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30/04/2019 | eLife   IF 7.6
The C-terminal helix 9 motif in rat cannabinoid receptor type 1 regulates axonal trafficking and surface expression.
Fletcher-Jones A, Hildick KL, Evans AJ, Nakamura Y, Wilkinson KA, Henley JM

Cannabinoid type one receptor (CB1R) is only stably surface expressed in axons, where it downregulates neurotransmitter release. How this tightly regulated axonal surface polarity is established and maintained is unclear. To address this question, we used time-resolved imaging to determine the trafficking of CB1R from biosynthesis to mature polarised localisation in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. We show that the secretory pathway delivery of CB1R is axonally biased and that surface expressed CB1R is more stable in axons than in dendrites. This dual mechanism is mediated by the CB1R C-terminus and involves the Helix 9 (H9) domain. Removal of the H9 domain increases secretory pathway delivery to dendrites and decreases surface stability. Furthermore, CB1R(DeltaH9) is more sensitive to agonist-induced internalisation and less efficient at downstream signalling than CB1R(WT). Together, these results shed new light on how polarity of CB1R is mediated and indicate that the C-terminal H9 domain plays key roles in this process.

08/2016 |
C9orf72 Hexanucleotide Expansions Are Associated with Altered Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Homeostasis and Stress Granule Formation in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons from Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia.
Dafinca R, Scaber J, Ababneh N, Lalic T, Weir G, Christian H, Vowles J, Douglas AG, Fletcher-Jones A, Browne C, Nakanishi M, Turner MR, Wade-Martins R, Cowley SA, Talbot K

An expanded hexanucleotide repeat in a noncoding region of the C9orf72 gene is a major cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), accounting for up to 40% of familial cases and 7% of sporadic ALS in European populations. We have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of patients carrying C9orf72 hexanucleotide expansions, differentiated these to functional motor and cortical neurons, and performed an extensive phenotypic characterization. In C9orf72 iPSC-derived motor neurons, decreased cell survival is correlated with dysfunction in Ca(2+) homeostasis, reduced levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, C9orf72 motor neurons, and also cortical neurons, show evidence of abnormal protein aggregation and stress granule formation. This study is an extensive characterization of iPSC-derived motor neurons as cellular models of ALS carrying C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeats, which describes a novel pathogenic link between C9orf72 mutations, dysregulation of calcium signaling, and altered proteostasis and provides a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of ALS and the related neurodegenerative disease frontotemporal dementia. Stem Cells 2016;34:2063-2078.