Neurocentre Magendie

Nathalie SANS




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Cursus:
PhD Université Montpellier II (1996)
Post-Doc National Institutes of Health, USA (1997-2002)
Senior Research Fellow, NIH, MD, USA (2003-2005)
CR1 INSERM (2007)
DR2 INSERM (2014)







37 publication(s) depuis Janvier 1995:


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* equal contribution
Les IF indiqués ont été collectés par le Web of Sciences en


03/06/2017 | Neuroscience   IF 3.3
The embryonic development of hindbrain respiratory networks is unaffected by mutation of the planar polarity protein Scribble.
Chevalier M, Cardoit L, Moreau M, Sans N, Montcouquiol M, Simmers J, Thoby-Brisson M

Abstract:
The central command for breathing arises mainly from two interconnected rhythmogenic hindbrain networks, the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG or epF at embryonic stages) and the preBotzinger complex (preBotC), which are comprised of a limited number of neurons located in confined regions of the ventral medulla. In rodents, both networks become active toward the end of gestation but little is known about the signaling pathways involved in their anatomical and functional establishment during embryogenesis. During embryonic development, epF and preBotC neurons migrate from their territories of origin to their final positions in ventral brainstem areas. Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signaling, including the molecule Scrib, is known to control the developmental migration of several hindbrain neuronal groups. Accordingly, a homozygous mutation of Scrib leads to severe disruption of hindbrain anatomy and function. Here, we aimed to determine whether Scrib is also involved in the prenatal development of the hindbrain nuclei controlling breathing. We combined immunostaining, calcium imaging and electrophysiological recordings of neuronal activity in isolated in vitro preparations. In the Scrib mutant, despite severe neural tube defects, epF and preBotC neurons settled at their expected hindbrain positions. Furthermore, both networks remained capable of generating rhythmically organized, respiratory-related activities and exhibited normal sensitivity to pharmacological agents known to modify respiratory circuit function. Thus Scrib is not required for the proper migration of epF and preBotC neurons during mouse embryogenesis. Our findings thus further illustrate the robustness and specificity of the developmental processes involved in the establishment of hindbrain respiratory circuits.




07/04/2017 | Nat Commun   IF 12.1
Defective Gpsm2/Galphai3 signalling disrupts stereocilia development and growth cone actin dynamics in Chudley-McCullough syndrome.
Mauriac SA, Hien YE, Bird JE, Carvalho SD, Peyroutou R, Lee SC, Moreau MM, Blanc JM, Geyser A, Medina C, Thoumine O, Beer-Hammer S, Friedman TB, Ruttiger L, Forge A, Nurnberg B*, Sans N*, Montcouquiol M*

Abstract:
Mutations in GPSM2 cause Chudley-McCullough syndrome (CMCS), an autosomal recessive neurological disorder characterized by early-onset sensorineural deafness and brain anomalies. Here, we show that mutation of the mouse orthologue of GPSM2 affects actin-rich stereocilia elongation in auditory and vestibular hair cells, causing deafness and balance defects. The G-protein subunit Galphai3, a well-documented partner of Gpsm2, participates in the elongation process, and its absence also causes hearing deficits. We show that Gpsm2 defines an approximately 200 nm nanodomain at the tips of stereocilia and this localization requires the presence of Galphai3, myosin 15 and whirlin. Using single-molecule tracking, we report that loss of Gpsm2 leads to decreased outgrowth and a disruption of actin dynamics in neuronal growth cones. Our results elucidate the aetiology of CMCS and highlight a new molecular role for Gpsm2/Galphai3 in the regulation of actin dynamics in epithelial and neuronal tissues.




27/03/2017 | Development   IF 5.8
Wnts contribute to neuromuscular junction formation through distinct signaling pathways.
Messeant J, Ezan J, Delers P, Glebov K, Marchiol C, Lager F, Renault G, Tissir F, Montcouquiol M, Sans N, Legay C, Strochlic L

Abstract:
Understanding the developmental steps shaping the formation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) connecting motoneurons to skeletal muscle fibers, is critical. Wnt morphogens are key players in the formation of this specialized peripheral synapse. Yet, the individual and collaborative functions of Wnts as well as their downstream pathways remain poorly understood at the NMJ. Here, we demonstrate through Wnt4 and Wnt11 gain of function studies in culture or in mice that Wnts enhance acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering and motor axon outgrowth. In contrast, loss of Wnt11 or Wnt-dependent signaling in vivo decreases AChR clustering and motor nerve terminal branching. Both Wnt4 and Wnt11 stimulate AChR clustering and mRNA downstream activation of the beta-catenin pathway. Strikingly, Wnt4 and Wnt11 co-immunoprecipitate with Vangl2, a core component of the Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway, which accumulates at embryonic NMJ. Moreover, mice bearing a Vangl2 loss of function mutation (looptail) exhibit a decreased number of AChR clusters and overgrowth of motor axons bypassing AChR clusters. Taken together, our results provide genetic and biochemical evidences that Wnt4 and Wnt11 cooperatively contribute to mammalian NMJ formation through activation of both the canonical and Vangl2-dependent core PCP pathways.




11/2016 | Cereb Cortex   IF 6.6
Activity-Dependent Neuroplasticity Induced by an Enriched Environment Reverses Cognitive Deficits in Scribble Deficient Mouse
Hilal ML, Moreau MM, Racca C, Pinheiro V, Piguel N, Santoni M-J, Dos santos carvalho S, Blanc JM, Abada Y, Peyroutou R, Medina C, Doat H, Papouin T, Vuillard L, Borg JP, Rachel R, Panatier A, Montcouquiol M*, Oliet SHR*, Sans N*

Abstract:
Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling is well known to play a critical role during prenatal brain development; whether it plays specific roles at postnatal stages remains rather unknown. Here, we investigated the role of a key PCP-associated gene scrib in CA1 hippocampal structure and function at postnatal stages. We found that Scrib is required for learning and memory consolidation in the Morris water maze as well as synaptic maturation and NMDAR-dependent bidirectional plasticity. Furthermore, we unveiled a direct molecular interaction between Scrib and PP1/PP2A phosphatases whose levels were decreased in postsynaptic density of conditional knock-out mice. Remarkably, exposure to enriched environment (EE) preserved memory formation in CaMK-Scrib−/− mice by recovering synaptic plasticity and maturation. Thus, Scrib is required for synaptic function involved in memory formation and EE has beneficiary therapeutic effects. Our results demonstrate a distinct new role for a PCP-associated protein, beyond embryonic development, in cognitive functions during adulthood.




Abstract:
Extensive evidence suggests that long term dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) deficiency results in altered emotional behaviour. We have recently demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs deficiency induces emotional alterations through abnormal corticosterone secretion which leads to altered dendritic arborisation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here we show that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis feedback inhibition was not compromised in n-3 deficient mice. Rather, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling pathway was inactivated in the PFC but not in the hippocampus of n-3 deficient mice. Consequently, only dendritic arborisation in PFC was affected by dietary n-3 PUFAs deficiency. In addition, occlusion experiment with GR blockade altered GR signaling in the PFC of control mice, with no further alterations in n-3 deficient mice. In conclusion, n-3 PUFAs deficiency compromised PFC, leading to dendritic atrophy, but did not change hippocampal GR function and dendritic arborisation. We argue that this GR sensitivity contributes to n-3 PUFAs deficiency-related emotional behaviour deficits.




18/02/2015 | J Neurosci   IF 6
Microglial activation enhances associative taste memory through purinergic modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission.
Delpech JC, Saucisse N, Parkes SL, Lacabanne C, Aubert A, Casenave F, Coutureau E, Sans N, Laye S, Ferreira G, Nadjar A

Abstract:
The cerebral innate immune system is able to modulate brain functioning and cognitive processes. During activation of the cerebral innate immune system, inflammatory factors produced by microglia, such as cytokines and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), have been directly linked to modulation of glutamatergic system on one hand and learning and memory functions on the other hand. However, the cellular mechanisms by which microglial activation modulates cognitive processes are still unclear. Here, we used taste memory tasks, highly dependent on glutamatergic transmission in the insular cortex, to investigate the behavioral and cellular impacts of an inflammation restricted to this cortical area in rats. We first show that intrainsular infusion of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide induces a local inflammation and increases glutamatergic AMPA, but not NMDA, receptor expression at the synaptic level. This cortical inflammation also enhances associative, but not incidental, taste memory through increase of glutamatergic AMPA receptor trafficking. Moreover, we demonstrate that ATP, but not proinflammatory cytokines, is responsible for inflammation-induced enhancement of both associative taste memory and AMPA receptor expression in insular cortex. In conclusion, we propose that inflammation restricted to the insular cortex enhances associative taste memory through a purinergic-dependent increase of glutamatergic AMPA receptor expression at the synapse.




10/11/2014 | Nat Neurosci   IF 17.8
Dendritic channelopathies contribute to neocortical and sensory hyperexcitability in Fmr1 mice.
Zhang Y*, Bonnan A*, Bony G*, Ferezou I, Pietropaolo S, Ginger M, Sans N, Rossier J, Oostra B, Lemasson G, Frick A

Abstract:
Hypersensitivity in response to sensory stimuli and neocortical hyperexcitability are prominent features of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and autism spectrum disorders, but little is known about the dendritic mechanisms underlying these phenomena. We found that the primary somatosensory neocortex (S1) was hyperexcited in response to tactile sensory stimulation in Fmr1-/y mice. This correlated with neuronal and dendritic hyperexcitability of S1 pyramidal neurons, which affect all major aspects of neuronal computation, from the integration of synaptic input to the generation of action potential output. Using dendritic electrophysiological recordings, calcium imaging, pharmacology, biochemistry and a computer model, we found that this defect was, at least in part, attributable to the reduction and dysfunction of dendritic h- and BKCa channels. We pharmacologically rescued several core hyperexcitability phenomena by targeting BKCa channels. Our results provide strong evidence pointing to the utility of BKCa channel openers for the treatment of the sensory hypersensitivity aspects of FXS.




23/10/2014 | Cell Rep   IF 8.3
Scribble1/AP2 complex coordinates NMDA receptor endocytic recycling.
Piguel NH, Fievre S, Blanc JM, Carta M, Moreau MM, Moutin E, Pinheiro VL, Medina C, Ezan J, Lasvaux L, Loll F, Durand CM, Chang K, Petralia RS, Wenthold RJ, Stephenson FA, Vuillard L, Darbon H, Perroy J, Mulle C, Montcouquiol M, Racca C, Sans N

Abstract:
The appropriate trafficking of glutamate receptors to synapses is crucial for basic synaptic function and synaptic plasticity. It is now accepted that NMDA receptors (NMDARs) internalize and are recycled at the plasma membrane but also exchange between synaptic and extrasynaptic pools; these NMDAR properties are also key to governing synaptic plasticity. Scribble1 is a large PDZ protein required for synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Herein, we show that the level of Scribble1 is regulated in an activity-dependent manner and that Scribble1 controls the number of NMDARs at the plasma membrane. Notably, Scribble1 prevents GluN2A subunits from undergoing lysosomal trafficking and degradation by increasing their recycling to the plasma membrane following NMDAR activation. Finally, we show that a specific YxxR motif on Scribble1 controls these mechanisms through a direct interaction with AP2. Altogether, our findings define a molecular mechanism to control the levels of synaptic NMDARs via Scribble1 complex signaling.




2014 | Front Cell Neurosci   IF 4.6
ER to synapse trafficking of NMDA receptors.
Horak M, Petralia RS, Kaniakova M, Sans N

Abstract:
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. There are three distinct subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs) that have been identified including 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid receptors (AMPARs), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and kainate receptors. The most common GluRs in mature synapses are AMPARs that mediate the fast excitatory neurotransmission and NMDARs that mediate the slow excitatory neurotransmission. There have been large numbers of recent reports studying how a single neuron regulates synaptic numbers and types of AMPARs and NMDARs. Our current research is centered primarily on NMDARs and, therefore, we will focus in this review on recent knowledge of molecular mechanisms occurring (1) early in the biosynthetic pathway of NMDARs, (2) in the transport of NMDARs after their release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); and (3) at the plasma membrane including excitatory synapses. Because a growing body of evidence also indicates that abnormalities in NMDAR functioning are associated with a number of human psychiatric and neurological diseases, this review together with other chapters in this issue may help to enhance research and to gain further knowledge of normal synaptic physiology as well as of the etiology of many human brain diseases.




2014 | Transl Psychiatry   IF 4.7
Nutritional omega-3 modulates neuronal morphology in the prefrontal cortex along with depression-related behaviour through corticosterone secretion.
Larrieu T, Hilal ML, Fourrier C, De Smedt-Peyrusse V, Sans N, Capuron L, Laye S

Abstract:
Understanding how malnutrition contributes to depression is building momentum. In the present study we unravel molecular and cellular mechanisms by which nutritional disturbances lead to impaired emotional behaviour in mice. Here we report that nutritional n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) deficiency induces a chronic stress state reflected by disrupted glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated signalling pathway along with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity. This hyperactivity in turn resulted in neuronal atrophy in the dorsolateral (dl)- and dorsomedial (dm)- prefrontal cortex (PFC) and subsequent mood-related behaviour alterations, similarly to chronic social defeat stress. Supplementation of n-3 PUFA prevented detrimental chronic social defeat stress-induced emotional and neuronal impairments by impeding HPA axis hyperactivity. These results indicate a role for dietary n-3 PUFA in the prevention of HPA axis dysfunction associated with the development of some neuropsychiatric disorders including depression.