Neurocentre Magendie

Laure BELNOUE





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Cursus:
Licence de Biologie cellulaire et physiologie à l'université de Montpellier 2.
Master II recherche de Biologie cellulaire et physiopathologie à l'université de Bordeaux 2.






4 publication(s) depuis Janvier 2011:


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Les IF indiqués ont été collectés par le Web of Sciences en


25/11/2016 | Sci Rep   IF 4.3
Plasticity in the olfactory bulb of the maternal mouse is prevented by gestational stress.
Belnoue L, Malvaut S, Ladeveze E, Abrous DN, Koehl M

Abstract:
Maternal stress is associated with an altered mother-infant relationship that endangers offspring development, leading to emotional/behavioral problems. However, little research has investigated the stress-induced alterations of the maternal brain that could underlie such a disruption of mother-infant bonding. Olfactory cues play an extensive role in the coordination of mother-infant interactions, suggesting that motherhood may be associated to enhanced olfactory performances, and that this effect may be abolished by maternal stress. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the impact of motherhood under normal conditions or after gestational stress on olfactory functions in C57BL/6 J mice. We report that gestational stress alters maternal behavior and prevents both mothers' ability to discriminate pup odors and motherhood-induced enhancement in odor memory. We investigated adult bulbar neurogenesis as a potential mechanism of the enhanced olfactory function in mothers and found that motherhood was associated with an increased complexity of the dendritic tree of newborn neurons. This motherhood-evoked remodeling was totally prevented by gestational stress. Altogether, our results may thus provide insight into the neural changes that could contribute to altered maternal behavior in stressed mothers.




2013 | PLoS ONE   IF 2.8
Prenatal stress inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis but spares olfactory bulb neurogenesis.
Belnoue L, Grosjean N, Ladeveze E, Abrous DN, Koehl M

Abstract:
The dentate gyrus (DG) and the olfactory bulb (OB) are two regions of the adult brain in which new neurons are integrated daily in the existing networks. It is clearly established that these newborn neurons are implicated in specific functions sustained by these regions and that different factors can influence neurogenesis in both structures. Among these, life events, particularly occurring during early life, were shown to profoundly affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its associated functions like spatial learning, but data regarding their impact on adult bulbar neurogenesis are lacking. We hypothesized that prenatal stress could interfere with the development of the olfactory system, which takes place during the prenatal period, leading to alterations in adult bulbar neurogenesis and in olfactory capacities. To test this hypothesis we exposed pregnant C57Bl/6J mice to gestational restraint stress and evaluated behavioral and anatomic consequences in adult male offspring. We report that prenatal stress has no impact on adult bulbar neurogenesis, and does not alter olfactory functions in adult male mice. However, it decreases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the DG of the hippocampus, thus confirming previous reports on rats. Altogether our data support a selective and cross-species long-term impact of prenatal stress on neurogenesis.




02/2012 | Hippocampus   IF 3.9
Adult-born neurons are necessary for extended contextual discrimination.
Tronel S, Belnoue L, Grosjean N, Revest JM, Piazza PV, Koehl M, Abrous DN

Abstract:
New neurons are continuously produced in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. It has been shown that one of the functions of adult neurogenesis is to support spatial pattern separation, a process that transforms similar memories into nonoverlapping representations. This prompted us to investigate whether adult-born neurons are required for discriminating two contexts, i.e., for identifying a familiar environment and detect any changes introduced in it. We show that depleting adult-born neurons impairs the animal's ability to disambiguate two contexts after extensive training. These data suggest that the continuous production of new dentate neurons plays a crucial role in extracting and separating efficiently contextual representation in order to discriminate features within events.




19/01/2011 | J Neurosci   IF 6
A critical time window for the recruitment of bulbar newborn neurons by olfactory discrimination learning.
Belnoue L, Grosjean N, Abrous DN, Koehl M

Abstract:
In the mammalian brain, the dentate gyrus and the olfactory bulb are regions where new neurons are continuously added. While the functional consequences of continuous hippocampal neurogenesis have been extensively studied, the role of olfactory adult-born neurons remains elusive. In particular, the involvement of these newborn neurons in odor processing is still a matter of debate. We demonstrate a critical impact of both the age of new neurons and the memory processes involved (learning vs recall) in the recruitment of newborn cells. Thus, odor stimulation preferentially recruited immature neurons over more mature ones (2 weeks old vs 5 and 9 weeks old), whereas associative learning based on odor discrimination preferentially recruited mature neurons (5-9 weeks old). Furthermore, while mature neurons were activated by this associative learning, they were not activated by long-term memory recall, indicating that the contribution of newborn neurons in olfactory functions depends also on the memory process involved. Our data thus show that newborn neurons are indeed involved in odor processing and that their recruitment is age- and memory process-dependent.