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Expertise: biologie moléculaire

5 publication(s) depuis Mai 2007:

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26/07/2019 | Front Cell Neurosci   IF 3.9
Comparative Embryonic Spatio-Temporal Expression Profile Map of the Xenopus P2X Receptor Family
Blanchard C, Boué-Grabot E, Massé K

P2X receptors are ATP-gated cations channels formed by the homo or hetero-trimeric association from the seven cloned subunits (P2X1-7). P2X receptors are widely distributed in different organs and cell types throughout the body including the nervous system and are involved in a large variety of physiological but also pathological processes in adult mammals. However, their expression and function during embryogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we report the cloning and the comparative expression map establishment of the entire P2X subunit family in the clawed frog Xenopus. Orthologous sequences for 6 mammalian P2X subunits were identified in both X. laevis and X. tropicalis, but not for P2X3 subunit, suggesting a potential loss of this subunit in the Pipidae family. Three of these genes (p2rx1, p2rx2, and p2rx5) exist as homeologs in the pseudoallotetraploid X. laevis, making a total of 9 subunits in this species. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate the high level of conservation of these receptors between amphibian and other vertebrate species. RT-PCR revealed that all subunits are expressed during the development although zygotic p2rx6 and p2rx7 transcripts are mainly detected at late organogenesis stages. Whole mount in situ hybridization shows that each subunit displays a specific spatio-temporal expression profile and that these subunits can therefore be grouped into two groups, based on their expression or not in the developing nervous system. Overlapping expression in the central and peripheral nervous system and in the sensory organs suggests potential heteromerization and/or redundant functions of P2X subunits in Xenopus embryos. The developmental expression of the p2rx subunit family during early phases of embryogenesis indicates that these subunits may have distinct roles during vertebrate development, especially embryonic neurogenesis.

2016 | PLoS ONE   IF 2.8
Murine Embryonic Stem Cell Plasticity Is Regulated through Klf5 and Maintained by Metalloproteinase MMP1 and Hypoxia.
Hammoud AA, Kirstein N, Mournetas V, Darracq A, Broc S, Blanchard C, Zeineddine D, Mortada M, Boeuf H

Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are expanded and maintained pluripotent in vitro in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), an IL6 cytokine family member which displays pleiotropic functions, depending on both cell maturity and cell type. LIF withdrawal leads to heterogeneous differentiation of mESCs with a proportion of the differentiated cells apoptosising. During LIF withdrawal, cells sequentially enter a reversible and irreversible phase of differentiation during which LIF addition induces different effects. However the regulators and effectors of LIF-mediated reprogramming are poorly understood. By employing a LIF-dependent 'plasticity' test, that we set up, we show that Klf5, but not JunB is a key LIF effector. Furthermore PI3K signaling, required for the maintenance of mESC pluripotency, has no effect on mESC plasticity while displaying a major role in committed cells by stimulating expression of the mesodermal marker Brachyury at the expense of endoderm and neuroectoderm lineage markers. We also show that the MMP1 metalloproteinase, which can replace LIF for maintenance of pluripotency, mimics LIF in the plasticity window, but less efficiently. Finally, we demonstrate that mESCs maintain plasticity and pluripotency potentials in vitro under hypoxic/physioxic growth conditions at 3% O2 despite lower levels of Pluri and Master gene expression in comparison to 20% O2.

06/2010 | genes chromosomes cancer   IF 2.9
Molecular characterization by array comparative genomic hybridization and DNA sequencing of 194 desmoid tumors.
Salas S, Chibon F, Noguchi T, Terrier P, Ranchere-Vince D, Lagarde P, Benard J, Forget S, Blanchard C, Domont J, Bonvalot S, Guillou L, Leroux A, Mechine-Neuville A, Schoffski P, Lae M, Collin F, Verola O, Carbonnelle A, Vescovo L, Bui B, Brouste V, Sobol H, Aurias A, Coindre JM

Desmoid tumors are fibroblastic/myofibroblastic proliferations. Previous studies reported that CTNNB1 mutations were detected in 84% and that mutations of the APC gene were found in several cases of sporadic desmoid tumors lacking CTNNB1 mutations. Forty tumors were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed a nonrandom occurrence of trisomy 8 associated with an increased risk of recurrence. We report the first molecular characterization including a large series of patients. We performed array CGH on frozen samples of 194 tumors, and we screened for APC mutations in patients without CNNTB1 mutation. A high frequency of genomically normal tumors was observed. Four relevant and recurrent alterations (loss of 6q, loss of 5q, gain of 20q, and gain of Chromosome 8) were found in 40 out of 46 tumors with chromosomal changes. Gain of Chromosomes 8 and 20 was not associated with an increased risk of recurrence. Cases with loss of 5q had a minimal common region in 5q22.5 including the APC locus. Alterations of APC, including loss of the entire locus, and CTNNB1 mutation could explain the tumorigenesis in 89% of sporadic desmoids tumors and desmoids tumors occurring in the context of Gardner's syndrome. A better understanding of the pathogenetic pathways in the initiation and progression of desmoid tumors requires studies of 8q and 20q gains, as well as of 6q and 5q losses, and study of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway.

15/05/2010 | Hum Mol Genet   IF 4.5
A mutation in the 3'-UTR of the HDAC6 gene abolishing the post-transcriptional regulation mediated by hsa-miR-433 is linked to a new form of dominant X-linked chondrodysplasia.
Simon D, Laloo B, Barillot M, Barnetche T, Blanchard C, Rooryck C, Marche M, Burgelin I, Coupry I, Chassaing N, Gilbert-Dussardier B, Lacombe D, Grosset C, Arveiler B

A family with dominant X-linked chondrodysplasia was previously described. The disease locus was ascribed to a 24 Mb interval in Xp11.3-q13.1. We have identified a variant (c.*281A>T) in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the HDAC6 gene that totally segregates with the disease. The variant is located in the seed sequence of hsa-miR-433. Our data showed that, in MG63 osteosarcoma cells, hsa-miR-433 (miR433) down-regulated both the expression of endogenous HDAC6 and that of an enhanced green fluorescent protein-reporter mRNA bearing the wild-type 3'-UTR of HDAC6. This effect was totally abrogated when the reporter mRNA bore the mutated HDAC6 3'-UTR. The HDAC6 protein was found to be over-expressed in thymus from an affected male fetus. Concomitantly, the level of total alpha-tubulin, a target of HDAC6, was found to be increased in the affected fetal thymus, whereas the level of acetylated alpha-tubulin was found to be profoundly decreased. Skin biopsies were obtained from a female patient who presented a striking body asymmetry with hypotrophy of the left limbs. The mutated HDAC6 allele was expressed in 31% of left arm-derived fibroblasts, whereas it was not expressed in the right arm. Overexpression of HDAC6 was observed in left arm-derived fibroblasts. Altogether these results strongly suggest that this HDAC6 3'-UTR variant suppressed hsa-miR-433-mediated post-transcriptional regulation causing the overexpression of HDAC6. This variant is likely to constitute the molecular cause of this new form of X-linked chondrodysplasia. This represents to our knowledge the first example of a skeletal disease caused by the loss of a miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation on its target mRNA.

01/05/2007 | Blood   IF 16.6
Pre-TCR expression cooperates with TEL-JAK2 to transform immature thymocytes and induce T-cell leukemia.
dos Santos NR, Rickman DS, de Reynies A, Cormier F, Williame M, Blanchard C, Stern MH, Ghysdael J

The TEL-JAK2 gene fusion, which has been identified in human leukemia, encodes a chimeric protein endowed with constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. TEL-JAK2 transgenic expression in the mouse lymphoid lineage results in fatal and rapid T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. In the present report we show that T-cell leukemic cells from EmuSRalpha-TEL-JAK2 transgenic mice present an aberrant CD8(+) differentiation phenotype, as determined by the expression of stage-specific cell surface markers and lineage-specific genes. TEL-JAK2 transforms immature CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative thymocytes, as demonstrated by the development of T-cell leukemia with full penetrance in a Rag2-deficient genetic background. This disease is similar to the bona fide TEL-JAK2 disease as assessed by phenotypic and gene profiling analyses. Pre-TCR signaling synergizes with TEL-JAK2 to transform immature thymocytes and initiate leukemogenesis as shown by (1) the delayed leukemia onset in Rag2-, CD3epsilon- and pTalpha-deficient mice, (2) the occurrence of recurrent chromosomal alterations in pre-TCR-deficient leukemia, and (3) the correction of delayed leukemia onset in Rag2-deficient TEL-JAK2 mice by an H-Y TCRalphabeta transgene that mimics pre-TCR signaling. Although not affecting leukemia incidence and mouse survival, TCRalphabeta expression was shown to facilitate leukemic cell expansion in secondary lymphoid organs.