Neurocentre Magendie



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13 publication(s) depuis Février 2010:

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09/11/2016 | Nature   IF 41.6
A cannabinoid link between mitochondria and memory.
Hebert-Chatelain E, Desprez T, Serrat R, Bellocchio L, Soria-Gomez E, Busquets-Garcia A, Zottola AC, Delamarre A, Cannich A, Vincent P, Varilh M, Robin LM, Terral G, Garcia-Fernandez MD, Colavita M, Mazier W, Drago F, Puente N, Reguero L, Elezgarai I, Dupuy JW, Cota D, Lopez-Rodriguez ML, Barreda-Gomez G, Massa F, Grandes P, Benard G, Marsicano G

Cellular activity in the brain depends on the high energetic support provided by mitochondria, the cell organelles which use energy sources to generate ATP. Acute cannabinoid intoxication induces amnesia in humans and animals, and the activation of type-1 cannabinoid receptors present at brain mitochondria membranes (mtCB1) can directly alter mitochondrial energetic activity. Although the pathological impact of chronic mitochondrial dysfunctions in the brain is well established, the involvement of acute modulation of mitochondrial activity in high brain functions, including learning and memory, is unknown. Here, we show that acute cannabinoid-induced memory impairment in mice requires activation of hippocampal mtCB1 receptors. Genetic exclusion of CB1 receptors from hippocampal mitochondria prevents cannabinoid-induced reduction of mitochondrial mobility, synaptic transmission and memory formation. mtCB1 receptors signal through intra-mitochondrial Galphai protein activation and consequent inhibition of soluble-adenylyl cyclase (sAC). The resulting inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of specific subunits of the mitochondrial electron transport system eventually leads to decreased cellular respiration. Hippocampal inhibition of sAC activity or manipulation of intra-mitochondrial PKA signalling or phosphorylation of the Complex I subunit NDUFS2 inhibit bioenergetic and amnesic effects of cannabinoids. Thus, the G protein-coupled mtCB1 receptors regulate memory processes via modulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. By directly linking mitochondrial activity to memory formation, these data reveal that bioenergetic processes are primary acute regulators of cognitive functions.

23/09/2015 | Neuron   IF 14.3
Habenular CB Receptors Control the Expression of Aversive Memories.
Soria-Gomez E, Busquets-Garcia A, Hu F, Mehidi A, Cannich A, Roux L, Louit I, Alonso L, Wiesner T, Georges F, Verrier D, Vincent P, Ferreira G, Luo M, Marsicano G

Expression of aversive memories is key for survival, but the underlying brain mechanisms are not fully understood. Medial habenular (MHb) axons corelease glutamate and acetylcholine onto target postsynaptic interpeduncular (IPN) neurons, but their role in aversive memories has not been addressed so far. We found that cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1R), key regulators of aversive responses, are present at presynaptic terminals of MHb neurons in the IPN. Conditional deletion of CB1R from MHb neurons reduces fear-conditioned freezing and abolishes conditioned odor aversion in mice, without affecting neutral or appetitively motivated memories. Interestingly, local inhibition of nicotinic, but not glutamatergic receptors in the target region IPN before retrieval, rescues these phenotypes. Finally, optogenetic electrophysiological recordings of MHb-to-IPN circuitry revealed that blockade of CB1R specifically enhances cholinergic, but not glutamatergic, neurotransmission. Thus, presynaptic CB1R control expression of aversive memories by selectively modulating cholinergic transmission at MHb synapses in the IPN.

02/12/2014 | Endocrinology   IF 4
Cannabinoid type 1 (CB) receptors on Sim1-expressing neurons regulate energy expenditure in male mice.
Cardinal P, Bellocchio L, Guzman-Quevedo O, Andre C, Clark S, Elie M, Leste-Lasserre T, Gonzales D, Cannich A, Marsicano G, Cota D

The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) regulates energy balance by modulating not only food intake, but also energy expenditure and brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. To test the hypothesis that cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor in PVN neurons might control these processes, we used the Cre/loxP system to delete CB1 from Single minded 1 (Sim1) neurons, which account for the majority of PVN neurons. On standard chow, mice lacking CB1 receptor in Sim1 neurons (Sim1-CB1-KO) had food intake, body weight, adiposity, glucose metabolism and energy expenditure comparable to wild-type (Sim1-CB1-WT) littermates. However, maintenance on a high-fat diet (HFD) revealed a gene-by-diet interaction whereby Sim1-CB1-KO mice had decreased adiposity, improved insulin sensitivity and increased energy expenditure, while feeding behavior was similar to Sim1-CB1-WT mice. Additionally, HFD-fed Sim1-CB1-KO mice had increased mRNA expression of the beta3-adrenergic receptor, as well as of UCP-1, Cox-IV and Tfam in the BAT, all molecular changes suggestive of increased thermogenesis. Pharmacological studies using beta-blockers suggested that modulation of beta-adrenergic transmission play an important role in determining energy expenditure changes observed in Sim1-CB1-KO. Finally, chemical sympathectomy abolished the obesity-resistant phenotype of Sim1-CB1-KO mice. Altogether, these findings reveal a diet-dependent dissociation in the CB1 receptor control of food intake and energy expenditure, likely mediated by the PVN, where CB1 receptors on Sim1-positive neurons do not impact food intake, but hinder energy expenditure during dietary environmental challenges that promote body weight gain.

10/2014 | Mol Metab   IF 6.3
CB1 cannabinoid receptor in SF1-expressing neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus determines metabolic responses to diet and leptin.
Cardinal P, Andre C, Quarta C, Bellocchio L, Clark S, Elie M, Leste-Lasserre T, Maitre M, Gonzales D, Cannich A, Pagotto U, Marsicano G, Cota D

Metabolic flexibility allows rapid adaptation to dietary change, however, little is known about the CNS mechanisms regulating this process. Neurons in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMN) participate in energy balance and are the target of the metabolically relevant hormone leptin. Cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors are expressed in VMN neurons, but the specific contribution of endocannabinoid signaling in this neuronal population to energy balance regulation is unknown. Here we demonstrate that VMN CB1 receptors regulate metabolic flexibility and actions of leptin. In chow-fed mice, conditional deletion of CB1 in VMN neurons (expressing the steroidogenic factor 1, SF1) decreases adiposity by increasing sympathetic activity and lipolysis, and facilitates metabolic effects of leptin. Conversely, under high-fat diet, lack of CB1 in VMN neurons produces leptin resistance, blunts peripheral use of lipid substrates and increases adiposity. Thus, CB1 receptors in VMN neurons provide a molecular switch adapting the organism to dietary change.

03/06/2014 | Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A   IF 9.5
A restricted population of CB1 cannabinoid receptors with neuroprotective activity.
Chiarlone A, Bellocchio L, Blazquez C, Resel E, Soria-Gomez E, Cannich A, Ferrero JJ, Sagredo O, Benito C, Romero J, Sanchez-Prieto J, Lutz B, Fernandez-Ruiz J, Galve-Roperh I, Guzman M

The CB1 cannabinoid receptor, the main molecular target of endocannabinoids and cannabis active components, is the most abundant G protein-coupled receptor in the mammalian brain. Of note, CB1 receptors are expressed at the synapses of two opposing (i.e., GABAergic/inhibitory and glutamatergic/excitatory) neuronal populations, so the activation of one and/or another receptor population may conceivably evoke different effects. Despite the widely reported neuroprotective activity of the CB1 receptor in animal models, the precise pathophysiological relevance of those two CB1 receptor pools in neurodegenerative processes is unknown. Here, we first induced excitotoxic damage in the mouse brain by (i) administering quinolinic acid to conditional mutant animals lacking CB1 receptors selectively in GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons, and (ii) manipulating corticostriatal glutamatergic projections remotely with a designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug pharmacogenetic approach. We next examined the alterations that occur in the R6/2 mouse, a well-established model of Huntington disease, upon (i) fully knocking out CB1 receptors, and (ii) deleting CB1 receptors selectively in corticostriatal glutamatergic or striatal GABAergic neurons. The data unequivocally identify the restricted population of CB1 receptors located on glutamatergic terminals as an indispensable player in the neuroprotective activity of (endo)cannabinoids, therefore suggesting that this precise receptor pool constitutes a promising target for neuroprotective therapeutic strategies.

03/2014 | Nat Neurosci   IF 19.9
The endocannabinoid system controls food intake via olfactory processes.
Soria-Gomez E, Bellocchio L, Reguero L, Lepousez G, Martin C, Bendahmane M, Ruehle S, Remmers F, Desprez T, Matias I, Wiesner T, Cannich A, Nissant A, Wadleigh A, Pape HC, Chiarlone AP, Quarta C, Verrier D, Vincent P, Massa F, Lutz B, Guzman M, Gurden H, Ferreira G, Lledo PM, Grandes P, Marsicano G

Hunger arouses sensory perception, eventually leading to an increase in food intake, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We found that cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors promote food intake in fasted mice by increasing odor detection. CB1 receptors were abundantly expressed on axon terminals of centrifugal cortical glutamatergic neurons that project to inhibitory granule cells of the main olfactory bulb (MOB). Local pharmacological and genetic manipulations revealed that endocannabinoids and exogenous cannabinoids increased odor detection and food intake in fasted mice by decreasing excitatory drive from olfactory cortex areas to the MOB. Consistently, cannabinoid agonists dampened in vivo optogenetically stimulated excitatory transmission in the same circuit. Our data indicate that cortical feedback projections to the MOB crucially regulate food intake via CB1 receptor signaling, linking the feeling of hunger to stronger odor processing. Thus, CB1 receptor-dependent control of cortical feedback projections in olfactory circuits couples internal states to perception and behavior.

19/03/2013 | Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A   IF 9.5
Activation of the sympathetic nervous system mediates hypophagic and anxiety-like effects of CB(1) receptor blockade.
Bellocchio L, Soria-Gomez E, Quarta C, Metna-Laurent M, Cardinal P, Binder E, Cannich A, Delamarre A, Haring M, Martin-Fontecha M, Vega D, Leste-Lasserre T, Bartsch D, Monory K, Lutz B, Chaouloff F, Pagotto U, Guzman M, Cota D, Marsicano G

Complex interactions between periphery and the brain regulate food intake in mammals. Cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor antagonists are potent hypophagic agents, but the sites where this acute action is exerted and the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. To dissect the mechanisms underlying the hypophagic effect of CB1 receptor blockade, we combined the acute injection of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant with the use of conditional CB1-knockout mice, as well as with pharmacological modulation of different central and peripheral circuits. Fasting/refeeding experiments revealed that CB1 receptor signaling in many specific brain neurons is dispensable for the acute hypophagic effects of rimonabant. CB1 receptor antagonist-induced hypophagia was fully abolished by peripheral blockade of beta-adrenergic transmission, suggesting that this effect is mediated by increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Consistently, we found that rimonabant increases gastrointestinal metabolism via increased peripheral beta-adrenergic receptor signaling in peripheral organs, including the gastrointestinal tract. Blockade of both visceral afferents and glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii abolished rimonabant-induced hypophagia. Importantly, these mechanisms were specifically triggered by lipid-deprivation, revealing a nutrient-specific component acutely regulated by CB1 receptor blockade. Finally, peripheral blockade of sympathetic neurotransmission also blunted central effects of CB1 receptor blockade, such as fear responses and anxiety-like behaviors. These data demonstrate that, independently of their site of origin, important effects of CB1 receptor blockade are expressed via activation of peripheral sympathetic activity. Thus, CB1 receptors modulate bidirectional circuits between the periphery and the brain to regulate feeding and other behaviors.

2013 | Mol Metab   IF 6.3
Astroglial CB1 cannabinoid receptors regulate leptin signaling in mouse brain astrocytes.
Bosier B, Bellocchio L, Metna-Laurent M, Soria-Gomez E, Matias I, Hebert-Chatelain E, Cannich A, Maitre M, Leste-Lasserre T, Cardinal P, Mendizabal-Zubiaga J, Canduela MJ, Reguero L, Hermans E, Grandes P, Cota D, Marsicano G

Type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) and leptin (ObR) receptors regulate metabolic and astroglial functions, but the potential links between the two systems in astrocytes were not investigated so far. Genetic and pharmacological manipulations of CB1 receptor expression and activity in cultured cortical and hypothalamic astrocytes demonstrated that cannabinoid signaling controls the levels of ObR expression. Lack of CB1 receptors also markedly impaired leptin-mediated activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 and 5 (STAT3 and STAT5) in astrocytes. In particular, CB1 deletion determined a basal overactivation of STAT5, thereby leading to the downregulation of ObR expression, and leptin failed to regulate STAT5-dependent glycogen storage in the absence of CB1 receptors. These results show that CB1 receptors directly interfere with leptin signaling and its ability to regulate glycogen storage, thereby representing a novel mechanism linking endocannabinoid and leptin signaling in the regulation of brain energy storage and neuronal functions.

09/2012 | Endocrinology   IF 4
Hypothalamic CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors Regulate Energy Balance in Mice.
Cardinal P , Bellocchio L , Clark S , Cannich A , Klugmann M , Lutz B , Marsicano G , Cota D

Cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptor activation is generally considered a powerful orexigenic signal and inhibition of the endocannabinoid system is beneficial for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. The hypothalamus plays a critical role in regulating energy balance by modulating both food intake and energy expenditure. Although CB(1) receptor signaling has been implicated in the modulation of both these mechanisms, a complete understanding of its role in the hypothalamus is still lacking. Here we combined a genetic approach with the use of adeno-associated viral vectors to delete the CB(1) receptor gene in the adult mouse hypothalamus and assessed the impact of such manipulation on the regulation of energy balance. Viral-mediated deletion of the CB(1) receptor gene in the hypothalamus led to the generation of Hyp-CB(1)-KO mice, which displayed an approximately 60% decrease in hypothalamic CB(1) receptor mRNA levels. Hyp-CB(1)-KO mice maintained on a normocaloric, standard diet showed decreased body weight gain over time, which was associated with increased energy expenditure and elevated beta(3)-adrenergic receptor and uncoupling protein-1 mRNA levels in the brown adipose tissue but, surprisingly, not to changes in food intake. Additionally, Hyp-CB(1)-KO mice were insensitive to the anorectic action of the hormone leptin (5 mg/kg) and displayed a time-dependent hypophagic response to the CB(1) inverse agonist rimonabant (3 mg/kg). Altogether these findings suggest that hypothalamic CB(1) receptor signaling is a key determinant of energy expenditure under basal conditions and reveal its specific role in conveying the effects of leptin and pharmacological CB1 receptor antagonism on food intake.

04/2012 | Nat Neurosci   IF 19.9
Mitochondrial CB(1) receptors regulate neuronal energy metabolism.
Benard G, Massa F, Puente N, Lourenco J, Bellocchio L, Soria-Gomez E, Matias I, Delamarre A, Metna-Laurent M, Cannich A, Hebert-Chatelain E, Mulle C, Ortega-Gutierrez S, Martin-Fontecha M, Klugmann M, Guggenhuber S, Lutz B, Gertsch J, Chaouloff F, Lopez-Rodriguez ML, Grandes P, Rossignol R, Marsicano G

The mammalian brain is one of the organs with the highest energy demands, and mitochondria are key determinants of its functions. Here we show that the type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB(1)) is present at the membranes of mouse neuronal mitochondria (mtCB(1)), where it directly controls cellular respiration and energy production. Through activation of mtCB(1) receptors, exogenous cannabinoids and in situ endocannabinoids decreased cyclic AMP concentration, protein kinase A activity, complex I enzymatic activity and respiration in neuronal mitochondria. In addition, intracellular CB(1) receptors and mitochondrial mechanisms contributed to endocannabinoid-dependent depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition in the hippocampus. Thus, mtCB(1) receptors directly modulate neuronal energy metabolism, revealing a new mechanism of action of G protein-coupled receptor signaling in the brain.