Neurocentre Magendie

Philippe CIOFI


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1984-87: PhD Univ. Lille (France), Neuroanatomy - Neuroendocrinology
1987-90: Post-Doc, Univ. Calif. Irvine, Neuroanatomy - Neuroendocrinology
1991- :Inserm Investigator, Neuroanatomy - Neuroendocrinology

71 publication(s) depuis Décembre 1985:

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17/01/2018 | Endocr Rev   IF 15.7
The versatile tanycyte: a hypothalamic integrator of reproduction and energy metabolism.
Prevot V, Dehouck B, Sharif A, Ciofi P, Giacobini P, Clasadonte J

The fertility and survival of an individual rely on the ability of the periphery to promptly, effectively and reproducibly communicate with brain neural networks that control reproduction, food intake and energy homeostasis. Tanycytes, a specialized glial cell type lining the wall of the third ventricle in the median eminence of the hypothalamus, appear to act as the linchpin of these processes by dynamically controlling the secretion of neuropeptides into the portal vasculature by hypothalamic neurons and regulating blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid exchanges, both processes that depend on the ability of these cells to adapt their morphology to the physiological state of the individual. In addition to their barrier properties, they possess the ability to sense blood glucose levels, and play a fundamental and active role in shuttling circulating metabolic signals to hypothalamic neurons that control food intake. Moreover, accumulating data suggest that, in keeping with their putative descent from radial glial cells, tanycytes are endowed with neural stem cell properties and may respond to dietary or reproductive cues by modulating hypothalamic neurogenesis. Tanycytes could thus constitute the missing link in the loop connecting behavior, hormonal changes, signal transduction, central neuronal activation and, finally, behavior again. In this paper, we will examine these recent advances in the understanding of tanycytic plasticity and function in the hypothalamus, and the underlying molecular mechanisms. We will also discuss the putative involvement and therapeutic potential of hypothalamic tanycytes in metabolic and fertility disorders.

Hypothalamic neurohormones are released in a pulsatile manner. The mechanisms of this pulsatility remain poorly understood and several hypotheses are available, depending upon the neuroendocrine system considered. Among these systems, hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal magnocellular neurons have been early-considered models, as they typically display an electrical activity consisting of bursts of action potentials that is optimal for the release of boluses of the neurohormones oxytocin and vasopressin. The cellular mechanisms underlying this bursting behavior have been studied in vitro, using either acute slices of the adult hypothalamus, or organotypic cultures of neonatal hypothalamic tissue. We have recently proposed, from experiments in organotypic cultures, that specific central pattern generator networks, upstream of magnocellular neurons, determine their bursting activity. Here, we have tested whether a similar hypothesis can be derived from in vitro experiments in acute slices of the adult hypothalamus. To this aim we have screened our electrophysiological recordings of the magnocellular neurons, previously obtained from acute slices, with an analysis of autocorrelation of action potentials to detect a rhythmic drive as we recently did for organotypic cultures. This confirmed that the bursting behavior of magnocellular neurons is governed by central pattern generator networks whose rhythmic drive, and thus probably integrity, is however less satisfactorily preserved in the acute slices from adult brains.

2015 | front neurosci   IF 3.6
Neuropeptide co-expression in hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons of laboratory animals and the human.
Skrapits K, Borsay BA, Herczeg L, Ciofi P, Liposits Z, Hrabovszky E

Hypothalamic peptidergic neurons using kisspeptin (KP) and its co-transmitters for communication are critically involved in the regulation of mammalian reproduction and puberty. This article provides an overview of neuropeptides present in KP neurons, with a focus on the human species. Immunohistochemical studies reveal that large subsets of human KP neurons synthesize neurokinin B, as also shown in laboratory animals. In contrast, dynorphin described in KP neurons of rodents and sheep is found rarely in KP cells of human males and postmenopausal females. Similarly, galanin is detectable in mouse, but not human, KP cells, whereas substance P, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and proenkephalin-derived opioids are expressed in varying subsets of KP neurons in humans, but not reported in ARC of other species. Human KP neurons do not contain neurotensin, cholecystokinin, proopiomelanocortin-derivatives, agouti-related protein, neuropeptide Y, somatostatin or tyrosine hydroxylase (dopamine). These data identify the possible co-transmitters of human KP cells. Neurochemical properties distinct from those of laboratory species indicate that humans use considerably different neurotransmitter mechanisms to regulate fertility.

Neuronal populations that synthesize kisspeptin (KP), neurokinin B (NKB) and substance P (SP) in the hypothalamic infundibular nucleus of humans are partly overlapping. These cells are important upstream regulators of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretion. Homologous neurons in laboratory animals are thought to modulate episodic GnRH secretion primarily via influencing KP receptors on the hypophysiotropic fiber projections of GnRH neurons. To explore the structural basis of this putative axo-axonal communication in humans, we analyzed the anatomical relationship of KP-immunoreactive (IR), NKB-IR and SP-IR axon plexuses with hypophysiotropic GnRH fiber projections. Immunohistochemical studies were carried out on histological samples from postmenopausal women. The neuropeptide-IR axons innervated densely the portal capillary network in the postinfundibular eminence. Subsets of the fibers formed descending tracts in the infundibular stalk, some reaching the neurohypophysis. KP-IR, NKB-IR and SP-IR plexuses intermingled, and established occasional contacts, with hypophysiotropic GnRH fibers in the postinfundibular eminence and through their lengthy course while descending within the infundibular stalk. Triple-immunofluorescent studies also revealed considerable overlap between the KP, NKB and SP signals in individual fibers, providing evidence that these peptidergic projections arise from neurons of the mediobasal hypothalamus. These neuroanatomical observations indicate that the hypophysiotropic projections of human GnRH neurons in the postinfundibular eminence and the descending GnRH tract coursing through the infundibular stalk to the neurohypophysis are exposed to neurotransmitters/neuropeptides released by dense KP-IR, NKB-IR and SP-IR fiber plexuses. Localization and characterization of axonal neuropeptide receptors will be required to clarify the putative autocrine and paracrine interactions in these anatomical regions. (c) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

16/06/2014 | J Neuroendocrinol   IF 3.5
Photoperiodic co-regulation of Kisseptin, Neurokinin B and Dynorphin in the hypothalamus of a seasonal rodent.
Bartzen-Sprauer J, Klosen P, Ciofi P, Mikkelsen JD, Simonneaux V

In many species, sexual activity varies on a seasonal basis. Kisspeptin (Kp), a hypothalamic neuropeptide acting as a strong activator of GnRH neurones, plays a critical role in this adaptive process. Recent studies reported that two other neuropeptides, namely neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin (DYN), are co-expressed with Kp (and therefore termed KNDy neurones) in the arcuate nucleus and these peptides are also thought to influence GnRH secretion. The aim of this study was to establish whether hypothalamic NKB and DYN expression is photoperiod-dependent in a seasonal rodent, the Syrian hamster, which exhibits robust seasonal rhythms in reproductive activity. The majority of Kp neurones in the arcuate nucleus co-express NKB and DYN and expression of all three peptides is decreased in short, compared to long, photoperiod leading to a 60% decrease in the number of KNDy neurones in photo-inhibitory conditions. In seasonal rodents, RFRP neurones of the dorsomedial hypothalamus are also critical for seasonal reproduction. Interestingly, NKB and DYN are also expressed in the dorsomedial hypothalamus but do not co-localise with RFRP-immunoreactive neurones, and expression of both NKB and DYN is higher in short photoperiod, which is opposite to the short day inhibition of RFRP expression. In conclusion, this study shows that NKB and DYN display different photoperiodic variations in the Syrian hamster hypothalamus. In the arcuate nucleus, NKB and DYN, together with Kp are down-regulated in short photoperiod, whereas in the dorsomedial hypothalamus NKB and DYN are up-regulated in short photoperiod. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

28/03/2014 | Neuroscience   IF 3.3
Cannabinoid type-1 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus inhibit stimulated food intake.
Soria-Gomez E, Massa F, Bellocchio L, Rueda-Orozco PE, Ciofi P, Cota D, Oliet SH, Prospero-Garcia O, Marsicano G

Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-dependent signaling in the brain is known to modulate food intake. Recent evidence has actually shown that CB1 can both inhibit and stimulate food intake in fasting/refeeding conditions, depending on the specific neuronal circuits involved. However, the exact brain sites where this bimodal control is exerted and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are not fully understood yet. Using pharmacological and electrophysiological approaches, we show that local CB1 blockade in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) increases fasting-induced hyperphagia in rats. Furthermore, local CB1 blockade in the PVN also increases the orexigenic effect of the gut hormone ghrelin in animals fed ad libitum. At the electrophysiological level, CB1 blockade in slices containing the PVN potentiates the decrease of the activity of PVN neurons induced by long-term application of ghrelin. Hence, the PVN is (one of) the site(s) where signals associated with the body's energy status determine the direction of the effects of endocannabinoid signaling on food intake.

03/2014 | PLoS Biol   IF 9.8
Brain Endothelial Cells Control Fertility through Ovarian-Steroid-Dependent Release of Semaphorin 3A.
Giacobini P, Parkash J, Campagne C, Messina A, Casoni F, Vanacker C, Langlet F, Hobo B, Cagnoni G, Gallet S, Hanchate NK, Mazur D, Taniguchi M, Mazzone M, Verhaagen J, Ciofi P, Bouret SG, Tamagnone L, Prevot V

Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) guides the development of the nervous and vascular systems, but its role in the mature brain remains to be explored. Here we report that the expression of the 65 kDa isoform of Sema3A, the ligand of Nrp1, by adult vascular endothelial cells, is regulated during the ovarian cycle and promotes axonal sprouting in hypothalamic neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the neuropeptide controlling reproduction. Both the inhibition of Sema3A/Nrp1 signaling and the conditional deletion of Nrp1 in GnRH neurons counteract Sema3A-induced axonal sprouting. Furthermore, the localized intracerebral infusion of Nrp1- or Sema3A-neutralizing antibodies in vivo disrupts the ovarian cycle. Finally, the selective neutralization of endothelial-cell Sema3A signaling in adult Sema3aloxP/loxP mice by the intravenous injection of the recombinant TAT-Cre protein alters the amplitude of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge, likely by perturbing GnRH release into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. Our results identify a previously unknown function for 65 kDa Sema3A-Nrp1 signaling in the induction of axonal growth, and raise the possibility that endothelial cells actively participate in synaptic plasticity in specific functional domains of the adult central nervous system, thus controlling key physiological functions such as reproduction.

11/02/2014 | Nat Commun   IF 12.1
Neonatal testosterone suppresses a neuroendocrine pulse generator required for reproduction.
Israel JM, Cabelguen JM, Le Masson G, Oliet SH, Ciofi P

The pituitary gland releases hormones in a pulsatile fashion guaranteeing signalling efficiency. The determinants of pulsatility are poorly circumscribed. Here we show in magnocellular hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal oxytocin (OT) neurons that the bursting activity underlying the neurohormonal pulses necessary for parturition and the milk-ejection reflex is entirely driven by a female-specific central pattern generator (CPG). Surprisingly, this CPG is active in both male and female neonates, but is inactivated in males after the first week of life. CPG activity can be restored in males by orchidectomy or silenced in females by exogenous testosterone. This steroid effect is aromatase and caspase dependent, and is mediated via oestrogen receptor-alpha. This indicates the apoptosis of the CPG network during hypothalamic sexual differentiation, explaining why OT neurons do not burst in adult males. This supports the view that stereotypic neuroendocrine pulsatility is governed by CPGs, some of which are subjected to gender-specific perinatal programming.

2014 | PLoS ONE   IF 2.8
Colocalization of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript with kisspeptin and neurokinin B in the human infundibular region.
Skrapits K, Borsay BA, Herczeg L, Ciofi P, Bloom SR, Ghatei MA, Dhillo WS, Liposits Z, Hrabovszky E

Kisspeptin (KP)- and neurokinin B (NKB)- synthesizing neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus play a pivotal role in the regulation of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. Unlike in rodents and sheep, the homologous KP and NKB neurons in the human infundibular region rarely express dynorphin- but often exhibit Substance P (SP) immunoreactivity, indicating remarkable species differences in the neurochemical phenotype of these neurons. In search for additional neuropeptides in human KP and NKB neurons, we carried out immunofluorescent studies on hypothalamic sections obtained from five postmenopausal women. Colocalization experiments provided evidence for the presence of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in 47.9+/-6.6% of KP-immunoreactive (IR) and 30.0+/-4.9% of NKB-IR perikarya and in 17.0+/-2.3% of KP-IR and 6.2+/-2.0% of NKB-IR axon varicosities. All three neuropeptides were present in 33.3+/-4.9% of KP-IR and 28.2+/-4.6% of NKB-IR somata, respectively, whereas triple-labeling showed lower incidences in KP-IR (14.3+/-1.8%) and NKB-IR (5.9+/-2.0%) axon varicosities. CART-IR KP and NKB neurons established contacts with other peptidergic cells, including GnRH-IR neurons and also sent projections to the infundibular stalk. KP and NKB fibers with CART often contained SP as well, while being distinct from CART fibers co-containing the orexigenic peptide agouti-related protein. Presence of CART in human, but not rodent, KP and NKB neurons represents a new example of species differences in the neuropeptide repertoire of mediobasal hypothalamic KP and NKB neurons. Target cells, receptor sites and physiological significance of CART in the efferent communication of KP and NKB neurons in primates require clarification.

2013 | PLoS ONE   IF 2.8
Substance p immunoreactivity exhibits frequent colocalization with kisspeptin and neurokinin B in the human infundibular region.
Hrabovszky E, Borsay BA, Racz K, Herczeg L, Ciofi P, Bloom SR, Ghatei MA, Dhillo WS, Liposits Z

Neurons synthesizing neurokinin B (NKB) and kisspeptin (KP) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus represent important upstream regulators of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretion. In search of neuropeptides co-expressed in analogous neurons of the human infundibular nucleus (Inf), we have carried out immunohistochemical studies of the tachykinin peptide Substance P (SP) in autopsy samples from men (21-78 years) and postmenopausal (53-83 years) women. Significantly higher numbers of SP-immunoreactive (IR) neurons and darker labeling were observed in the Inf of postmenopausal women than in age-matched men. Triple-immunofluorescent studies localized SP immunoreactivity to considerable subsets of KP-IR and NKB-IR axons and perikarya in the infundibular region. In postmenopausal women, 25.1% of NKB-IR and 30.6% of KP-IR perikarya contained SP and 16.5% of all immunolabeled cell bodies were triple-labeled. Triple-, double- and single-labeled SP-IR axons innervated densely the portal capillaries of the infundibular stalk. In quadruple-labeled sections, these axons formed occasional contacts with GnRH-IR axons. Presence of SP in NKB and KP neurons increases the functional complexity of the putative pulse generator network. First, it is possible that SP modulates the effects of KP and NKB in axo-somatic and axo-dendritic afferents to GnRH neurons. Intrinsic SP may also affect the activity and/or neuropeptide release of NKB and KP neurons via autocrine/paracrine actions. In the infundibular stalk, SP may influence the KP and NKB secretory output via additional autocrine/paracrine mechanisms or regulate GnRH neurosecretion directly. Finally, possible co-release of SP with KP and NKB into the portal circulation could underlie further actions on adenohypophysial gonadotrophs.