J, Sorrell J, Cota D, Obici S, Sandoval DA

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether downstream [peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and the G-protein coupled receptor, GPR119] and upstream (a fatty acid translocase, CD36) signaling targets of N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA) were necessary for weight loss, metabolic improvements, and diet preference following vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: OEA is an anorectic N-acylethanolamine produced from dietary fats within the intestinal lumen that can modulate lipid metabolism, insulin secretion, and energy expenditure by activating targets such as PPARalpha and GPR119. METHODS: Diet-induced obese mice, including wild-type or whole body knockout (KO) of PPARalpha, GPR119, and CD36, were stratified to either VSG or sham surgery before body weight, body composition, diet preference, and glucose and lipid metabolic endpoints were assessed. RESULTS: We found increased duodenal production of OEA and expression of both GPR119 and CD36 were upregulated in wild-type mice after VSG. However, weight loss and glucose tolerance were improved in response to VSG in PPARalphaKO, GPR119KO, and CD36KO mice. In fact, VSG corrected hepatic triglyceride dysregulation in CD36KO mice, and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels in PPARalphaKO mice. Lastly, we found PPARalpha-mediated signaling contributes to macronutrient preference independent of VSG, while removal of CD36 signaling blunts the VSG-induced shift toward carbohydrate preference. CONCLUSIONS: In the search for more effective and less invasive therapies to help reverse the global acceleration of obesity and obesity-related disease OEA is a promising candidate; however, our data indicate that it is not an underlying mechanism of the effectiveness of VSG.





07/11/2018 | Nature   IF 41.6
Dopamine enhances signal-to-noise ratio in cortical-brainstem encoding of aversive stimuli.
Vander Weele CM, Siciliano CA, Matthews GA, Namburi P, Izadmehr EM, Espinel IC, Nieh EH, Schut EHS, Padilla-Coreano N, Burgos-Robles A, Chang CJ, Kimchi EY, Beyeler A, Wichmann R, Wildes CP, Tye KM

Abstract:
Dopamine modulates medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity to mediate diverse behavioural functions(1,2); however, the precise circuit computations remain unknown. One potentially unifying model by which dopamine may underlie a diversity of functions is by modulating the signal-to-noise ratio in subpopulations of mPFC neurons(3-6), where neural activity conveying sensory information (signal) is amplified relative to spontaneous firing (noise). Here we demonstrate that dopamine increases the signal-to-noise ratio of responses to aversive stimuli in mPFC neurons projecting to the dorsal periaqueductal grey (dPAG). Using an electrochemical approach, we reveal the precise time course of pinch-evoked dopamine release in the mPFC, and show that mPFC dopamine biases behavioural responses to aversive stimuli. Activation of mPFC-dPAG neurons is sufficient to drive place avoidance and defensive behaviours. mPFC-dPAG neurons display robust shock-induced excitations, as visualized by single-cell, projection-defined microendoscopic calcium imaging. Finally, photostimulation of dopamine terminals in the mPFC reveals an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio in mPFC-dPAG responses to aversive stimuli. Together, these data highlight how dopamine in the mPFC can selectively route sensory information to specific downstream circuits, representing a potential circuit mechanism for valence processing.





11/2018 | Mol Psychiatry   IF 11.6
CaMKIIbeta regulates nucleus-centrosome coupling in locomoting neurons of the developing cerebral cortex.
Nicole O, Bell DM, Leste-Lasserre T, Doat H, Guillemot F, Pacary E



11/2018 | Mol Psychiatry   IF 11.6
A novel role for CAMKIIbeta in the regulation of cortical neuron migration: implications for neurodevelopmental disorders.
Nicole O, Bell DM, Leste-Lasserre T, Doat H, Guillemot F, Pacary E

Abstract:
Perturbation of CaMKIIbeta expression has been associated with multiple neuropsychiatric diseases, highlighting CaMKIIbeta as a gene of interest. Yet, in contrast to CaMKIIalpha, the specific functions of CaMKIIbeta in the brain remain poorly explored. Here, we reveal a novel function for this CaMKII isoform in vivo during neuronal development. By using in utero electroporation, we show that CaMKIIbeta is an important regulator of radial migration of projection neurons during cerebral cortex development. Knockdown of CaMKIIbeta causes accelerated migration of nascent pyramidal neurons, whereas overexpression of CaMKIIbeta inhibits migration, demonstrating that precise regulation of CaMKIIbeta expression is required for correct neuronal migration. More precisely, CaMKIIbeta controls the multipolar-bipolar transition in the intermediate zone and locomotion in the cortical plate through its actin-binding and -bundling activities. In addition, our data indicate that a fine-tuned balance between CaMKIIbeta and cofilin activities is necessary to ensure proper migration of cortical neurons. Thus, our findings define a novel isoform-specific function for CaMKIIbeta, demonstrating that CaMKIIbeta has a major biological function in the developing brain.





16/10/2018 | Acta Neuropathol Commun   IF 5.4
Modulation of astrocyte reactivity improves functional deficits in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.
Ceyzeriat K, Ben Haim L, Denizot A, Pommier D, Matos M, Guillemaud O, Palomares MA, Abjean L, Petit F, Gipchtein P, Gaillard MC, Guillermier M, Bernier S, Gaudin M, Auregan G, Josephine C, Dechamps N, Veran J, Langlais V, Cambon K, Bemelmans AP, Baijer J, Bonvento G, Dhenain M, Deleuze JF, Oliet SHR, Brouillet E, Hantraye P, Carrillo-de Sauvage MA, Olaso R, Panatier A, Escartin C

Abstract:
Astrocyte reactivity and neuroinflammation are hallmarks of CNS pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the specific role of reactive astrocytes is still debated. This controversy may stem from the fact that most strategies used to modulate astrocyte reactivity and explore its contribution to disease outcomes have only limited specificity. Moreover, reactive astrocytes are now emerging as heterogeneous cells and all types of astrocyte reactivity may not be controlled efficiently by such strategies.Here, we used cell type-specific approaches in vivo and identified the JAK2-STAT3 pathway, as necessary and sufficient for the induction and maintenance of astrocyte reactivity. Modulation of this cascade by viral gene transfer in mouse astrocytes efficiently controlled several morphological and molecular features of reactivity. Inhibition of this pathway in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease improved three key pathological hallmarks by reducing amyloid deposition, improving spatial learning and restoring synaptic deficits.In conclusion, the JAK2-STAT3 cascade operates as a master regulator of astrocyte reactivity in vivo. Its inhibition offers new therapeutic opportunities for Alzheimer's disease.





10/2018 | Curr Opin Neurobiol   IF 6.5
Neuronal coding mechanisms mediating fear behavior.
Rozeske RR, Herry C

Abstract:
The behavioral repertoire of an organism can be highly diverse, spanning from social to defensive. How an animal efficiently switches between distinct behaviors is a fundamental question whose inquiry will provide insights into the mechanisms that are necessary for an organism's survival. Previous work aimed at identifying the neural systems responsible for defensive behaviors, such as freezing, has demonstrated critical interactions between the prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Indeed, this foundational research has provided an indispensable anatomical framework that investigators are now using to understand the physiological mechanisms of defined neural circuits within the prefrontal cortex that code for the rapid and flexible expression of defensive behaviors. Here we review recent findings demonstrating temporal and rate coding mechanisms of freezing behavior in the prefrontal cortex. We hypothesize that anatomical features, such as target structure and cortical layer, as well as the nature of the information to be coded, may be critical factors determining the coding scheme. Furthermore, detailed behavioral analyses may reveal subtypes of defensive behaviors that represent the principle factor governing coding selection.





23/09/2018 | Exp Neurol   IF 4.5
Serotonin2B receptors in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus exert a GABA-mediated tonic inhibitory control on serotonin neurons.
Cathala A, Devroye C, Drutel G, Revest JM, Artigas F, Spampinato U

Abstract:
The central serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR) is a well-established modulator of dopamine (DA) neuron activity in the rodent brain. Recent studies in rats have shown that the effect of 5-HT2BR antagonists on accumbal and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) DA outflow results from a primary action in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), where they activate 5-HT neurons innervating the mPFC. Although the mechanisms underlying this interaction remain largely unknown, data in the literature suggest the involvement of DRN GABAergic interneurons in the control of 5-HT activity. The present study examined this hypothesis using in vivo (intracerebral microdialysis) and in vitro (immunohistochemistry coupled to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) experimental approaches in rats. Intraperitoneal (0.16mg/kg) or intra-DRN (1muM) administration of the selective 5-HT2BR antagonist RS 127445 increased 5-HT outflow in both the DRN and the mPFC, these effects being prevented by the intra-DRN perfusion of the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (100muM), as well as by the subcutaneous (0.16mg/kg) or the intra-DRN (0.1muM) administration of the selective 5-HT1AR antagonist WAY 100635. The increase in DRN 5-HT outflow induced by the intra-DRN administration of the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor citalopram (0.1muM) was potentiated by the intra-DRN administration (0.5muM) of RS 127445 only in the absence of bicuculline perfusion. Finally, in vitro experiments revealed the presence of the 5-HT2BR mRNA on DRN GABAergic interneurons. Altogether, these results show that, in the rat DRN, 5-HT2BRs are located on GABAergic interneurons, and exert a tonic inhibitory control on 5-HT neurons innervating the mPFC.





Abstract:
In nonhuman mammals and in particular in rodents, most granule neurons of the dentate gyrus (DG) are generated during development and yet little is known about their properties compared with adult-born neurons. Although it is generally admitted that these populations are morphologically indistinguishable once mature, a detailed analysis of developmentally born neurons is lacking. Here, we used in vivo electroporation to label dentate granule cells (DGCs) generated in mouse embryos (E14.5) or in neonates (P0) and followed their morphological development up to 6 months after birth. By comparison with mature retrovirus-labeled DGCs born at weaning (P21) or young adult (P84) stages, we provide the evidence that perinatally born neurons, especially embryonically born cells, are morphologically distinct from later-born neurons and are thus easily distinguishable. In addition, our data indicate that semilunar and hilar GCs, 2 populations in ectopic location, are generated during the embryonic and the neonatal periods, respectively. Thus, our findings provide new insights into the development of the different populations of GCs in the DG and open new questions regarding their function in the brain.





23/08/2018 | Neuron   IF 14.3
Hippocampal CB1 Receptors Control Incidental Associations.
Busquets-Garcia A, Oliveira da Cruz JF, Terral G, Zottola ACP, Soria-Gomez E, Contini A, Martin H, Redon B, Varilh M, Ioannidou C, Drago F, Massa F, Fioramonti X, Trifilieff P, Ferreira G, Marsicano G

Abstract:
By priming brain circuits, associations between low-salience stimuli often guide future behavioral choices through a process known as mediated or inferred learning. However, the precise neurobiological mechanisms of these incidental associations are largely unknown. Using sensory preconditioning procedures, we show that type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) in hippocampal GABAergic neurons are necessary and sufficient for mediated but not direct learning. Deletion and re-expression of CB1R in hippocampal GABAergic neurons abolishes and rescues mediated learning, respectively. Interestingly, paired presentations of low-salience sensory cues induce a specific protein synthesis-dependent enhancement of hippocampal CB1R expression and facilitate long-term synaptic plasticity at inhibitory synapses. CB1R blockade or chemogenetic manipulations of hippocampal GABAergic neurons upon preconditioning affect incidental associations, as revealed by impaired mediated learning. Thus, CB1R-dependent control of inhibitory hippocampal neurotransmission mediates incidental associations, allowing future associative inference, a fundamental process for everyday life, which is altered in major neuropsychiatric diseases.





09/07/2018 | Sci Rep   IF 4.1
Shifts of Faecal Microbiota During Sporadic Colorectal Carcinogenesis.
Mori G, Rampelli S, Orena BS, Rengucci C, De Maio G, Barbieri G, Passardi A, Casadei Gardini A, Frassineti GL, Gaiarsa S, Albertini AM, Ranzani GN, Calistri D, Pasca MR

Abstract:
Gut microbiota has been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of colorectal cancer. The development of colorectal cancer is a multistep process by which healthy epithelium slowly develops into preneoplastic lesions, which in turn progress into malignant carcinomas over time. In particular, sporadic colorectal cancers can arise from adenomas (about 85% of cases) or serrated polyps through the 'adenoma-carcinoma' or the 'serrated polyp-carcinoma' sequences, respectively. In this study, we performed 16 S rRNA gene sequencing of bacterial DNA extracted from faecal samples to compare the microbiota of healthy subjects and patients with different preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. We identified putative microbial biomarkers associated with stage-specific progression of colorectal cancer. In particular, bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria phyla, as well as members of the Lachnospiraceae family, proved to be specific of the faecal microbiota of patients with preneoplastic lesions, including adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. On the other hand, two families of the Proteobacteria phylum, Alcaligeneaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, with Sutterella and Escherichia/Shigella being the most representative genera, appeared to be associated with malignancy. These findings, once confirmed on larger cohorts of patients, can represent an important step towards the development of more effective diagnostic strategies.





21/06/2018 | cell physiol biochem   IF 5.5
Galphai Proteins are Indispensable for Hearing.
Beer-Hammer S, Lee SC, Mauriac SA, Leiss V, Groh IAM, Novakovic A, Piekorz RP, Bucher K, Chen C, Ni K, Singer W, Harasztosi C, Schimmang T, Zimmermann U, Pfeffer K, Birnbaumer L, Forge A, Montcouquiol M, Knipper M, Nurnberg B, Ruttiger L

Abstract:
BACKGROUND/AIMS: From invertebrates to mammals, Galphai proteins act together with their common binding partner Gpsm2 to govern cell polarization and planar organization in virtually any polarized cell. Recently, we demonstrated that Galphai3-deficiency in pre-hearing murine cochleae pointed to a role of Galphai3 for asymmetric migration of the kinocilium as well as the orientation and shape of the stereociliary ('hair') bundle, a requirement for the progression of mature hearing. We found that the lack of Galphai3 impairs stereociliary elongation and hair bundle shape in high-frequency cochlear regions, linked to elevated hearing thresholds for high-frequency sound. How these morphological defects translate into hearing phenotypes is not clear. METHODS: Here, we studied global and conditional Gnai3 and Gnai2 mouse mutants deficient for either one or both Galphai proteins. Comparative analyses of global versus Foxg1-driven conditional mutants that mainly delete in the inner ear and telencephalon in combination with functional tests were applied to dissect essential and redundant functions of different Galphai isoforms and to assign specific defects to outer or inner hair cells, the auditory nerve, satellite cells or central auditory neurons. RESULTS: Here we report that lack of Galphai3 but not of the ubiquitously expressed Galphai2 elevates hearing threshold, accompanied by impaired hair bundle elongation and shape in high-frequency cochlear regions. During the crucial reprogramming of the immature inner hair cell (IHC) synapse into a functional sensory synapse of the mature IHC deficiency for Galphai2 or Galphai3 had no impact. In contrast, double-deficiency for Galphai2 and Galphai3 isoforms results in abnormalities along the entire tonotopic axis including profound deafness associated with stereocilia defects. In these mice, postnatal IHC synapse maturation is also impaired. In addition, the analysis of conditional versus global Galphai3-deficient mice revealed that the amplitude of ABR wave IV was disproportionally elevated in comparison to ABR wave I indicating that Galphai3 is selectively involved in generation of neural gain during auditory processing. CONCLUSION: We propose a so far unrecognized complexity of isoform-specific and overlapping Galphai protein functions particular during final differentiation processes.





20/06/2018 | bio protoc
Protocols to Study Declarative Memory Formation in Mice and Humans: Optogenetics and Translational Behavioral Approaches
Sellami A, Al abed S, Brayda-Bruno L, Etchamendy N, Valerio S, Oule M, Pantaleon L, Lamothe V, Potier M, Bernard K, Jabourian M, Herry C, Mons N, Marighetto A



11/06/2018 | Sci Rep   IF 4.1
D5 dopamine receptors control glutamatergic AMPA transmission between the motor cortex and subthalamic nucleus.
Froux L, Le Bon-Jego M, Miguelez C, Normand E, Morin S, Fioramonti S, Barresi M, Frick A, Baufreton J, Taupignon A

Abstract:
Corticofugal fibers target the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a component nucleus of the basal ganglia, in addition to the striatum, their main input. The cortico-subthalamic, or hyperdirect, pathway, is thought to supplement the cortico-striatal pathways in order to interrupt/change planned actions. To explore the previously unknown properties of the neurons that project to the STN, retrograde and anterograde tools were used to specifically identify them in the motor cortex and selectively stimulate their synapses in the STN. The cortico-subthalamic neurons exhibited very little sag and fired an initial doublet followed by non-adapting action potentials. In the STN, AMPA/kainate synaptic currents had a voltage-dependent conductance, indicative of GluA2-lacking receptors and were partly inhibited by Naspm. AMPA transmission displayed short-term depression, with the exception of a limited bandpass in the 5 to 15 Hz range. AMPA synaptic currents were negatively controlled by dopamine D5 receptors. The reduction in synaptic strength was due to postsynaptic D5 receptors, mediated by a PKA-dependent pathway, but did not involve a modified rectification index. Our data indicated that dopamine, through post-synaptic D5 receptors, limited the cortical drive onto STN neurons in the normal brain.





06/06/2018 | Neuron   IF 14.3
Astroglial CB1 Receptors Determine Synaptic D-Serine Availability to Enable Recognition Memory.
Robin LM*, Cruz J*, Oliveira da Cruz JF, Langlais VC, Martin-Fernandez M, Metna-Laurent M, Busquets-Garcia A, Bellocchio L, Soria-Gomez E, Papouin T, Varilh M, Sherwood MW, Belluomo I, Balcells G, Matias I, Bosier B, Drago F, Van Eeckhaut A, Smolders I, Georges F, Araque A, Panatier A, Oliet SHR*, Marsicano G*

Abstract:
Bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes shapes synaptic plasticity and behavior. D-serine is a necessary co-agonist of synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), but the physiological factors regulating its impact on memory processes are scantly known. We show that astroglial CB1 receptors are key determinants of object recognition memory by determining the availability of D-serine at hippocampal synapses. Mutant mice lacking CB1 receptors from astroglial cells (GFAP-CB1-KO) displayed impaired object recognition memory and decreased in vivo and in vitro long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses. Activation of CB1 receptors increased intracellular astroglial Ca(2+) levels and extracellular levels of D-serine in hippocampal slices. Accordingly, GFAP-CB1-KO displayed lower occupancy of the co-agonist binding site of synaptic hippocampal NMDARs. Finally, elevation of D-serine levels fully rescued LTP and memory impairments of GFAP-CB1-KO mice. These data reveal a novel mechanism of in vivo astroglial control of memory and synaptic plasticity via the D-serine-dependent control of NMDARs.





06/2018 | Br J Pharmacol   IF 6.8
Calcium signalling through L-type calcium channels: role in pathophysiology of spinal nociceptive transmission.
Roca-Lapirot O, Radwani H, Aby F, Nagy F, Landry M, Fossat P

Abstract:
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels are ubiquitous channels in the CNS. L-type calcium channels (LTCs) are mostly post-synaptic channels regulating neuronal firing and gene expression. They play a role in important physio-pathological processes such as learning and memory, Parkinson's disease, autism and, as recognized more recently, in the pathophysiology of pain processes. Classically, the fundamental role of these channels in cardiovascular functions has limited the use of classical molecules to treat LTC-dependent disorders. However, when applied locally in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, the three families of LTC pharmacological blockers - dihydropyridines (nifedipine), phenylalkylamines (verapamil) and benzothiazepines (diltiazem) - proved effective in altering short-term sensitization to pain, inflammation-induced hyperexcitability and neuropathy-induced allodynia. Two subtypes of LTCs, Cav 1.2 and Cav 1.3, are expressed in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, where Cav 1.2 channels are localized mostly in the soma and proximal dendritic shafts, and Cav 1.3 channels are more distally located in the somato-dendritic compartment. Together with their different kinetics and pharmacological properties, this spatial distribution contributes to their separate roles in shaping short- and long-term sensitization to pain. Cav 1.3 channels sustain the expression of plateau potentials, an input/output amplification phenomenon that contributes to short-term sensitization to pain such as prolonged after-discharges, dynamic receptive fields and windup. The Cav 1.2 channels support calcium influx that is crucial for the excitation-transcription coupling underlying nerve injury-induced dorsal horn hyperexcitability. These subtype-specific cellular mechanisms may have different consequences in the development and/or the maintenance of pathological pain. Recent progress in developing more specific compounds for each subunit will offer new opportunities to modulate LTCs for the treatment of pathological pain with reduced side-effects. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on Recent Advances in Targeting Ion Channels to Treat Chronic Pain. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.12/issuetoc.





31/05/2018 | Cell   IF 31.4
Corticoamygdala Transfer of Socially Derived Information Gates Observational Learning.
Allsop SA, Wichmann R, Mills F, Burgos-Robles A, Chang CJ, Felix-Ortiz AC, Vienne A, Beyeler A, Izadmehr EM, Glober G, Cum MI, Stergiadou J, Anandalingam KK, Farris K, Namburi P, Leppla CA, Weddington JC, Nieh EH, Smith AC, Ba D, Brown EN, Tye KM

Abstract:
Observational learning is a powerful survival tool allowing individuals to learn about threat-predictive stimuli without directly experiencing the pairing of the predictive cue and punishment. This ability has been linked to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA). To investigate how information is encoded and transmitted through this circuit, we performed electrophysiological recordings in mice observing a demonstrator mouse undergo associative fear conditioning and found that BLA-projecting ACC (ACC-->BLA) neurons preferentially encode socially derived aversive cue information. Inhibition of ACC-->BLA alters real-time amygdala representation of the aversive cue during observational conditioning. Selective inhibition of the ACC-->BLA projection impaired acquisition, but not expression, of observational fear conditioning. We show that information derived from observation about the aversive value of the cue is transmitted from the ACC to the BLA and that this routing of information is critically instructive for observational fear conditioning. VIDEO ABSTRACT.





25/05/2018 | Nat Commun   IF 12.4
Author Correction: Defective Gpsm2/Galphai3 signalling disrupts stereocilia development and growth cone actin dynamics in Chudley-McCullough syndrome.
Mauriac SA, Hien YE, Bird JE, Carvalho SD, Peyroutou R, Lee SC, Moreau MM, Blanc JM, Gezer A, Medina C, Thoumine O, Beer-Hammer S, Friedman TB, Ruttiger L, Forge A, Nurnberg B, Sans N, Montcouquiol M

Abstract:
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14907.





23/05/2018 | Nat Commun   IF 12.4
Combining laser capture microdissection and proteomics reveals an active translation machinery controlling invadosome formation.
Ezzoukhry Z, Henriet E, Cordelieres FP, Dupuy JW, Maitre M, Gay N, Di-Tommaso S, Mercier L, Goetz JG, Peter M, Bard F, Moreau V, Raymond AA, Saltel F

Abstract:
Invadosomes are F-actin-based structures involved in extracellular matrix degradation, cell invasion, and metastasis formation. Analyzing their proteome is crucial to decipher their molecular composition, to understand their mechanisms, and to find specific elements to target them. However, the specific analysis of invadosomes is challenging, because it is difficult to maintain their integrity during isolation. In addition, classical purification methods often suffer from contaminations, which may impair data validation. To ensure the specific identification of invadosome components, we here develop a method that combines laser microdissection and mass spectrometry, enabling the analysis of subcellular structures in their native state based on low amounts of input material. Using this combinatorial method, we show that invadosomes contain specific components of the translational machinery, in addition to known marker proteins. Moreover, functional validation reveals that protein translation activity is an inherent property of invadosomes, which is required to maintain invadosome structure and activity.





18/04/2018 | Cereb Cortex   IF 6.3
Dysfunctional Autism Risk Genes Cause Circuit-Specific Connectivity Deficits With Distinct Developmental Trajectories
Zerbi Valerio, Giovanna D. Ielacqua, Marija Markicevic, Matthias Georg Haberl, Mark H. Ellisman, A-Bhaskaran A, Frick A, Markus Rudin, Nicole Wenderoth

Abstract:
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a set of complex neurodevelopmental disorders for which there is currently no targeted therapeutic approach. It is thought that alterations of genes regulating migration and synapse formation during development affect neural circuit formation and result in aberrant connectivity within distinct circuits that underlie abnormal behaviors. However, it is unknown whether deviant developmental trajectories are circuit-specific for a given autism risk-gene. We used MRI to probe changes in functional and structural connectivity from childhood to adulthood in Fragile-X (Fmr1−/y) and contactin-associated (CNTNAP2−/−) knockout mice. Young Fmr1−/y mice (30 days postnatal) presented with a robust hypoconnectivity phenotype in corticocortico and corticostriatal circuits in areas associated with sensory information processing, which was maintained until adulthood. Conversely, only small differences in hippocampal and striatal areas were present during early postnatal development in CNTNAP2−/− mice, while major connectivity deficits in prefrontal and limbic pathways developed between adolescence and adulthood. These findings are supported by viral tracing and electron micrograph approaches and define 2 clearly distinct connectivity endophenotypes within the autism spectrum. We conclude that the genetic background of ASD strongly influences which circuits are most affected, the nature of the phenotype, and the developmental time course of the associated changes.





18/04/2018 | cell stem cell   IF 23.3
Human Adult Neurogenesis: Evidence and Remaining Questions.
Kempermann G, Gage FH, Aigner L, Song H, Curtis MA, Thuret S, Kuhn HG, Jessberger S, Frankland PW, Cameron HA, Gould E, Hen R, Abrous DN, Toni N, Schinder AF, Zhao X, Lucassen PJ, Frisen J

Abstract:
Renewed discussion about whether or not adult neurogenesis exists in the human hippocampus, and the nature and strength of the supporting evidence, has been reignited by two prominently published reports with opposite conclusions. Here, we summarize the state of the field and argue that there is currently no reason to abandon the idea that adult-generated neurons make important functional contributions to neural plasticity and cognition across the human lifespan.





13/04/2018 | Mol Metab   IF 6.3
mTORC1-dependent increase in oxidative metabolism in POMC neurons regulates food intake and action of leptin.
Haissaguerre M, Ferriere A, Simon V, Saucisse N, Dupuy N, Andre C, Clark S, Guzman-Quevedo O, Tabarin A, Cota D

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: Nutrient availability modulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the hypothalamus. In turn, ROS regulate hypothalamic neuronal activity and feeding behavior. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is an important cellular integrator of the action of nutrients and hormones. Here we tested the hypothesis that modulation of mTORC1 activity, particularly in Proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons, mediates the cellular and behavioral effects of ROS. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice or controls and their knockout (KO) littermates deficient either for the mTORC1 downstream target 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) or for the mTORC1 component Rptor specifically in POMC neurons (POMC-rptor-KO) were treated with an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of the ROS hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or the ROS scavenger honokiol, alone or, respectively, in combination with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin or the mTORC1 activator leptin. Oxidant-related signal in POMC neurons was assessed using dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence. RESULTS: Icv administration of H2O2 decreased food intake, while co-administration of rapamycin, whole-body deletion of S6K1, or deletion of rptor in POMC neurons impeded the anorectic action of H2O2. H2O2 also increased oxidant levels in POMC neurons, an effect that hinged on functional mTORC1 in these neurons. Finally, scavenging ROS prevented the hypophagic action of leptin, which in turn required mTORC1 to increase oxidant levels in POMC neurons and to inhibit food intake. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that ROS and leptin require mTORC1 pathway activity in POMC neurons to increase oxidant levels in POMC neurons and consequently decrease food intake.





13/03/2018 | Brain Behav Immun   IF 6.3
mTORC1 pathway disruption abrogates the effects of the ciliary neurotrophic factor on energy balance and hypothalamic neuroinflammation.
Andre C, Catania C, Remus-Borel J, Ladeveze E, Leste-Lasserre T, Mazier W, Binder E, Gonzales D, Clark S, Guzman-Quevedo O, Abrous DN, Laye S, Cota D

Abstract:
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) potently decreases food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese mice by acting through neuronal circuits and pathways located in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. CNTF also exerts pro-inflammatory actions within the brain. Here we tested whether CNTF modifies energy balance by inducing inflammatory responses in the ARC and whether these effects depend upon the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which regulates both energy metabolism and inflammation. To this purpose, chow- and high fat diet (HFD)- fed mice lacking the S6 kinase 1 (S6K1(-/-)), a downstream target of mTORC1, and their wild-type (WT) littermates received 12 days continuous intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of the CNTF analogue axokine (CNTFAx15). Behavioral, metabolic and molecular effects were evaluated. Central chronic administration of CNTFAx15 decreased body weight and feed efficiency in WT mice only, when fed HFD, but not chow. These metabolic effects correlated with increased number of iba-1 positive microglia specifically in the ARC and were accompanied by significant increases of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic iNOS and SOCS3 mRNA, molecular markers of pro-inflammatory response, were also increased by CNTFAx15. All these changes were absent in S6K1(-/-) mice. This study reveals that CNTFAx15 requires a functional S6K1 to modulate energy balance and hypothalamic inflammation in a diet-dependent fashion. Further investigations should determine whether S6K1 is a suitable target for the treatment of pathologies characterized by a high neuroinflammatory state.





06/03/2018 | Cell Rep   IF 8
Transcriptional Dysregulation in Postnatal Glutamatergic Progenitors Contributes to Closure of the Cortical Neurogenic Period.
Donega V, Marcy G, Lo Giudice Q, Zweifel S, Angonin D, Fiorelli R, Abrous DN, Rival-Gervier S, Koehl M, Jabaudon D, Raineteau O

Abstract:
Progenitors of cortical glutamatergic neurons (Glu progenitors) are usually thought to switch fate before birth to produce astrocytes. We used fate-mapping approaches to show that a large fraction of Glu progenitors persist in the postnatal forebrain after closure of the cortical neurogenesis period. Postnatal Glu progenitors do not accumulate during embryonal development but are produced by embryonal radial glial cells that persist after birth in the dorsal subventricular zone and continue to give rise to cortical neurons, although with low efficiency. Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals a dysregulation of transcriptional programs, which parallels changes in m(6)A methylation and correlates with the gradual decline in cortical neurogenesis observed in vivo. Rescuing experiments show that postnatal progenitors are partially permissive to genetic and pharmacological manipulations. Our study provides an in-depth characterization of postnatal Glu progenitors and identifies potential therapeutic targets for promoting brain repair.