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27 publication(s) depuis Septembre 2004:

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12/11/2016 | Brain Behav Immun   IF 6.2
Selective dentate gyrus disruption causes memory impairment at the early stage of experimental multiple sclerosis.
Planche V, Panatier A, Hiba B, Ducourneau EG, Raffard G, Dubourdieu N, Maitre M, Leste-Lasserre T, Brochet B, Dousset V, Desmedt A, Oliet SH, Tourdias T

Memory impairment is an early and disabling manifestation of multiple sclerosis whose anatomical and biological substrates are still poorly understood. We thus investigated whether memory impairment encountered at the early stage of the disease could be explained by a differential vulnerability of particular hippocampal subfields. By using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we identified that early memory impairment was associated with selective alteration of the dentate gyrus as pinpointed in vivo with diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI). Neuromorphometric analyses and electrophysiological recordings confirmed dendritic degeneration, alteration in glutamatergic synaptic transmission and impaired long-term synaptic potentiation selectively in the dentate gyrus, but not in CA1, together with a more severe pattern of microglial activation in this subfield. Systemic injections of the microglial inhibitor minocycline prevented DTI, morphological, electrophysiological and behavioral impairments in EAE-mice. Furthermore, daily infusions of minocycline specifically within the dentate gyrus were sufficient to prevent memory impairment in EAE-mice while infusions of minocycline within CA1 were inefficient. We conclude that early memory impairment in EAE is due to a selective disruption of the dentate gyrus associated with microglia activation. These results open new pathophysiological, imaging, and therapeutic perspectives for memory impairment in multiple sclerosis.

03/04/2015 | Neuroscience   IF 3.2
Astrocytic mGluR5 and the tripartite synapse.
Panatier A, Robitaille R

In the brain, astrocytes occupy a key position between vessels and synapses. Among their numerous functions, these glial cells are key partners of neurons during synaptic transmission. Astrocytes detect transmitter release through receptors and transporters at the level of their processes, which are in close proximity to the tow neuronal elements of synapses. In response to transmitter-mediated activation, glial cells in turn regulate synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability. This process has been reported to involve several glial receptors. One of the best known of such receptors is the metabotropic glutamatergic receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5). In the present review we will discuss the implication of mGluR5s as detectors of synaptic transmission. In particular, we will discuss how the functional properties and localization of these receptors permit the detection of the synaptic signal in a defined temporal window and a given spatial area around the synapse. Furthermore, we will review the impact of their activation on synaptic transmission.

02/2015 | Nat Neurosci   IF 21.1
Surface diffusion of astrocytic glutamate transporters shapes synaptic transmission.
Murphy-Royal C, Dupuis JP, Varela JA, Panatier A, Pinson B, Baufreton J, Groc L, Oliet SH

Control of the glutamate time course in the synapse is crucial for excitatory transmission. This process is mainly ensured by astrocytic transporters, high expression of which is essential to compensate for their slow transport cycle. Although molecular mechanisms regulating transporter intracellular trafficking have been identified, the relationship between surface transporter dynamics and synaptic function remains unexplored. We found that GLT-1 transporters were highly mobile on rat astrocytes. Surface diffusion of GLT-1 was sensitive to neuronal and glial activities and was strongly reduced in the vicinity of glutamatergic synapses, favoring transporter retention. Notably, glutamate uncaging at synaptic sites increased GLT-1 diffusion, displacing transporters away from this compartment. Functionally, impairing GLT-1 membrane diffusion through cross-linking in vitro and in vivo slowed the kinetics of excitatory postsynaptic currents, indicative of a prolonged time course of synaptic glutamate. These data provide, to the best of our knowledge, the first evidence for a physiological role of GLT-1 surface diffusion in shaping synaptic transmission.

19/10/2014 | Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci   IF 6.1
Dissecting tripartite synapses with STED microscopy.
Panatier A, Arizono M, Nagerl UV

The concept of the tripartite synapse reflects the important role that astrocytic processes are thought to play in the function and regulation of neuronal synapses in the mammalian nervous system. However, many basic aspects regarding the dynamic interplay between pre- and postsynaptic neuronal structures and their astrocytic partners remain to be explored. A major experimental hurdle has been the small physical size of the relevant glial and synaptic structures, leaving them largely out of reach for conventional light microscopic approaches such as confocal and two-photon microscopy. Hence, most of what we know about the organization of the tripartite synapse is based on electron microscopy, which does not lend itself to investigating dynamic events and which cannot be carried out in parallel with functional assays. The development and application of superresolution microscopy for neuron-glia research is opening up exciting experimental opportunities in this regard. In this paper, we provide a basic explanation of the theory and operation of stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, outlining the potential of this recent superresolution imaging modality for advancing our understanding of the morpho-functional interactions between astrocytes and neurons that regulate synaptic physiology.

2013 | J Med Chem   IF 6.1
Structural, Kinetic, and Pharmacodynamic Mechanisms of d-Amino Acid Oxidase Inhibition by Small Molecules
Hopkins SC, Heffernan MLR, Saraswat LD, Bowen CA, Melnick L, Hardy LW, Orsini MA, Allen MS, Koch P, Spear KL, Foglesong RJ , Soukri M, Chytil M, Fang QK, Jones SW, Varney MA, Panatier A, Oliet SHR, Pollegioni L, Piubelli L, Molla G, Nardini M, Large TH

We characterized the mechanism and pharmacodynamics of five structurally distinct inhibitors of d-amino acid oxidase. All inhibitors bound the oxidized form of human enzyme with affinity slightly higher than that of benzoate (Kd ≈ 2-4 μM). Stopped-flow experiments showed that pyrrole-based inhibitors possessed high affinity (Kd ≈ 100-200 nM) and slow release kinetics (k < 0.01 s(-1)) in the presence of substrate, while inhibitors with pendent aromatic groups altered conformations of the active site lid, as evidenced by X-ray crystallography, and showed slower kinetics of association. Rigid bioisosteres of benzoic acid induced a closed-lid conformation, had slower release in the presence of substrate, and were more potent than benzoate. Steady-state d-serine concentrations were described in a PK/PD model, and competition for d-serine sites on NMDA receptors was demonstrated in vivo. DAAO inhibition increased the spatiotemporal influence of glial-derived d-serine, suggesting localized effects on neuronal circuits where DAAO can exert a neuromodulatory role

11/12/2012 | Dev Cell   IF 9.2
The soothing touch: microglial contact influences neuronal excitability.
Panatier A, Robitaille R

Resting microglial cells in the brain scan their environment with their processes, primed to react to injury and disease. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Li and colleagues (2012) report that resting microglia also react to physiological neuronal activity, sending their processes toward highly active neurons to regulate their excitability.

06/2012 | Med Sci (Paris)   IF 0.4
[Astrocyte, a key partner of neurons during basal synaptic transmission].
Panatier A, Robitaille R


02/09/2011 | Cell   IF 36.2
Astrocytes are endogenous regulators of Basal transmission at central synapses.
Panatier A, Vallee J, Haber M, Murai KK, Lacaille JC, Robitaille R

Basal synaptic transmission involves the release of neurotransmitters at individual synapses in response to a single action potential. Recent discoveries show that astrocytes modulate the activity of neuronal networks upon sustained and intense synaptic activity. However, their ability to regulate basal synaptic transmission remains ill defined and controversial. Here, we show that astrocytes in the hippocampal CA1 region detect synaptic activity induced by single-synaptic stimulation. Astrocyte activation occurs at functional compartments found along astrocytic processes and involves metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors. In response, astrocytes increase basal synaptic transmission, as revealed by the blockade of their activity with a Ca(2+) chelator. Astrocytic modulation of basal synaptic transmission is mediated by the release of purines and the activation of presynaptic A(2A) receptors by adenosine. Our work uncovers an essential role for astrocytes in the regulation of elementary synaptic communication and provides insight into fundamental aspects of brain function.

The hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system is comprised of magnocellular neurones that synthesise the neuropeptides oxytocin or vasopressin. As neurohormones, these peptides intervene in the regulation of vital functions such as parturition, lactation, osmotic and cardiovascular regulation. The release of these peptides in the general circulation depends on the electrical activity of their parent neurones, which in turn is regulated by the activity of their afferent inputs conveying distinct information. Thus, in view of the diversity of information governing the activity of magnocellular neurones, it is crucial that the system adapts the appropriate release of oxytocin and vasopressin upon physiological demand. Until recently, it was considered that only neurones could provide such adaptation and regulation. However, a third partner of the synapse, the astrocyte, has been shown to provide further control. Astrocytic processes are in proximity of the magnocellular neurones and their synapses, well positioned to detect and modulate synaptic signals. For instance, astrocytes detect a synaptic signal owing to their diverse neurotransmitter/neuropeptide receptors. In addition, they release a variety of neuroactive substances (i.e. gliotransmitters), which in turn modulate synaptic activity. An important gliotransmitter is the amino acid, d-serine, which, together with glutamate, activates NMDA receptors. Once activated, NMDA receptors govern the weight of individual inputs on magnocellular neurones and thus the impact of distinct types of information on neuronal activity. As reviewed here, numerous observations show that astrocytes must be considered as key elements in the functioning of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system.

2008 | Prog Brain Res   IF 3
Neuron-glia interactions in the rat supraoptic nucleus.
Oliet SH, Panatier A, Piet R, Mothet JP, Poulain DA, Theodosis DT

The adult hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system undergoes a striking activity-dependent morphological remodelling that modifies the glial enwrapping of its magnocellular neurons. Although the functional consequences of such remodelling remain hypothetical, recent evidence has provided new insights into the repercussions of glial environment modifications on the physiology of magnocellular neurosecretory cells at the synaptic level. These studies have revealed that the reduced astrocytic coverage of magnocellular neurons occurring in the SON affects various functions in which astrocytes play key roles. These functions include uptake of neurotransmitters such as glutamate, restricting diffusion of neuroactive substances within the extracellular space and release of informative molecules known as gliotransmitters that act on neighbouring neurons to modulate synaptic transmission and excitability. Overall, our observations indicate that the neuron-glial anatomical reorganization leads to modifications of glutamatergic transmission that might be important for the physiology of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system.