| Nat Commun IF 12.4 Altered surface mGluR5 dynamics provoke synaptic NMDAR dysfunction and cognitive defects in Fmr1 knockout mice.
Aloisi E, Le Corf K, Dupuis J, Zhang P, Ginger M, Labrousse V, Spatuzza M, Georg Haberl M, Costa L, Shigemoto R, Tappe-Theodor A, Drago F, Vincenzo Piazza P, Mulle C, Groc L, Ciranna L, Catania MV, Frick A
Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) is crucially implicated in the pathophysiology of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS); however, its dysfunction at the sub-cellular level, and related synaptic and cognitive phenotypes are unexplored. Here, we probed the consequences of mGluR5/Homer scaffold disruption for mGluR5 cell-surface mobility, synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function, and behavioral phenotypes in the second-generation Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse. Using single-molecule tracking, we found that mGluR5 was significantly more mobile at synapses in hippocampal Fmr1 KO neurons, causing an increased synaptic surface co-clustering of mGluR5 and NMDAR. This correlated with a reduced amplitude of synaptic NMDAR currents, a lack of their mGluR5-activated long-term depression, and NMDAR/hippocampus dependent cognitive deficits. These synaptic and behavioral phenomena were reversed by knocking down Homer1a in Fmr1 KO mice. Our study provides a mechanistic link between changes of mGluR5 dynamics and pathological phenotypes of FXS, unveiling novel targets for mGluR5-based therapeutics.
The mechanisms governing the recruitment of functional glutamate receptors at nascent excitatory postsynapses following initial axon-dendrite contact remain unclear. We examined here the ability of neurexin/neuroligin adhesions to mobilize AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) at postsynapses through a diffusion/trap process involving the scaffold molecule PSD-95. Using single nanoparticle tracking in primary rat and mouse hippocampal neurons overexpressing or lacking neuroligin-1 (Nlg1), a striking inverse correlation was found between AMPAR diffusion and Nlg1 expression level. The use of Nlg1 mutants and inhibitory RNAs against PSD-95 demonstrated that this effect depended on intact Nlg1/PSD-95 interactions. Furthermore, functional AMPARs were recruited within 1 h at nascent Nlg1/PSD-95 clusters assembled by neurexin-1beta multimers, a process requiring AMPAR membrane diffusion. Triggering novel neurexin/neuroligin adhesions also caused a depletion of PSD-95 from native synapses and a drop in AMPAR miniature EPSCs, indicating a competitive mechanism. Finally, both AMPAR level at synapses and AMPAR-dependent synaptic transmission were diminished in hippocampal slices from newborn Nlg1 knock-out mice, confirming an important role of Nlg1 in driving AMPARs to nascent synapses. Together, these data reveal a mechanism by which membrane-diffusing AMPARs can be rapidly trapped at PSD-95 scaffolds assembled at nascent neurexin/neuroligin adhesions, in competition with existing synapses.