3 publication(s) depuis Avril 2018:

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29/02/2020 | Psychopharmacology (Berl)   IF 3.1
Oxycodone self-administration and withdrawal behaviors in male and female Wistar rats.
Kimbrough A, Kononoff J, Simpson S, Kallupi M, Sedighim S, Palomino K, Conlisk D, Momper JD, de Guglielmo G, George O

RATIONALE: Over the last decade, oxycodone has become one of the most widely abused drugs in the USA. Oxycodone use disorder (OUD) is a serious health problem that has prompted a need to develop animal models of OUD that have both face and predictive validity. Oxycodone use in humans is more prevalent in women and leads to pronounced hyperalgesia and irritability during withdrawal. However, unclear is whether current animal models of oxycodone self-administration recapitulate these characteristics in humans. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the face validity of a model of extended-access oxycodone self-administration in rats by examining the escalation of oxycodone intake and behavioral symptoms of withdrawal, including irritability-like behavior and mechanical nociception, in male and female Wistar rats. RESULTS: Both male and female rats escalated their oxycodone intake over fourteen 12-h self-administration sessions. After escalation, female rats administered more drug than male rats. No differences in plasma oxycodone levels were identified, but males had a significantly higher level of oxycodone in the brain at 30 min. Extended access to oxycodone significantly decreased aggressive-like behavior and increased defensive-like behaviors when tested immediately after a 12-h self-administration session, followed by a rebound increase in aggressive-like behavior 12 h into withdrawal. Tests of mechanical nociception thresholds during withdrawal indicated pronounced hyperalgesia. No sex differences in irritability-like behavior or pain sensitivity were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated the face validity of the extended access model of oxycodone self-administration by identifying sex differences in the escalation of oxycodone intake and pronounced changes in pain and affective states.

GPR139 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is expressed mainly in the brain, with the highest expression in the medial habenula. The modulation of GPR139 receptor function has been hypothesized to be beneficial in the treatment of some mental disorders, but behavioral studies have not yet provided causal evidence of the role of GPR139 in brain dysfunction. Because of the high expression of GPR139 in the habenula, a critical brain region in addiction, we hypothesized that GPR139 may play role in alcohol dependence. Thus, we tested the effect of GPR139 receptor activation using the selective, brain-penetrant receptor agonist JNJ-63533054 on addiction-like behaviors in alcohol-dependent male rats. Systemic administration of JNJ-63533054 (30 mg/kg but not 10 mg/kg, p.o.) reversed the escalation of alcohol self-administration in alcohol-dependent rats, without affecting water or saccharin intake in dependent rats or alcohol intake in nondependent rats. Moreover, systemic JNJ-63533054 administration decreased withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia, without affecting somatic signs of alcohol withdrawal. Further analysis demonstrated that JNJ-63533054 was effective only in a subgroup of dependent rats that exhibited compulsive-like alcohol drinking. Finally, site-specific microinjection of JNJ-63533054 in the habenula but not interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) reduced both alcohol self-administration and withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia in dependent rats. These results provide robust preclinical evidence that GPR139 receptor activation reverses key addiction-like behaviors in dependent animals, suggest that GPR139 may be a novel target for the treatment of alcohol use disorder, and demonstrate that GPR139 is functionally relevant in regulating mammalian behavior.

04/2018 | Pharmacol Biochem Behav   IF 2.5
Inhibition of Glyoxalase 1 reduces alcohol self-administration in dependent and nondependent rats.
de Guglielmo G, Conlisk DE, Barkley-Levenson AM, Palmer AA, George O

Previous studies showed that the glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) gene modulates anxiety-like behavior, seizure susceptibility, depression-like behavior, and alcohol drinking in the drinking-in-the-dark paradigm in nondependent mice. Administration of the small-molecule GLO1 inhibitor S-bromobenzylglutathione cyclopentyl diester (pBBG) decreased alcohol drinking in nondependent mice, suggesting a possible therapeutic strategy. However, the preclinical therapeutic efficacy of pBBG in animal models of alcohol dependence remains to be demonstrated. We tested the effect of pBBG (7.5 and 25mg/kg) on operant alcohol self-administration in alcohol-dependent and nondependent rats. Wistar rats were trained to self-administer 10% alcohol (v/v) and made dependent by chronic intermittent passive exposure to alcohol vapor for 5weeks. Pretreatment with pBBG dose-dependently reduced alcohol self-administration in both nondependent and dependent animals, without affecting water self-administration. pBBG treatment was more effective in dependent rats than in nondependent rats. These data extend previous findings that implicated Glo1 in alcohol drinking in nondependent mice by showing even more profound effects in alcohol-dependent rats. These results suggest that the pharmacological inhibition of GLO1 is a relevant therapeutic target for the treatment of alcohol use disorders.