| Nat Commun IF 12.1 Defective Gpsm2/Galphai3 signalling disrupts stereocilia development and growth cone actin dynamics in Chudley-McCullough syndrome.
Mauriac SA, Hien YE, Bird JE, Carvalho SD, Peyroutou R, Lee SC, Moreau MM, Blanc JM, Geyser A, Medina C, Thoumine O, Beer-Hammer S, Friedman TB, Ruttiger L, Forge A, Nurnberg B*, Sans N*, Montcouquiol M*
Mutations in GPSM2 cause Chudley-McCullough syndrome (CMCS), an autosomal recessive neurological disorder characterized by early-onset sensorineural deafness and brain anomalies. Here, we show that mutation of the mouse orthologue of GPSM2 affects actin-rich stereocilia elongation in auditory and vestibular hair cells, causing deafness and balance defects. The G-protein subunit Galphai3, a well-documented partner of Gpsm2, participates in the elongation process, and its absence also causes hearing deficits. We show that Gpsm2 defines an approximately 200 nm nanodomain at the tips of stereocilia and this localization requires the presence of Galphai3, myosin 15 and whirlin. Using single-molecule tracking, we report that loss of Gpsm2 leads to decreased outgrowth and a disruption of actin dynamics in neuronal growth cones. Our results elucidate the aetiology of CMCS and highlight a new molecular role for Gpsm2/Galphai3 in the regulation of actin dynamics in epithelial and neuronal tissues.
| Cereb Cortex IF 6.6 Activity-Dependent Neuroplasticity Induced by an Enriched Environment Reverses Cognitive Deficits in Scribble Deficient Mouse
Hilal ML, Moreau MM, Racca C, Pinheiro V, Piguel N, Santoni M-J, Dos santos carvalho S, Blanc JM, Abada Y, Peyroutou R, Medina C, Doat H, Papouin T, Vuillard L, Borg JP, Rachel R, Panatier A, Montcouquiol M*, Oliet SHR*, Sans N*
Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling is well known to play a critical role during prenatal brain development; whether it plays
specific roles at postnatal stages remains rather unknown. Here, we investigated the role of a key PCP-associated gene
scrib in CA1 hippocampal structure and function at postnatal stages. We found that Scrib is required for learning and
memory consolidation in the Morris water maze as well as synaptic maturation and NMDAR-dependent bidirectional
plasticity. Furthermore, we unveiled a direct molecular interaction between Scrib and PP1/PP2A phosphatases whose
levels were decreased in postsynaptic density of conditional knock-out mice. Remarkably, exposure to enriched
environment (EE) preserved memory formation in CaMK-Scrib−/− mice by recovering synaptic plasticity and maturation.
Thus, Scrib is required for synaptic function involved in memory formation and EE has beneficiary therapeutic effects. Our
results demonstrate a distinct new role for a PCP-associated protein, beyond embryonic development, in cognitive
functions during adulthood.
Kainic acid (KA) is routinely used to elicit status epilepticus (SE) and epileptogenesis. Among the available KA administration protocols, intranasal instillation (IN) remains understudied. Dosages of KA were instilled IN in mice. Racine Scale and Video-EEG were used to assess and quantify SE onset. Time spent in SE and spike activity was quantified for each animal and confirmed by power spectrum analysis. Immunohistochemistry and qPCR were performed to define brain inflammation occurring after SE, including activated microglial phenotypes. Long term video-EEG recording was also performed. Titration of IN KA showed that a dose of 30 mg/kg was associated with low mortality while eliciting SE. IN KA provoked at least one behavioral and electrographic SE in the majority of the mice (>90%). Behavioral and EEG SE were accompanied by a rapid and persistent microglial-astrocytic cell activation and hippocampal neurodegeneration. Specifically, microglial modifications involved both pro- (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) genes. Our initial long-term video-EEG exploration conducted using a small cohort of mice indicated the appearance of spike activity or SE. Our study demonstrated that induction of SE is attainable using IN KA in mice. Typical pro-inflammatory brain changes were observed in this model after SE, supporting disease pathophysiology. Our results are in favor of the further development of IN KA as a means to study seizure disorders. A possibility for tailoring this model to drug testing or to study mechanisms of disease is offered.
Within the central nervous system, functions of the ATP-gated receptor-channel P2X4 (P2X4R) are still poorly understood, yet P2X4R activation in neurons and microglia coincides with high or pathological neuronal activities. In this study, we investigated the potential involvement of P2X4R in microglial functions in a model of kainate (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE). We found that SE was associated with an induction of P2X4R expression in the hippocampus, mostly localized in activated microglial cells. In P2X4R-deficient mice, behavioral responses during KA-induced SE were unaltered. However, 48h post SE specific features of microglial activation, such as cell recruitment and upregulation of voltage-dependent potassium channels were impaired in P2X4R-deficient mice, whereas the expression and function of other microglial purinergic receptors remained unaffected. Consistent with the role of P2X4R in activity-dependent degenerative processes, the CA1 area was partially protected from SE-induced neuronal death in P2X4R-deficient mice compared with wild-type animals. Our findings demonstrate that P2X4Rs are brought into play during neuronal hyperexcitability and that they control specific aspects of microglial activation. Our results also suggest that P2X4Rs contribute to excitotoxic damages by regulating microglial activation.