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Nathalie MACREZ

39 publication(s) depuis Juin 1997:

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While the roles of subtypes 1 and 2 of the ryanodine receptors (RYRs) have been studied in cellular systems expressing specifically one or the other of these subtypes (i.e. skeletal and cardiac muscle), the function of these receptors has not been evaluated in smooth muscles. We have previously reported RYR-mediated elementary (Ca(2+) sparks) and global Ca(2+) responses in rat portal vein myocytes. Here, we investigated the respective roles of all three RYR subtypes expressed in these cells as revealed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting each one of the three RYR subtypes were shown to specifically inhibit the expression of the corresponding mRNA and protein without affecting the other RYR subtypes. Confocal Ca(2+) measurements revealed that depolarization-induced Ca(2+) sparks and global Ca(2+) responses were blocked when either RYR1 or RYR2 expression was suppressed. Caffeine-induced Ca(2+) responses were partly inhibited by the same antisense oligonucleotides. Neither the corresponding scrambled oligonucleotides nor the antisense oligonucleotides targeting RYR3 affected depolarization- or caffeine-induced Ca(2+) responses. Our results show that, in vascular myocytes, the two RYR1 and RYR2 subtypes are required for Ca(2+) release during Ca(2+) sparks and global Ca(2+) responses, evoked by activation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels.

In rat portal vein myocytes, Ca(2+) signals can be generated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3))- and ryanodine-sensitive Ca(2+) release channels, which are located on the same intracellular store. Using a laser scanning confocal microscope associated with the patch-clamp technique, we showed that propagated Ca(2+) waves evoked by norepinephrine (in the continuous presence of oxodipine) were completely blocked after internal application of an anti-InsP(3) receptor antibody. These propagated Ca(2+) waves were also reduced by approximately 50% and transformed in homogenous Ca(2+) responses after application of an anti-ryanodine receptor antibody or ryanodine. All-or-none Ca(2+) waves obtained with increasing concentrations of norepinephrine were transformed in a dose-response relationship with a Hill coefficient close to unity after ryanodine receptor inhibition. Similar effects of the ryanodine receptor inhibition were observed on the norepinephrine- and ACh-induced Ca(2+) responses in non-voltage-clamped portal vein and duodenal myocytes and on the norepinephrine-induced contraction. Taken together, these results show that ryanodine-sensitive Ca(2+) release channels are responsible for the fast propagation of Ca(2+) responses evoked by various neurotransmitters producing InsP(3) in vascular and visceral myocytes.

In this study, we identified the receptor subtype activated by endothelin-1 (ET-1) and the subunit composition of the G protein coupling this receptor to increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in rat portal vein myocytes. We used intranuclear antisense oligonucleotide injection to selectively inhibit the expression of G protein subunits. We show here that the endothelin receptor subtype A (ETA)-mediated increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration was mainly dependent on Ca2+ release from the intracellular store. ETA receptor-mediated Ca2+ release was selectively inhibited by antisense oligonucleotides that inhibited the expression of alpha11, beta3, and gamma5 subunits, as checked by immunocytochemistry. Intracellular dialysis of a carboxyl terminal anti-betacom antibody and a peptide corresponding to the Gbetagamma binding region of the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-1 had no effect on the ETA receptor-mediated Ca2+ release. In contrast, a synthetic peptide corresponding to the carboxyl terminus of the alphaq/alpha11 subunit, heparin (an inhibitor of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors), and U73122 (an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C) inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the ETA receptor-mediated Ca2+ responses. Accumulation of [3H]inositol trisphosphate evoked by norepinephrine peaked at approximately 15 s, whereas that evoked by ET-1 progressively increased within 2 min. In myocytes injected with anti-alphaq antisense oligonucleotides, both amplitude and time course of the norepinephrine-induced Ca2+ release became similar to those of the ET-1-induced Ca2+ response. We conclude that the ETA receptor-mediated Ca2+ release is selectively transduced by the heterotrimeric G11 protein composed of alpha11, beta3, and gamma5 subunits, and that a delayed stimulation of phospholipase C occurs via the alpha11 subunit.

04/1999 | Faseb J
Gbetagamma dimers stimulate vascular L-type Ca2+ channels via phosphoinositide 3-kinase.
Viard P, Exner T, Maier U, Mironneau J, Nurnberg B, Macrez N

We have previously reported that, in venous myocytes, Gbetagamma scavengers inhibit angiotensin AT1A receptor-induced stimulation of L-type Ca2+ channels (1). Here, we demonstrate that intracellular infusion of purified Gbetagamma complexes stimulates the L-type Ca2+ channel current in a concentration-dependent manner. Additional intracellular dialysis of GDP-bound inactive Galphao or of a peptide corresponding to the Gbetagamma binding region of the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase completely inhibited the Gbetagamma-induced stimulation of Ca2+ channel currents. The gating properties of the channel were not affected by intracellular application of Gbetagamma, suggesting that Gbetagamma increased the whole-cell calcium conductance. In addition, both the angiotensin AT1A receptor- and the Gbetagamma-induced stimulation of L-type Ca2+ channels were blocked by pretreatment of the cells with wortmannin, at nanomolar concentrations. Correspondingly, intracellular infusion of an enzymatically active purified recombinant Gbetagamma-sensitive phosphoinositide 3-kinase, PI3Kgamma, mimicked Gbetagamma-induced stimulation of Ca2+ channels. Both Gbetagamma- and PI3Kgamma-induced stimulations of Ca2+ channel currents were reduced by protein kinase C inhibitors suggesting that the Gbetagamma/PI3Kgamma-activated transduction pathway involves a protein kinase C. These results indicate for the first time that Gbetagamma dimers stimulate the vascular L-type Ca2+ channels through a Gbetagamma-sensitive PI3K.

Ca2+ signalling events were analyzed in single myocytes from rat portal vein by using a laser confocal microscope combined with the patch-clamp technique. Increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) concentration was obtained by photorelease from a caged precursor or intracellular dialysis of 3F-InsP3. Low InsP3 concentrations activated either small elevations of [Ca2+]i or localized Ca2+ transients whereas high InsP3 concentrations activated either homogeneous Ca2+ responses or propagated Ca2+ waves. The InsP3-evoked localized Ca2+ transients had spatio-temporal properties characteristic of Ca2+ sparks. In addition, compounds that blocked Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ responses activated by Ca2+ jumps reduced the global InsP3-activated Ca2+ responses and suppressed the Ca2+ transients. In contrast, Ca2+ responses evoked by flash-photolytic Ca2+ jumps or caffeine were not affected by heparin (an InsP3 receptor antagonist). These results suggest that the absence of elementary Ca2+ events evoked by InsP3 may be related to the lack of clustered InsP3 receptor units in these cells, as confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Cooperativity between InsP3- and ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ channels may represent a novel mechanism to amplify Ca2+ release from the same intracellular store and give rise to propagated Ca2+ waves.

05/1998 | trends cardiovasc med
Specificity of G(q) and G(11) Protein Signaling in Vascular Myocytes.
Mironneau J, Macrez N

The molecular diversity of receptors and the capability of these receptors to activate multiple types of G proteins theoretically allow the transmission of signals through multiple effector pathways. In functional experiments, however, the number of possibilities may be strongly reduced. We have recently reported that in vascular myocytes, alpha(1)-adrenoceptors activate two G proteins composed of alpha(q)/beta(1)/gamma(3) and alpha(11)/beta(3)/gamma(2) subunits, leading to increase in cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)](i) concentration. Only the alpha(q) subunit transduces the signal to a phospholipase C-beta, which hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to generate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and the subsequent release of Ca(2+) from the intracellular store. In contrast, the alpha(11) subunit activates Ca(2+) entry through a nonspecific cation channel in the presence of increased [Ca(2+)](i) level. These coupling mechanisms reveal the distinct participation of G(q) and G(11) in the regulation of vascular contractility. Specific G(q)- or G(11)-activated pathways should be taken into account to understand the various contraction profiles induced by different vasoconstrictors.

11/1997 | Cell Calcium
L-type and Ca2+ release channel-dependent hierarchical Ca2+ signalling in rat portal vein myocytes.
Arnaudeau S, Boittin FX, Macrez N, Lavie JL, Mironneau C, Mironneau J

Ca2+ signalling events and whole-cell Ca2+ currents were analyzed in single myocytes from rat portal vein by using a laser scanning confocal microscope combined with the patch-clamp technique. In myocytes in which the intracellular Ca2+ store was depleted or Ca2+ release channels were blocked by 10 microM ryanodine, inward Ca2+ currents induced slow and sustained elevations of [Ca2+]i. These Ca2+ responses were suppressed by 1 microM oxodipine and by depolarizations to +120 mV, a potential close to the reversal potential for Ca2+ ions, suggesting that they reflected Ca2+ influx through L-type Ca2+ channels. With functioning intracellular Ca2+ stores, flash photolysis of caged Ca2+ gave rise to a small increase in [Ca2+]i with superimposed Ca2+ sparks, reflecting the opening of clustered Ca2+ release channels. Brief Ca2+ currents in the voltage range from -30 to +10 mV triggered Ca2+ sparks or macrosparks that did not propagate in the entire line-scan image. Increasing the duration of Ca2+ current for 100 ms or more allowed the trigger of propagating Ca2+ waves which originated from the same initiation sites as the caffeine-activated response. Both Ca2+ sparks and initiation sites of Ca2+ waves activated by Ca2+ currents were observed in the vicinity of areas that excluded the Ca2+ probes, reflecting infoldings of the plasma membrane close to the sarcoplasmic reticulum, as revealed by fluorescent markers. The hierarchy of Ca2+ signalling events, from submicroscopic fundamental events to elementary events (sparks) and propagated waves, provides an integrated mechanism to regulate vascular tone.

A G protein composed of alpha13, beta1, and gamma3 subunits selectively couples the angiotensin AT1A receptors to increase cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in rat portal vein myocytes (Macrez-Lepretre, N., Kalkbrenner, F., Morel, J. L., Schultz, G., and Mironneau, J. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 10095-10102). We show here that Gbetagamma transduces the signal leading to stimulation of L-type Ca2+ channels. Intracellular dialysis through the patch pipette of a carboxyl-terminal anti-betacom antibody and a peptide corresponding to the Gbetagamma binding region of the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 inhibited the stimulation of Ca2+ channels and the increase in [Ca2+]i evoked by angiotensin II. The Gbetagamma binding peptide did not prevent the dissociation of the heterotrimeric G protein into its subunits, as it did not block activation of phospholipase C-beta by Galphaq in response to stimulation of alpha1-adrenoreceptors. Transient overexpression of the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 fragment and of Galpha subunits also inhibited the angiotensin II-induced increase in [Ca2+]i. Both anti-alpha13 antibody and carboxyl-terminal alpha13 peptide abrogated the angiotensin II-induced stimulation of Ca2+ channels. We conclude that activation of angiotensin AT1 receptors requires all three alpha, beta, and gamma subunits of G13 for receptor-G protein interaction, whereas the transduction of the signal to L-type Ca2+ channels is mediated by Gbetagamma.

1. Cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) during exposure to acetylcholine or caffeine was measured in mouse duodenal myocytes loaded with fura-2. Acetylcholine evoked a transient increase in [Ca2+]i followed by a sustained rise which was rapidly terminated after drug removal. Although L-type Ca2+ currents participated in the global Ca2+ response induced by acetylcholine, the initial peak in [Ca2+]i was mainly due to release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. 2. Atropine, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP, a muscarinic M3 antagonist), pirenzepine (a muscarinic M1 antagonist), methoctramine and gallamine (muscarinic M2 antagonists) inhibited the acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ release, with a high affinity for 4-DAMP and atropine and a low affinity for the other antagonists. Selective protection of muscarinic M2 receptors with methoctramine during 4-DAMP mustard alkylation of muscarinic M3 receptors provided no evidence for muscarinic M2 receptor-activated [Ca2+]i increase. 3. Acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ release was blocked by intracellular dialysis with a patch pipette containing either heparin or an anti-phosphatidylinositol antibody and by external application of U73122 (a phospholipase C inhibitor). 4. Acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ release was insensitive to external pretreatment with pertussis toxin, but concentration-dependently inhibited by intracellular dialysis with a patch pipette solution containing an anti-alpha q/alpha 11 antibody. An antisense oligonucleotide approach revealed that only the Gq protein was involved in acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ release. 5. Intracellular applications of either an anti-beta com antibody or a peptide corresponding to the G beta gamma binding domain of the beta-adrenoceptor kinase 1 had no effect on acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ release. 6. Our results show that, in mouse duodenal myocytes, acetylcholine-induced release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores is mediated through activation of muscarinic M3 receptors which couple with a Gq protein to activate a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C.