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Cyril DEJEAN




Post-Doctorant

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Cursus:
Ph D - Lab. de Neurophysiologie, U. Bordeaux2 (2006)
Post doc - University of Otago, New Zealand (2007-2009)
Post doc - CNIC, U. Bordeaux1 (2009-2010)
Assoc. Researcher – INCIA, U. Bordeaux1 (2010-2013)
Post doc - Neurocentre Magendie, U. Bordeaux (2013-2015)
Data consulting - Scilight (2015-2017)

Expertise: Electrophysiology, Neuroscience, Behavior, Optogenetics, Addiction, Learning





16 publication(s) depuis Juillet 2004:


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Les IF indiqués ont été collectés par le Web of Sciences en


Abstract:
Modulation of oscillatory activity through basal ganglia-cortical loops in specific frequency bands is thought to reflect specific functional states of neural networks. A specific negative correlation between beta and gamma sub-bands has been demonstrated in human basal ganglia and may be key for normal basal ganglia function. However, these studies were limited to Parkinson's disease patients. To confirm that this interaction is a feature of normal basal ganglia, we recorded local field potential (LFP) from electrodes in globus pallidus (GP) of intact rats. We found significant negative correlation between specific frequencies within gamma ( approximately 60 Hz) and beta ( approximately 14 Hz) bands. Furthermore, we show that fluctuations in power at these frequencies are differentially nested within slow ( approximately 3 Hz) oscillations in the delta band, showing maximum power at distinct and different phases of delta. These results suggest a hierarchical organization of LFP frequencies in the rat GP, in which a low-frequency signal in the basal ganglia can predict the timing and interaction of power fluctuations across higher frequencies. Finally, we found that dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptor antagonists differentially affected power in gamma and beta bands and also had different effects on correlation between them and the nesting within delta, indicating an important role for endogenous dopamine acting on direct and indirect pathway neurons in the maintenance of the hierarchical organization of frequency bands. Disruption of this hierarchical organization and subsequent disordered beta-gamma balance in basal ganglia disorders such as Parkinson's disease may be important in the pathogenesis of their symptoms.




Abstract:
High-frequency stimulation of around 130 Hz delivered to the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS [deep brain stimulation]) is an effective treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms of its therapeutic effect remain obscure. Recently, it has been shown in anaesthetized rats that STN-DBS antidromically activates cortical neurons with coincident reduction of the cortical slow wave oscillations that occur in this preparation. Here we extend this work; recording the effect of STN-DBS upon cortical EEG and akinesia, in unanesthetized rats rendered cataleptic by acute dopaminergic blockade. STN-DBS-like stimulation resulted in a short latency, presumed antidromic, evoked potential in the cortex. In cataleptic animals, there was a significant increase in the power of beta oscillations in the electroencephalography which was reversed by stimulation that evoked the cortical response. We also observed a significant rescue of motor function, with the level of akinesia (bar test score) being inversely correlated to the amplitude of the evoked potential (R2 = 0.84). These data confirm that (probably antidromic) short latency cortical responses occur in the awake animal and that these are associated with reductions in abnormal cortical oscillations characteristic of PD and with improvements in akinesia. Our results raise the possibility that STN-DBS reduces PD oscillations and symptoms through antidromic cortical activation.




07/2008 | J Neurophysiol   IF 2.6
Dynamic changes in the cortex-basal ganglia network after dopamine depletion in the rat.
Dejean C , Gross CE , Bioulac B , Boraud T

Abstract:
It is well established that parkinsonian syndrome is associated with alterations in the temporal pattern of neuronal activity and local field potentials in the basal ganglia (BG). An increase in synchronized oscillations has been observed in different BG nuclei in parkinsonian patients and animal models of this disease. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. This study investigates the functional connectivity in the cortex-BG network of a rodent model of Parkinson's disease. Single neurons and local field potentials were simultaneously recorded in the motor cortex, the striatum, and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) of freely moving rats, and high-voltage spindles (HVSs) were used to compare signal transmission before and after dopaminergic depletion. It is shown that dopaminergic lesion results in a significant enhancement of oscillatory synchronization in the BG: the coherence between pairs of structures increased significantly and the percentage of oscillatory auto- and cross-correlograms. HVS episodes were also more numerous and longer. These changes were associated with a shortening of the latency of SNr response to cortical activation, from 40.5 +/- 4.8 to 10.2 +/- 1.07 ms. This result suggests that, in normal conditions, SNr neurons are likely to be driven by late inputs from the indirect pathway; however, after the lesion, their shorter latency also indicates an overactivation of the hyperdirect pathway. This study confirms that neuronal signal transmission is altered in the BG after dopamine depletion but also provides qualitative evidence for these changes at the cellular level.




02/2007 | Eur J Neurosci   IF 2.8
Synchronous high-voltage spindles in the cortex-basal ganglia network of awake and unrestrained rats.
Dejean C , Gross CE , Bioulac B , Boraud T

Abstract:
Synchronous oscillations in various frequency ranges have been recorded in several nuclei of the basal ganglia (BG) and are thought to be an information processing mechanism. High-voltage spindles (HVSs) are 5-13 Hz spike-and-wave oscillations, which are commonly recorded in rats and which have been reported in some recent studies where their occurrence in the BG has been investigated. We recorded single neurons and local field potentials (LFPs) simultaneously in the motor cortex, striatum and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) of the freely moving rat. We took advantage of the high level of synchronization observed during HVSs to study signal transmission in the cortex-BG network in the awake animals. The results show that LFPs are synchronized in the motor cortex, striatum and SNr during HVS episodes and that the latter propagate from the cortex to the SNr via the striatum. Moreover, > 50% of single neurons in each of these structures are triggered by the HVS. Following the discharge of cortical cells, SNr neurons are first inhibited after approximately 19 ms and then activated after approximately 45 ms. This response is probably driven by the direct and indirect pathways, respectively, without any involvement of the hyperdirect pathway. Here, it is shown that cortex-BG connectivity can be studied using physiological signals in the freely moving animal as opposed to artificial stimulation under anaesthetized conditions. This opens the door to further studies under various experimental conditions, such as animal models of basal ganglia disorders.




08/2005 | J Neurophysiol   IF 2.6
In vivo analysis of proprioceptive coding and its antidromic modulation in the freely behaving crayfish.
Le Ray D , Combes D , Dejean C , Cattaert D

Abstract:
Although sensory nerves in vitro are known to convey both orthodromic (sensory) and antidromic (putatively modulating) action potentials, in most cases very little is known about their bidirectional characteristics in intact animals. Here, we have investigated both the sensory coding properties and antidromic discharges that occur during real walking in the freely behaving crayfish. The activity of the sensory nerve innervating the proprioceptor CBCO, a chordotonal organ that monitors both angular movement and position of the coxo-basipodite (CB) joint, which is implicated in vertical leg movements, was recorded chronically along with the electromyographic activity of the muscles that control CB joint movements. Two wire electrodes placed on the sensory nerve were used to discriminate orthodromic from antidromic action potentials and thus allowed for analysis of both sensory coding and antidromic discharges. A distinction is proposed between 3 main classes of sensory neuron, according to their firing in relation to levator muscle activity during free walking. In parallel, we describe 2 types of antidromic activity: one produced exclusively during motor activity and a second produced both during and in the absence of motor activity. A negative correlation was found between the activity of sensory neurons in each of the 3 classes and identified antidromic discharges during walking. Finally, a state-dependent plasticity of CBCO nerve activity has been found by which the distribution of sensory orthodromic and antidromic activity changes with the physiological state of the biomechanical apparatus.




07/2004 | Eur J Neurosci   IF 2.8
Rat anterodorsal thalamic head direction neurons depend upon dynamic visual signals to select anchoring landmark cues.
Zugaro MB, Arleo A , Dejean C , Burguiere E , Khamassi M , Wiener SI

Abstract:
Head direction cells, which are functionally coupled to 'place' cells of the hippocampus, a structure critically involved in spatial cognition, are likely neural substrates for the sense of direction. Here we studied the mechanism by which head direction cells are principally anchored to background visual cues [M.B. Zugaro et al. (2001) J. Neurosci., 21, RC154,1-5]. Anterodorsal thalamic head direction cells were recorded while the rat foraged on a small elevated platform in a 3-m diameter cylindrical enclosure. A large card was placed in the background, near the curtain, and a smaller card was placed in the foreground, near the platform. The cards were identically marked, proportionally dimensioned, subtended the same visual angles from the central vantage point and separated by 90 degrees. The rat was then disoriented in darkness, the cards were rotated by 90 degrees in opposite directions about the center and the rat was returned. Preferred directions followed either the background card, foreground card or midpoint between the two cards. In continuous lighting, preferred directions shifted to follow the background cue in most cases (30 of the 53 experiments, Batschelet V-test, P < 0.01). Stroboscopic illumination, which perturbs dynamic visual signals (e.g. motion parallax), blocked this selectivity. Head direction cells remained equally anchored to the background card, foreground card or configuration of the two cards (Watson test, P > 0.1). This shows that dynamic visual signals are critical in distinguishing typically more stable background cues which govern spatial neuronal responses and orientation behaviors.