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10/2018 | plant j   IF 5.7
The multistress-induced Translocator protein (TSPO) differentially modulates storage lipids metabolism in seeds and seedlings.
Jurkiewicz P, Melser S, Maucourt M, Ayeb H, Veljanovski V, Maneta-Peyret L, Hooks M, Rolin D, Moreau P, Batoko H

Translocator proteins (TSPO) are conserved membrane proteins extensively studied in mammals, but their function is still unclear. Angiosperm TSPO are transiently induced by abiotic stresses in vegetative tissues. We showed previously that constitutive expression of the Arabidopsis TSPO (AtTSPO) could be detrimental to the cell. Degradation of AtTSPO requires an active autophagy pathway. We show here that genetic modifications of TSPO expression in plant and yeast cells reduce the levels of cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LD). Transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing AtTSPO contain less LD as compared with wild type (WT). LD levels were increased in Arabidopsis AtTSPO knockout (KO) seedlings. Deletion of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe TSPO resulted in an increase in LD level in the cell. As compared with the WT, the mutant strain was more sensitive to cerulenin, an inhibitor of fatty acids and sterol biosynthesis. We found that in contrast with seedlings, overexpression of AtTSPO (OE) resulted in an up to 50% increase in seeds fatty acids as compared with WT. A time course experiment revealed that after 4 days of seed imbibition, the levels of triacylglycerol (TAG) was still higher in the OE seeds as compared with WT or KO seeds. However, the de novo synthesis of phospholipids and TAG after 24 h of imbibition was substantially reduced in OE seeds as compared with WT or KO seeds. Our findings support a plant TSPO role in energy homeostasis in a tissue-specific manner, enhancing fatty acids and LD accumulation in mature seeds and limiting LD levels in seedlings.

07/09/2018 | Sci Rep   IF 4
The Arabidopsis RNA Polymerase II Carboxyl Terminal Domain (CTD) Phosphatase-Like1 (CPL1) is a biotic stress susceptibility gene.
Thatcher LF, Foley R, Casarotto HJ, Gao LL, Kamphuis LG, Melser S, Singh KB

Crop breeding for improved disease resistance may be achieved through the manipulation of host susceptibility genes. Previously we identified multiple Arabidopsis mutants known as enhanced stress response1 (esr1) that have defects in a KH-domain RNA-binding protein and conferred increased resistance to the root fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Here, screening the same mutagenized population we discovered two further enhanced stress response mutants that also conferred enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum. These mutants also have enhanced resistance to a leaf fungal pathogen (Alternaria brassicicola) and an aphid pest (Myzus persicae), but not to the bacterial leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. The causal alleles in these mutants were found to have defects in the ESR1 interacting protein partner RNA Polymerase II Carboxyl Terminal Domain (CTD) Phosphatase-Like1 (CPL1) and subsequently given the allele symbols cpl1-7 and cpl1-8. These results define a new role for CPL1 as a pathogen and pest susceptibility gene. Global transcriptome analysis and oxidative stress assays showed these cpl1 mutants have increased tolerance to oxidative stress. In particular, components of biotic stress responsive pathways were enriched in cpl1 over wild-type up-regulated gene expression datasets including genes related to defence, heat shock proteins and oxidative stress/redox state processes.

05/06/2018 | Cell Rep   IF 7.8
Ubiquitin-Dependent Degradation of Mitochondrial Proteins Regulates Energy Metabolism.
Lavie J, De Belvalet H, Sonon S, Ion AM, Dumon E, Melser S, Lacombe D, Dupuy JW, Lalou C, Benard G

The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) regulates many cellular functions by degrading key proteins. Notably, the role of UPS in regulating mitochondrial metabolic functions is unclear. Here, we show that ubiquitination occurs in different mitochondrial compartments, including the inner mitochondrial membrane, and that turnover of several metabolic proteins is UPS dependent. We specifically detailed mitochondrial ubiquitination and subsequent UPS-dependent degradation of succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (SDHA), which occurred when SDHA was minimally involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism. We demonstrate that SDHA ubiquitination occurs inside the organelle. In addition, we show that the specific inhibition of SDHA degradation by UPS promotes SDHA-dependent oxygen consumption and increases ATP, malate, and citrate levels. These findings suggest that the mitochondrial metabolic machinery is also regulated by the UPS.

2017 | front mol neurosci   IF 3.7
Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation Is Involved in Novelty-Induced Locomotion, Synaptic Plasticity and mRNA Translation.
Puighermanal E, Biever A, Pascoli V, Melser S, Pratlong M, Cutando L, Rialle S, Severac D, Boubaker-Vitre J, Meyuhas O, Marsicano G, Luscher C, Valjent E

The phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) is widely used to track neuronal activity. Although it is generally assumed that rpS6 phosphorylation has a stimulatory effect on global protein synthesis in neurons, its exact biological function remains unknown. By using a phospho-deficient rpS6 knockin mouse model, we directly tested the role of phospho-rpS6 in mRNA translation, plasticity and behavior. The analysis of multiple brain areas shows for the first time that, in neurons, phospho-rpS6 is dispensable for overall protein synthesis. Instead, we found that phospho-rpS6 controls the translation of a subset of mRNAs in a specific brain region, the nucleus accumbens (Acb), but not in the dorsal striatum. We further show that rpS6 phospho-mutant mice display altered long-term potentiation (LTP) in the Acb and enhanced novelty-induced locomotion. Collectively, our findings suggest a previously unappreciated role of phospho-rpS6 in the physiology of the Acb, through the translation of a selective subclass of mRNAs, rather than the regulation of general protein synthesis.

2017 | methods enzymol   IF 1.9
Functional Analysis of Mitochondrial CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors (mtCB1) in the Brain.
Melser S, Pagano Zottola AC, Serrat R, Puente N, Grandes P, Marsicano G, Hebert-Chatelain E

Recent evidence indicates that, besides its canonical localization at cell plasma membranes, the type-1 cannabinoid receptor, CB1 is functionally present at brain and muscle mitochondrial membranes (mtCB1). Through mtCB1 receptors, cannabinoids can directly regulate intramitochondrial signaling and respiration. This new and surprising discovery paves the way to new potential fields of research, dealing with the direct impact of G protein-coupled receptors on bioenergetic processes and its functional implications. In this chapter, we summarize some key experimental approaches established in our laboratories to identify anatomical, biochemical, and functional features of mtCB1 receptors in the brain. In particular, we describe the procedures to obtain reliable and controlled detection of mtCB1 receptors by immunogold electromicroscopy and by immunoblotting methods. Then, we address the study of direct cannabinoid effects on the electron transport system and oxidative phosphorylation. Finally, we present a functional example of the impact of mtCB1 receptors on mitochondrial mobility in cultured neurons. Considering the youth of the field, these methodological approaches will very likely be improved and refined in the future, but this chapter aims at presenting the methods that are currently used and, in particular, at underlining the need of rigorous controls to obtain reliable results. We hope that this chapter might help scientists becoming interested in this new and exciting field of research.

2016 | front physiol   IF 3.2
Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors Are Localized in Striated Muscle Mitochondria and Regulate Mitochondrial Respiration.
Mendizabal-Zubiaga J, Melser S, Benard G, Ramos A, Reguero L, Arrabal S, Elezgarai I, Gerrikagoitia I, Suarez J, Rodriguez De Fonseca F, Puente N, Marsicano G, Grandes P

The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor is widely distributed in the brain and peripheral organs where it regulates cellular functions and metabolism. In the brain, CB1 is mainly localized on presynaptic axon terminals but is also found on mitochondria (mtCB1), where it regulates cellular respiration and energy production. Likewise, CB1 is localized on muscle mitochondria, but very little is known about it. The aim of this study was to further investigate in detail the distribution and functional role of mtCB1 in three different striated muscles. Immunoelectron microscopy for CB1 was used in skeletal muscles (gastrocnemius and rectus abdominis) and myocardium from wild-type and CB1 -KO mice. Functional assessments were performed in mitochondria purified from the heart of the mice and the mitochondrial oxygen consumption upon application of different acute delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) concentrations (100 nM or 200 nM) was monitored. About 26% of the mitochondrial profiles in gastrocnemius, 22% in the rectus abdominis and 17% in the myocardium expressed CB1. Furthermore, the proportion of mtCB1 versus total CB1 immunoparticles was about 60% in the gastrocnemius, 55% in the rectus abdominis and 78% in the myocardium. Importantly, the CB1 immunolabeling pattern disappeared in muscles of CB1 -KO mice. Functionally, acute 100 nM or 200 nM THC treatment specifically decreased mitochondria coupled respiration between 12 and 15% in wild-type isolated mitochondria of myocardial muscles but no significant difference was noticed between THC treated and vehicle in mitochondria isolated from CB1 -KO heart. Furthermore, gene expression of key enzymes involved in pyruvate synthesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and mitochondrial respiratory chain was evaluated in the striated muscle of CB1 -WT and CB1 -KO. CB1 -KO showed an increase in the gene expression of Eno3, Pkm2, and Pdha1, suggesting an increased production of pyruvate. In contrast, no significant difference was observed in the Sdha and Cox4i1 expression, between CB1 -WT and CB1 -KO. In conclusion, CB1 receptors in skeletal and myocardial muscles are predominantly localized in mitochondria. The activation of mtCB1 receptors may participate in the mitochondrial regulation of the oxidative activity probably through the relevant enzymes implicated in the pyruvate metabolism, a main substrate for TCA activity.

2015 | Biochim Biophys Acta   IF 3.7
Mitochondrial degradation and energy metabolism
Melser S, Lavie J, Benard G

Mitochondria are intracellular power plants that feed most eukaryotic cells with the ATP produced by the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Mitochondrial energy production is controlled by many regulatory mechanisms. The control of mitochondrial mass through both mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation has been proposed to be one of the most important regulatory mechanisms. Recently, autophagic degradation of mitochondria has emerged as an important mechanism involved in the regulation of mitochondrial quantity and quality. In this review, we highlight the intricate connections between mitochondrial energy metabolism and mitochondrial autophagic degradation by showing the importance of mitochondrial bioenergetics in this process and illustrating the role of mitophagy in mitochondrial patho-physiology. Furthermore, we discuss how energy metabolism could coordinate the biogenesis and degradation of this organelle.

2015 | bmc plant biol   IF 3.7
Analysis of conglutin seed storage proteins across lupin species using transcriptomic, protein and comparative genomic approaches.
Foley RC, Jimenez-Lopez JC, Kamphuis LG, Hane JK, Melser S, Singh KB

BACKGROUND: The major proteins in lupin seeds are conglutins that have primary roles in supplying carbon, sulphur and nitrogen and energy for the germinating seedling. They fall into four families; alpha, beta, gamma and delta. Interest in these conglutins is growing as family members have been shown to have beneficial nutritional and pharmaceutical properties. RESULTS: An in-depth transcriptome and draft genome from the narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius) variety, Tanjil, were examined and 16 conglutin genes were identified. Using RNAseq data sets, the structure and expression of these 16 conglutin genes were analysed across eight lupin varieties from five lupin species. Phylogenic analysis suggest that the alpha and gamma conglutins diverged prior to lupin speciation while beta and delta members diverged both prior and after speciation. A comparison of the expression of the 16 conglutin genes was performed, and in general the conglutin genes showed similar levels of RNA expression among varieties within species, but quite distinct expression patterns between lupin species. Antibodies were generated against the specific conglutin families and immunoblot analyses were used to compare the levels of conglutin proteins in various tissues and during different stages of seed development in NLL, Tanjil, confirming the expression in the seed. This analysis showed that the conglutins were expressed highly at the mature seed stage, in all lupin species, and a range of polypeptide sizes were observed for each conglutin family. CONCLUSIONS: This study has provided substantial information on the complexity of the four conglutin families in a range of lupin species in terms of their gene structure, phylogenetic relationships as well as their relative RNA and protein abundance during seed development. The results demonstrate that the majority of the heterogeneity of conglutin polypeptides is likely to arise from post-translational modification from a limited number of precursor polypeptides rather than a large number of different genes. Overall, the results demonstrate a high degree of plasticity for conglutin expression during seed development in different lupin species.

07/05/2013 | Cell Metab   IF 22.4
Rheb Regulates Mitophagy Induced by Mitochondrial Energetic Status
Melser S, Hebert-Chatelain E, Lavie J, et al., Benard G

Mitophagy has been recently described as a mechanism of elimination of damaged organelles. Although the regulation of the amount of mitochondria is a core issue concerning cellular energy homeostasis, the relationship between mitochondrial degradation and energetic activity has not yet been considered. Here, we report that the stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation enhances mitochondrial renewal by increasing its degradation rate. Upon high oxidative phosphorylation activity, we found that the small GTPase Rheb is recruited to the mitochondrial outer membrane. This mitochondrial localization of Rheb promotes mitophagy through a physical interaction with the mitochondrial autophagic receptor Nix and the autophagosomal protein LC3-II. Thus, Rheb-dependent mitophagy contributes to the maintenance of optimal mitochondrial energy production. Our data suggest that mitochondrial degradation contributes to a bulk renewal of the organelle in order to prevent mitochondrial aging and to maintain the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation.

03/2013 | Antioxid Redox Signal   IF 5.8
Mitoplasticity: adaptation biology of the mitochondrion to the cellular redox state in physiology and carcinogenesis
Jose C, Melser S, Benard G, Rossignol R

Adaptation and transformation biology of the mitochondrion to redox status is an emerging domain of physiology and pathophysiology. Mitochondrial adaptations occur in response to accidental changes in cellular energy demand or supply while mitochondrial transformations are a part of greater program of cell metamorphosis. The possible role of mitochondrial adaptations and transformations in pathogenesis remains unexplored, and it has become critical to decipher the stimuli and the underlying molecular pathways. Immediate activation of mitochondrial function was described during acute exercise, respiratory chain injury, Endoplasmic Reticulum stress, genotoxic stress, or environmental toxic insults. Delayed adaptations of mitochondrial form, composition, and functions were evidenced for persistent changes in redox status as observed in endurance training, in fibroblasts grown in presence of respiratory chain inhibitors or in absence of glucose, in the smooth muscle of patients with severe asthma, or in the skeletal muscle of patients with a mitochondrial disease. Besides, mitochondrial transformations were observed in the course of human cell differentiation, during immune response activation, or in cells undergoing carcinogenesis. Little is known on the signals and downstream pathways that govern mitochondrial adaptations and transformations. Few adaptative loops, including redox sensors, kinases, and transcription factors were deciphered, but their implication in physiology and pathology remains elusive. Mitoplasticity could play a protective role against aging, diabetes, cancer, or neurodegenerative diseases. Research on adaptation and transformation could allow the design of innovative therapies, notably in cancer