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24/07/2015 | J Biol Chem   IF 4
Two N-glycosylation Sites in the GluN1 Subunit Are Essential for Releasing N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptors from the Endoplasmic Reticulum.
Lichnerova K, Kaniakova M, Park SP, Skrenkova K, Wang YX, Petralia RS, Suh YH, Horak M

NMDA receptors (NMDARs) comprise a subclass of neurotransmitter receptors whose surface expression is regulated at multiple levels, including processing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), intracellular trafficking via the Golgi apparatus, internalization, recycling, and degradation. With respect to early processing, NMDARs are regulated by the availability of GluN subunits within the ER, the presence of ER retention and export signals, and posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation and palmitoylation. However, the role of N-glycosylation, one of the most common posttranslational modifications, in regulating NMDAR processing has not been studied in detail. Using biochemistry, confocal and electron microscopy, and electrophysiology in conjunction with a lentivirus-based molecular replacement strategy, we found that NMDARs are released from the ER only when two asparagine residues in the GluN1 subunit (Asn-203 and Asn-368) are N-glycosylated. Although the GluN2A and GluN2B subunits are also N-glycosylated, their N-glycosylation sites do not appear to be essential for surface delivery of NMDARs. Furthermore, we found that removing N-glycans from native NMDARs altered the receptor affinity for glutamate. Our results suggest a novel mechanism by which neurons ensure that postsynaptic membranes contain sufficient numbers of functional NMDARs.

15/05/2015 | J Physiol   IF 4.5
Cholesterol modulates open probability and desensitization of NMDA receptors.
Korinek M, Vyklicky V, Borovska J, Lichnerova K, Kaniakova M, Krausova B, Krusek J, Balik A, Smejkalova T, Horak M, Vyklicky L

NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory neurotransmission in the CNS. Although these receptors are in direct contact with plasma membrane, lipid-NMDAR interactions are little understood. In the present study, we aimed at characterizing the effect of cholesterol on the ionotropic glutamate receptors. Whole-cell current responses induced by fast application of NMDA in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) were almost abolished (reduced to 3%) and the relative degree of receptor desensitization was increased (by seven-fold) after acute cholesterol depletion by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. Both of these effects were fully reversible by cholesterol repletion. By contrast, the responses mediated by AMPA/kainate receptors were not affected by cholesterol depletion. Similar results were obtained in CGCs after chronic inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by simvastatin and acute enzymatic cholesterol degradation to 4-cholesten-3-one by cholesterol oxidase. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements showed that membrane fluidity increased after methyl-beta-cyclodextrin pretreatment. However, no change in fluidity was observed after cholesterol enzymatic degradation, suggesting that the effect of cholesterol on NMDARs is not mediated by changes in membrane fluidity. Our data show that diminution of NMDAR responses by cholesterol depletion is the result of a reduction of the open probability, whereas the increase in receptor desensitization is the result of an increase in the rate constant of entry into the desensitized state. Surface NMDAR population, agonist affinity, single-channel conductance and open time were not altered in cholesterol-depleted CGCs. The results of our experiments show that cholesterol is a strong endogenous modulator of NMDARs.

2015 | Sci Rep   IF 4.1
Block of NMDA receptor channels by endogenous neurosteroids: implications for the agonist induced conformational states of the channel vestibule.
Vyklicky V, Krausova B, Cerny J, Balik A, Zapotocky M, Novotny M, Lichnerova K, Smejkalova T, Kaniakova M, Korinek M, Petrovic M, Kacer P, Horak M, Chodounska H, Vyklicky L

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate synaptic plasticity, and their dysfunction is implicated in multiple brain disorders. NMDARs can be allosterically modulated by numerous compounds, including endogenous neurosteroid pregnanolone sulfate. Here, we identify the molecular basis of the use-dependent and voltage-independent inhibitory effect of neurosteroids on NMDAR responses. The site of action is located at the extracellular vestibule of the receptor's ion channel pore and is accessible after receptor activation. Mutations in the extracellular vestibule in the SYTANLAAF motif disrupt the inhibitory effect of negatively charged steroids. In contrast, positively charged steroids inhibit mutated NMDAR responses in a voltage-dependent manner. These results, in combination with molecular modeling, characterize structure details of the open configuration of the NMDAR channel. Our results provide a unique opportunity for the development of new therapeutic neurosteroid-based ligands to treat diseases associated with dysfunction of the glutamate system.

05/09/2014 | Eur J Pharmacol   IF 3
Different effects of lobeline on neuronal and muscle nicotinic receptors.
Kaniakova M, Skrenkova K, Adamek S, Vyskocil F, Krusek J

Lobeline is a plant alkaloid known to interact with cholinergic system. The effect of lobeline on neuronal alpha3beta4 receptors expressed in COS cells and muscle embryonic alphabetagammadelta receptors naturally expressed in TE671 cells was studied using a patch-clamp technique. Our results show that lobeline inhibited responses to acetylcholine in human embryonic muscle nicotinic receptor in a pseudo-noncompetitive manner. The responses of rat neuronal alpha3beta4 receptors to a low concentration of acetylcholine were potentiated by a mixed occupation mechanism that corresponds to 'competitive potentiation'. This potentiation turned into voltage-dependent inhibition for alpha3beta4 receptors was activated by a high concentration of acetylcholine.

2014 | Front Cell Neurosci   IF 4.3
Distinct regions within the GluN2C subunit regulate the surface delivery of NMDA receptors.
Lichnerova K, Kaniakova M, Skrenkova K, Vyklicky L, Horak M

N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. The activation of NMDA receptors plays a key role in brain development, synaptic plasticity, and memory formation, and is a major contributor to many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the mechanisms that underlie the trafficking of GluN1/GluN2C receptors. Using an approach combining molecular biology, microscopy, and electrophysiology in mammalian cell lines and cultured cerebellar granule cells, we found that the surface delivery of GluN2C-containing receptors is reduced compared to GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing receptors. Furthermore, we identified three distinct regions within the N-terminus, M3 transmembrane domain, and C-terminus of GluN2C subunits that are required for proper intracellular processing and surface delivery of NMDA receptors. These results shed new light on the regulation of NMDA receptor trafficking, and these findings can be exploited to develop new strategies for treating some forms of neuropsychiatric disorders.

2014 | physiol res   IF 1.3
Structure, function, and pharmacology of NMDA receptor channels.
Vyklicky V, Korinek M, Smejkalova T, Balik A, Krausova B, Kaniakova M, Lichnerova K, Cerny J, Krusek J, Dittert I, Horak M, Vyklicky L

NMDA receptors have received much attention over the last few decades, due to their role in many types of neural plasticity on the one hand, and their involvement in excitotoxicity on the other hand. There is great interest in developing clinically relevant NMDA receptor antagonists that would block excitotoxic NMDA receptor activation, without interfering with NMDA receptor function needed for normal synaptic transmission and plasticity. This review summarizes current understanding of the structure of NMDA receptors and the mechanisms of NMDA receptor activation and modulation, with special attention given to data describing the properties of various types of NMDA receptor inhibition. Our recent analyses point to certain neurosteroids as NMDA receptor inhibitors with desirable properties. Specifically, these compounds show use-dependent but voltage-independent block, that is predicted to preferentially target excessive tonic NMDA receptor activation. Importantly, neurosteroids are also characterized by use-independent unblock, compatible with minimal disruption of normal synaptic transmission. Thus, neurosteroids are a promising class of NMDA receptor modulators that may lead to the development of neuroprotective drugs with optimal therapeutic profiles.

10/2013 | curr alzheimer res   IF 3.3
A resurrection of 7-MEOTA: a comparison with tacrine.
Soukup O, Jun D, Zdarova-Karasova J, Patocka J, Musilek K, Korabecny J, Krusek J, Kaniakova M, Sepsova V, Mandikova J, Trejtnar F, Pohanka M, Drtinova L, Pavlik M, Tobin G, Kuca K

Alzheimer s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative dementia which currently represents one of the biggest threats for the human kind. The cure is still unknown and various hypotheses (cholinergic, amyloidal, oxidative, vascular etc.) are investigated in order to understand the pathophysiology of the disease and on this basis find an effective treatment. Tacrine, the first approved drug for the AD disease treatment, has been reported to be a multitargeted drug, however it was withdrawn from the market particularly due to its hepatotoxicity. Its derivative 7-methoxytacrine (7- MEOTA) probably due to the different metabolization does not exert this side effect. The aim of our study was to compare these two cholinesterase inhibitors from various, mainly cholinergic, points of view relevant for a potential AD drug. We found that 7-MEOTA does not fall behind its more well-known parent compound - tacrine. Furthermore, we found, that 7-MEOTA exerts better properties in most of the tests related to a possible AD treatment. Only the pharmacokinetics and a higher acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory potency would slightly give advantages to tacrine over 7-MEOTA, but concerning its lower toxicity, better antioxidant properties, interaction with muscarinic and nicotinic receptors and 'safer' metabolization provide strong evidence for reconsider 7-MEOTA and its derivatives as candidate molecules for the treatment of AD.

11/2012 | J Neurochem   IF 4.6
Single amino acid residue in the M4 domain of GluN1 subunit regulates the surface delivery of NMDA receptors.
Kaniakova M, Lichnerova K, Vyklicky L, Horak M

N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are glutamate ion channels that are critically involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. The functional NMDA receptor is a heterotetramer composed mainly of GluN1 and GluN2 subunits. It is generally thought that only correctly assembled NMDA receptors can pass the quality control checkpoint in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are transported to the cell surface membranes. The molecular mechanisms underlying these processes remain poorly understood. Using chimeric and mutated GluN1 subunits expressed in heterologous cells, we identified a single amino acid residue within the fourth membrane domain (M4) of GluN1 subunit, L830, that regulates the surface number of NMDA receptors. Our experiments show that this residue is not critical for the interaction between GluN1 and GluN2 subunits or for the formation of functional receptors, but rather that it regulates the forward trafficking of the NMDA receptors. The surface expression of both GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing receptors is regulated by the L830 residue in a similar manner. We also found that the L830 residue is not involved in the trafficking of individually expressed GluN1 subunits. Our data reveal a critical role of the single amino acid residue within the GluN1 M4 domain in the surface delivery of functional NMDA receptors.

27/07/2012 | J Biol Chem   IF 4
Key amino acid residues within the third membrane domains of NR1 and NR2 subunits contribute to the regulation of the surface delivery of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.
Kaniakova M, Krausova B, Vyklicky V, Korinek M, Lichnerova K, Vyklicky L, Horak M

N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are glutamate ionotropic receptors that play critical roles in synaptic transmission, plasticity, and excitotoxicity. The functional NMDA receptors, heterotetramers composed mainly of two NR1 and two NR2 subunits, likely pass endoplasmic reticulum quality control before they are released from the endoplasmic reticulum and trafficked to the cell surface. However, the mechanism underlying this process is not clear. Using truncated and mutated NMDA receptor subunits expressed in heterologous cells, we found that the M3 domains of both NR1 and NR2 subunits contain key amino acid residues that contribute to the regulation of the number of surface functional NMDA receptors. These key residues are critical neither for the interaction between the NR1 and NR2 subunits nor for the formation of the functional receptors, but rather they regulate the early trafficking of the receptors. We also found that the identified key amino acid residues within both NR1 and NR2 M3 domains contribute to the regulation of the surface expression of unassembled NR1 and NR2 subunits. Thus, our data identify the unique role of the membrane domains in the regulation of the number of surface NMDA receptors.

11/05/2011 | Eur J Pharmacol   IF 3
Dual effect of lobeline on alpha4beta2 rat neuronal nicotinic receptors.
Kaniakova M, Lindovsky J, Krusek J, Adamek S, Vyskocil F

The effect of lobeline on rat alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors expressed in COS cells was studied using the patch-clamp technique. Currents were recorded in whole-cell mode 2-4 days after cell transfection by plasmids coding the alpha4beta2 combination of receptor subunits. In cells sensitive to acetylcholine, the application of lobeline evoked minor responses (up to 2% of maximal acetylcholine response). When acetylcholine was applied to the background of an already running application of lobeline, acetylcholine responses were inhibited in a concentration- and time dependent manner. However, when lobeline was applied simultaneously with acetylcholine without any prepulse or during an already running application of acetylcholine, the acetylcholine responses were potentiated up to 300-600% of that of the control. The site of lobeline action overlaps with the cholinergic site, as was proven by the partially protective effect of (+)-tubocurarine. Thus, lobeline can apparently desensitize receptors when applied alone (inhibition) whereas its binding to a second agonist site with the first one already occupied by acetylcholine leads to channel opening (potentiation).