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24 publication(s) depuis Septembre 2004:

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16/10/2018 | Acta Neuropathological Communication
Modulation of astrocyte reactivity improves functional deficits in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.
Ceyzeriat K, Ben Haim L, Denizot A, Pommier D, Matos M, Guillemaud O, Palomares MA, Abjean L, Petit F, Gipchtein P, Gaillard MC, Guillermier M, Bernier S, Gaudin M, Auregan G, Josephine C, Dechamps N, Veran J, Langlais V, Cambon K, Bemelmans AP, Baijer J, Bonvento G, Dhenain M, Deleuze JF, Oliet SHR, Brouillet E, Hantraye P, Carrillo-de Sauvage MA, Olaso R, Panatier A, Escartin C

Astrocyte reactivity and neuroinflammation are hallmarks of CNS pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the specific role of reactive astrocytes is still debated. This controversy may stem from the fact that most strategies used to modulate astrocyte reactivity and explore its contribution to disease outcomes have only limited specificity. Moreover, reactive astrocytes are now emerging as heterogeneous cells and all types of astrocyte reactivity may not be controlled efficiently by such strategies.Here, we used cell type-specific approaches in vivo and identified the JAK2-STAT3 pathway, as necessary and sufficient for the induction and maintenance of astrocyte reactivity. Modulation of this cascade by viral gene transfer in mouse astrocytes efficiently controlled several morphological and molecular features of reactivity. Inhibition of this pathway in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease improved three key pathological hallmarks by reducing amyloid deposition, improving spatial learning and restoring synaptic deficits.In conclusion, the JAK2-STAT3 cascade operates as a master regulator of astrocyte reactivity in vivo. Its inhibition offers new therapeutic opportunities for Alzheimer's disease.

12/10/2018 | Nat Commun   IF 12.4
Astrocytes detect and upregulate transmission at inhibitory synapses of somatostatin interneurons onto pyramidal cells.
Matos M, Bosson A, Riebe I, Reynell C, Vallee J, Laplante I, Panatier A, Robitaille R, Lacaille JC

Astrocytes are important regulators of excitatory synaptic networks. However, astrocytes regulation of inhibitory synaptic systems remains ill defined. This is particularly relevant since GABAergic interneurons regulate the activity of excitatory cells and shape network function. To address this issue, we combined optogenetics and pharmacological approaches, two-photon confocal imaging and whole-cell recordings to specifically activate hippocampal somatostatin or paravalbumin-expressing interneurons (SOM-INs or PV-INs), while monitoring inhibitory synaptic currents in pyramidal cells and Ca(2+) responses in astrocytes. We found that astrocytes detect SOM-IN synaptic activity via GABABR and GAT-3-dependent Ca(2+) signaling mechanisms, the latter triggering the release of ATP. In turn, ATP is converted into adenosine, activating A1Rs and upregulating SOM-IN synaptic inhibition of pyramidal cells, but not PV-IN inhibition. Our findings uncover functional interactions between a specific subpopulation of interneurons, astrocytes and pyramidal cells, involved in positive feedback autoregulation of dendritic inhibition of pyramidal cells.

06/06/2018 | Neuron   IF 14.3
Astroglial CB1 Receptors Determine Synaptic D-Serine Availability to Enable Recognition Memory.
Robin LM*, Cruz J*, Oliveira da Cruz JF, Langlais VC, Martin-Fernandez M, Metna-Laurent M, Busquets-Garcia A, Bellocchio L, Soria-Gomez E, Papouin T, Varilh M, Sherwood MW, Belluomo I, Balcells G, Matias I, Bosier B, Drago F, Van Eeckhaut A, Smolders I, Georges F, Araque A, Panatier A, Oliet SHR*, Marsicano G*

Bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes shapes synaptic plasticity and behavior. D-serine is a necessary co-agonist of synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), but the physiological factors regulating its impact on memory processes are scantly known. We show that astroglial CB1 receptors are key determinants of object recognition memory by determining the availability of D-serine at hippocampal synapses. Mutant mice lacking CB1 receptors from astroglial cells (GFAP-CB1-KO) displayed impaired object recognition memory and decreased in vivo and in vitro long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses. Activation of CB1 receptors increased intracellular astroglial Ca(2+) levels and extracellular levels of D-serine in hippocampal slices. Accordingly, GFAP-CB1-KO displayed lower occupancy of the co-agonist binding site of synaptic hippocampal NMDARs. Finally, elevation of D-serine levels fully rescued LTP and memory impairments of GFAP-CB1-KO mice. These data reveal a novel mechanism of in vivo astroglial control of memory and synaptic plasticity via the D-serine-dependent control of NMDARs.

08/05/2018 | Cell Rep   IF 8
GAT-3 Dysfunction Generates Tonic Inhibition in External Globus Pallidus Neurons in Parkinsonian Rodents.
Chazalon M, Paredes-Rodriguez E, Morin S, Martinez A, Cristovao-Ferreira S, Vaz S, Sebastiao A, Panatier A, Boue-Grabot E, Miguelez C, Baufreton J

The external globus pallidus (GP) is a key GABAergic hub in the basal ganglia (BG) circuitry, a neuronal network involved in motor control. In Parkinson's disease (PD), the rate and pattern of activity of GP neurons are profoundly altered and contribute to the motor symptoms of the disease. In rodent models of PD, the striato-pallidal pathway is hyperactive, and extracellular GABA concentrations are abnormally elevated in the GP, supporting the hypothesis of an alteration of neuronal and/or glial clearance of GABA. Here, we discovered the existence of persistent GABAergic tonic inhibition in GP neurons of dopamine-depleted (DD) rodent models. We showed that glial GAT-3 transporters are downregulated while neuronal GAT-1 function remains normal in DD rodents. Finally, we showed that blocking GAT-3 activity in vivo alters the motor coordination of control rodents, suggesting that GABAergic tonic inhibition in the GP contributes to the pathophysiology of PD.

30/01/2018 | Neuroimage   IF 5.4
Deciphering the microstructure of hippocampal subfields with in vivo DTI and NODDI: Applications to experimental multiple sclerosis.
Crombe A, Planche V, Raffard G, Bourel J, Dubourdieu N, Panatier A, Fukutomi H, Dousset V, Oliet S, Hiba B, Tourdias T

The hippocampus contains distinct populations of neurons organized into separate anatomical subfields and layers with differential vulnerability to pathological mechanisms. The ability of in vivo neuroimaging to pinpoint regional vulnerability is especially important for better understanding of hippocampal pathology at the early stage of neurodegenerative disorders and for monitoring future therapeutic strategies. This is the case for instance in multiple sclerosis whose neurodegenerative component can affect the hippocampus from the early stage. We challenged the capacity of two models, i.e. the classical diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) model and the neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) model, to compute quantitative diffusion MRI that could capture microstructural alterations in the individual hippocampal layers of experimental-autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, the animal model of multiple sclerosis. To achieve this, the hippocampal anatomy of a healthy mouse brain was first explored ex vivo with high resolution DTI and NODDI. Then, 18 EAE mice and 18 control mice were explored 20 days after immunization with in vivo diffusion MRI prior to sacrifice for the histological quantification of neurites and glial markers in each hippocampal layer. Fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps were computed from the DTI model while the orientation dispersion index (ODI), the neurite density index (NDI) and the volume fraction of isotropic diffusivity (isoVF) maps were computed from the NODDI model. We first showed in control mice that color-coded FA and ODI maps can delineate three main hippocampal layers. The quantification of FA, AD, RD, MD, ODI, NDI and isoVF presented differences within these 3 layers, especially within the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus which displayed a specific signature based on a combination of AD (or MD), ODI and NDI. Then, the comparison between EAE and control mice showed a decrease of AD (p=0.036) and of MD (p=0.033) selectively within the molecular layer of EAE mice while NODDI indices did not present any difference between EAE and control mice in any layer. Histological analyses confirmed the differential vulnerability of the molecular layer of EAE mice that exhibited decreased dendritic length and decreased dendritic complexity together with activated microglia. Dendritic length and intersections within the molecular layer were independent contributors to the observed decrease of AD (R(2)=0.37 and R(2)=0.40, p<0.0001) and MD (R(2)=0.41 and R(2)=0.42, p<0.0001). We therefore identified that NODDI maps can help to highlight the internal microanatomy of the hippocampus but NODDI still presents limitations in grey matter as it failed to capture selective dendritic alterations occurring at early stages of a neurodegenerative disease such as multiple sclerosis, whereas DTI maps were significantly altered.

03/2017 | Glia   IF 5.8
Astrocytic IP3 Rs: Contribution to Ca2+ signalling and hippocampal LTP.
Sherwood MW, Arizono M, Hisatsune C, Bannai H, Ebisui E, Sherwood JL, Panatier A, Oliet SH, Mikoshiba K

Astrocytes regulate hippocampal synaptic plasticity by the Ca2+ dependent release of the N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) co-agonist d-serine. Previous evidence indicated that d-serine release would be regulated by the intracellular Ca2+ release channel IP3 receptor (IP3 R), however, genetic deletion of IP3 R2, the putative astrocytic IP3 R subtype, had no impact on synaptic plasticity or transmission. Although IP3 R2 is widely believed to be the only functional IP3 R in astrocytes, three IP3 R subtypes (1, 2, and 3) have been identified in vertebrates. Therefore, to better understand gliotransmission, we investigated the functionality of IP3 R and the contribution of the three IP3 R subtypes to Ca2+ signalling. As a proxy for gliotransmission, we found that long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired by dialyzing astrocytes with the broad IP3 R blocker heparin, and rescued by exogenous d-serine, indicating that astrocytic IP3 Rs regulate d-serine release. To explore which IP3 R subtypes are functional in astrocytes, we used pharmacology and two-photon Ca2+ imaging of hippocampal slices from transgenic mice (IP3 R2-/- and IP3 R2-/- ;3-/- ). This approach revealed that underneath IP3 R2-mediated global Ca2+ events are an overlooked class of IP3 R-mediated local events, occurring in astroglial processes. Notably, multiple IP3 Rs were recruited by high frequency stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals, a classical LTP induction protocol. Together, these findings show the dependence of LTP and gliotransmission on Ca2+ release by astrocytic IP3 Rs. GLIA 2017;65:502-513.

22/11/2016 | Cereb Cortex   IF 6.3
Activity-Dependent Neuroplasticity Induced by an Enriched Environment Reverses Cognitive Deficits in Scribble Deficient Mouse.
Hilal ML, Moreau MM, Racca C, Pinheiro VL, Piguel NH, Santoni MJ, Dos Santos Carvalho S, Blanc JM, Abada YK, Peyroutou R, Medina C, Doat H, Papouin T, Vuillard L, Borg JP, Rachel R, Panatier A, Montcouquiol M, Oliet SHR, Sans N

Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling is well known to play a critical role during prenatal brain development; whether it plays specific roles at postnatal stages remains rather unknown. Here, we investigated the role of a key PCP-associated gene scrib in CA1 hippocampal structure and function at postnatal stages. We found that Scrib is required for learning and memory consolidation in the Morris water maze as well as synaptic maturation and NMDAR-dependent bidirectional plasticity. Furthermore, we unveiled a direct molecular interaction between Scrib and PP1/PP2A phosphatases whose levels were decreased in postsynaptic density of conditional knock-out mice. Remarkably, exposure to enriched environment (EE) preserved memory formation in CaMK-Scrib-/- mice by recovering synaptic plasticity and maturation. Thus, Scrib is required for synaptic function involved in memory formation and EE has beneficiary therapeutic effects. Our results demonstrate a distinct new role for a PCP-associated protein, beyond embryonic development, in cognitive functions during adulthood.

12/11/2016 | Brain Behav Immun   IF 6.3
Selective dentate gyrus disruption causes memory impairment at the early stage of experimental multiple sclerosis.
Planche V, Panatier A, Hiba B, Ducourneau EG, Raffard G, Dubourdieu N, Maitre M, Leste-Lasserre T, Brochet B, Dousset V, Desmedt A, Oliet SH, Tourdias T

Memory impairment is an early and disabling manifestation of multiple sclerosis whose anatomical and biological substrates are still poorly understood. We thus investigated whether memory impairment encountered at the early stage of the disease could be explained by a differential vulnerability of particular hippocampal subfields. By using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we identified that early memory impairment was associated with selective alteration of the dentate gyrus as pinpointed in vivo with diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI). Neuromorphometric analyses and electrophysiological recordings confirmed dendritic degeneration, alteration in glutamatergic synaptic transmission and impaired long-term synaptic potentiation selectively in the dentate gyrus, but not in CA1, together with a more severe pattern of microglial activation in this subfield. Systemic injections of the microglial inhibitor minocycline prevented DTI, morphological, electrophysiological and behavioral impairments in EAE-mice. Furthermore, daily infusions of minocycline specifically within the dentate gyrus were sufficient to prevent memory impairment in EAE-mice while infusions of minocycline within CA1 were inefficient. We conclude that early memory impairment in EAE is due to a selective disruption of the dentate gyrus associated with microglia activation. These results open new pathophysiological, imaging, and therapeutic perspectives for memory impairment in multiple sclerosis.

03/04/2015 | Neuroscience   IF 3.4
Astrocytic mGluR5 and the tripartite synapse.
Panatier A, Robitaille R

In the brain, astrocytes occupy a key position between vessels and synapses. Among their numerous functions, these glial cells are key partners of neurons during synaptic transmission. Astrocytes detect transmitter release through receptors and transporters at the level of their processes, which are in close proximity to the tow neuronal elements of synapses. In response to transmitter-mediated activation, glial cells in turn regulate synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability. This process has been reported to involve several glial receptors. One of the best known of such receptors is the metabotropic glutamatergic receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5). In the present review we will discuss the implication of mGluR5s as detectors of synaptic transmission. In particular, we will discuss how the functional properties and localization of these receptors permit the detection of the synaptic signal in a defined temporal window and a given spatial area around the synapse. Furthermore, we will review the impact of their activation on synaptic transmission.

02/2015 | Nat Neurosci   IF 19.9
Surface diffusion of astrocytic glutamate transporters shapes synaptic transmission.
Murphy-Royal C, Dupuis JP, Varela JA, Panatier A, Pinson B, Baufreton J, Groc L, Oliet SH

Control of the glutamate time course in the synapse is crucial for excitatory transmission. This process is mainly ensured by astrocytic transporters, high expression of which is essential to compensate for their slow transport cycle. Although molecular mechanisms regulating transporter intracellular trafficking have been identified, the relationship between surface transporter dynamics and synaptic function remains unexplored. We found that GLT-1 transporters were highly mobile on rat astrocytes. Surface diffusion of GLT-1 was sensitive to neuronal and glial activities and was strongly reduced in the vicinity of glutamatergic synapses, favoring transporter retention. Notably, glutamate uncaging at synaptic sites increased GLT-1 diffusion, displacing transporters away from this compartment. Functionally, impairing GLT-1 membrane diffusion through cross-linking in vitro and in vivo slowed the kinetics of excitatory postsynaptic currents, indicative of a prolonged time course of synaptic glutamate. These data provide, to the best of our knowledge, the first evidence for a physiological role of GLT-1 surface diffusion in shaping synaptic transmission.