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06/2009 | Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab
Interleukin-6 activates arginine vasopressin neurons in the supraoptic nucleus during immune challenge in rats.
Palin K, Moreau ML, Sauvant J, Orcel H, Nadjar A, Duvoid-Guillou A, Dudit J, Rabie A, Moos F

The increase of plasma arginin-vasopressin (AVP) release, which translates hypothalamic AVP neuron activation in response to immune challenge, appears to occur independently of plasma osmolality or blood pressure changes. Many studies have shown that major inflammatory mediators produced in response to peripheral inflammation, such as prostaglandin (PG)-E(2) and interleukin (IL)-1beta, excite AVP neurons. However, in vivo electrical activation of AVP neurons was still not assessed in relation to plasma AVP release, osmolality, or blood pressure or to the expression and role of inflammatory molecules like PG-E(2), IL-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha). This study aims at elucidating those factors that underlie the activation of AVP neurons in response to immune stimulation mimicked by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in male Wistar rats. LPS treatment concomittanlty decreased diuresis and increased plasma AVP as well as AVP neuron activity in vivo, and these effects occurred as early as 30 min. Activation was sustained for more than 6 h. Plasma osmolality did not change, whereas blood pressure only transiently increased during the first hour post-LPS. PG-E(2), IL-1beta, and TNFalpha mRNA expression were raised 3 h after LPS, whereas IL-6 mRNA level increased 30 min post-LPS. In vivo electrophysiological recordings showed that brain IL-6 injection increased AVP neuron activity similarly to peripheral LPS treatment. In contrast, brain injection of anti-IL-6 antibodies prevented the LPS induced-activation of AVP neurons. Taken together, these results suggest that the early activation of AVP neurons in response to LPS injection is induced by brain IL-6.

Involuntary movements, or dyskinesia, represent a debilitating complication of levodopa therapy for Parkinson's disease ultimately experienced by the vast majority of patients. This article does not review the increased understanding of dyskinesia pathophysiology we have seen during the past few years but, instead, specifically focuses upon the very first molecular events thought to be responsible for the establishment of dyskinesia and generally grouped under the term of 'priming'. Priming is classically defined as the process by which the brain becomes sensitized such that administration of a dopaminergic therapy modifies the response to subsequent dopaminergic treatments. In this way, over time, with repeated treatment, the chance of dopaminergic stimulation eliciting dyskinesia is increased and once dyskinesia has been established, the severity of dyskinesia increases. In this opinion review, however, we aim at strongly opposing the common view of priming. We propose, and hopefully will demonstrate, that priming does not exist per se but is the direct and intrinsic consequence of the loss of dopamine innervation of the striatum (and other target structures), meaning that the first injections of dopaminergic drugs only exacerbate those mechanisms (sensitization) but do not induce them. Chronicity and pulsatility of subsequent dopaminergic treatment only exacerbates the likelihood of developing dyskinesia.

Chronic L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) often leads to debilitating involuntary movements, termed L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), about which the rodent analog, the abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs), has been associated consistently with an activation of the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Previous studies have shown that lovastatin, a specific inhibitor of the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis, can also inhibit Ras isoprenylation and activity and subsequently the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (pERK1/2). We hypothesized that lovastatin treatment-commenced previous L-DOPA exposure could reduce AIM incidence and severity in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of PD by secondarily preventing the L-DOPA/Benserazide-induced increase in pERK1 levels. The lovastatin-L-DOPA/Benserazide-treated 6-OHDA animals displayed less severe rotational behavior as well as a dramatic reduction in AIM severity than the L-DOPA/Benserazide-treated ones. Such lower AIM severity was associated with a decrease in L-DOPA-induced increase in the following: (1) striatal pERK1 and (2) DeltaFosB levels, and (3) theta/alpha oscillations of substantia nigra pas reticulata (SNr) neurons as well as (4) a normalization of SNr firing frequency. Those results strongly suggest that lovastatin might represent a treatment option for managing LID in PD.

22/01/2008 | Neuroreport
Subthalamic stimulation increases striatal tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation.
Reese R, Winter C, Nadjar A, Harnack D, Morgenstern R, Kupsch A, Bezard E, Meissner W

Subthalamic stimulation enhances striatal tyrosine hydroxylase activity, which is regulated by phosphorylation at different serine residues. Western blotting was performed to investigate phosphorylation at the serine residues 19, 31 and 40 in striatal tissue of rats that had received subthalamic stimulation or sham stimulation for 2 h. In animals that were killed directly after stimulation, the tyrosine hydroxylase protein content was unchanged, whereas phosphorylation at the serine residue 19 was increased and phosphorylation at the serine residues 31 and 40 tended to be higher compared with controls. By contrast, tyrosine hydroxylase protein content and phosphorylation were similar in rats that were killed 24 h after stimulation. Our results suggest that subthalamic stimulation may increase tyrosine hydroxylase activity via increased phosphorylation.

26/12/2007 | J Neurosci
RGS9-2 negatively modulates L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-induced dyskinesia in experimental Parkinson's disease.
Gold SJ, Hoang CV, Potts BW, Porras G, Pioli E, Kim KW, Nadjar A, Qin C, LaHoste GJ, Li Q, Bioulac BH, Waugh JL, Gurevich E, Neve RL, Bezard E

Chronic L-dopa treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) often leads to debilitating involuntary movements, termed L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID), mediated by dopamine (DA) receptors. RGS9-2 is a GTPase accelerating protein that inhibits DA D2 receptor-activated G proteins. Herein, we assess the functional role of RGS9-2 on LID. In monkeys, Western blot analysis of striatal extracts shows that RGS9-2 levels are not altered by MPTP-induced DA denervation and/or chronic L-dopa administration. In MPTP monkeys with LID, striatal RGS9-2 overexpression--achieved by viral vector injection into the striatum--diminishes the involuntary movement intensity without lessening the anti-parkinsonian effects of the D1/D2 receptor agonist L-dopa. In contrasts, in these animals, striatal RGS9-2 overexpression diminishes both the involuntary movement intensity and the anti-parkinsonian effects of the D2/D3 receptor agonist ropinirole. In unilaterally 6-OHDA-lesioned rats with LID, we show that the time course of viral vector-mediated striatal RGS9-2 overexpression parallels the time course of improvement of L-dopa-induced involuntary movements. We also find that unilateral 6-OHDA-lesioned RGS9-/- mice are more susceptible to L-dopa-induced involuntary movements than unilateral 6-OHDA-lesioned RGS9+/+ mice, albeit the rotational behavior--taken as an index of the anti-parkinsonian response--is similar between the two groups of mice. Together, these findings suggest that RGS9-2 plays a pivotal role in LID pathophysiology. However, the findings also suggest that increasing RGS9-2 expression and/or function in PD patients may only be a suitable therapeutic strategy to control involuntary movements induced by nonselective DA agonist such as L-dopa.

31/01/2007 | J Neurosci
Shaping of motor responses by incentive values through the basal ganglia.
Pasquereau B, Nadjar A, Arkadir D, Bezard E, Goillandeau M, Bioulac B, Gross CE, Boraud T

The striatum is a key neural interface for cognitive and motor information processing in which associations between reward value and visual stimulus can be used to modify motor commands. It can guide action-selection processes that occur farther downstream in the basal ganglia (BG) circuit, by encoding the reward value of an action. Here, we report on the study of simultaneously recorded neurons in the dorsal striatum (input stage of the BG) and the internal pallidum (output stage of the BG) in two monkeys performing a center-out motor task in which the visual targets were associated with different reward probabilities. We show that the tuning curves of motor-related neurons in both structures are modulated by the value of the action before movement initiation and during its execution. The representations of values associated with different actions change dynamically during the task in the internal globus pallidus, with a significant increase in the number of encoding neurons for the chosen target at the onset of movement. This report sheds additional light on the functional differences between the input and output structures of the BG and supports the assertion that the dorsal basal ganglia are involved in movement-related decision-making processes based on incentive values.

The behavioral effects of peripherally administered interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) are mediated by the production of cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators at the level of the blood-brain interface and by activation of neural pathway. To assess whether this action is mediated by NFkappaB activation, rats were injected into the lateral ventricle of the brain with a specific inhibitor of NFkappaB activation, the NEMO Binding Domain (NBD) peptide that has been shown previously to abolish completely IL-1beta-induced NFkappaB activation and Cox-2 synthesis in the brain microvasculature. NFkappaB pathway inactivation significantly blocked the behavioral effects of intraperitoneally administered IL-1beta in the form of social withdrawal and decreased food intake, and dramatically reduced IL-1beta-induced c-Fos expression in various brain regions as paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, and lateral part of the central amygdala. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that IL-1beta-induced NFkappaB activation at the blood-brain interface is a crucial step in the transmission of immune signals from the periphery to the brain that underlies further events responsible of sickness behavior.

08/2005 | J Cereb Blood Flow Metab
NFkappaB activates in vivo the synthesis of inducible Cox-2 in the brain.
Nadjar A, Tridon V, May MJ, Ghosh S, Dantzer R, Amedee T, Parnet P

Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) induces cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression in many of its cellular targets resulting in production and release of prostaglandins. Although IL-1beta-induced Cox-2 expression most likely requires activation of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NFkappaB) pathway, this has never been formally demonstrated in vivo. We tested this using a specific inhibitor of NFkappaB activation, the NEMO binding domain (NBD) peptide, that has been shown previously to be effective in various in vivo models of acute inflammation. Incubation of rat glioma cells with the NBD peptide blocked IL-1beta-induced NFkappaB nuclear translocation. Furthermore, after injection of a biotinylated version of the NBD peptide into the lateral ventricle of the brain, we found that it readily diffused to its potential cellular targets in vivo. To test the effects of the peptide on NFkappaB activation and Cox-2 expression in the brain, we injected it intracerebroventricularly (36 microg/rat) into rats before intraperitoneal injection of IL-1beta (60 microg/kg). Treatment with NBD peptide completely abolished IL-1beta-induced NFkappaB activation and Cox-2 synthesis in microvasculature. In contrast, the peptide had no effect on constitutive neuronal Cox-2. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that IL-1beta-induced NFkappaB activation plays a major role in transmission of immune signals from the periphery to the brain.

Interleukin-1beta is released at the periphery during infection and acts on the nervous system to induce fever, neuroendocrine activation, and behavioral changes. These effects are mediated by brain type I IL-1 receptors. In vitro studies have shown the ability of interleukin-1beta to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways including p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). In contrast to other mitogen-activated protein kinases, little is known about ERK1/2 activation in the rat brain in response to interleukin-1beta. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate spatial and temporal activation of ERK1/2 in the rat brain after peripheral administration of interleukin-1beta using immunohistochemistry to detect the phosphorylated form of the kinase. In non-stimulated conditions, phosphorylated ERK1/2 immunoreactivity was observed in neurons throughout the brain. Administration of interleukin-1beta (60 microg/kg, i.p.) induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in areas at the interface between brain and blood or cerebrospinal fluid: meninges, circumventricular organs, endothelial like cells of the blood vessels, and in brain nuclei involved in behavioral depression, fever and neuroendocrine activation: paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, supraoptic nucleus, central amygdala and arcuate nucleus. Double labeling of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and cell markers revealed the expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 in neurons, astrocytes and microglia. Since phosphorylated ERK1/2 was found in structures in which type I IL-1 receptor has already been identified as well as in structures lacking this receptor, activation of ERK1/2 is likely to occur in response to both direct and indirect action of interleukin-1beta on its target cells.

The signalling pathways that mediate early central effects of interleukin-1 (IL-1) during the acute phase reaction have been poorly elucidated. Interaction of IL-1beta to its specific receptor interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) leads to nuclear factor kappa B (NuFkappaB) nuclear translocation and a robust transcriptional activation of inhibitor of kappa B alpha (IkappaBalpha) within the rat brain. Indeed, we demonstrated that IL-1RI expressed in blood brain barrier (BBB) cells and in circumventricular organs (CVOs) is crucial for p65-NFkappaB translocation induced by peripheral injection of IL-1beta. Moreover, it has been previously shown that monitoring IkappaBalpha mRNA synthesis is an effective tool to investigate the activity of the transcription factor NFkappaB into the CNS. However in the present study we observed time-related and cell-type differences between IkappaBalpha mRNA synthesis and p65-NFkappaB translocation. This indicates that the expression of IkappaBalpha mRNA does not strictly parallel p65-NFkappaB nuclear translocation, suggesting that these markers are not interchangeable to investigate NFkappaB activity but must be studied together. Thus, we hypothesize that IL-1beta reached the brain across the CVOs that lack a BBB and endothelial cells all over the brain and interacted with its receptors to induce NFkappaB translocation. The study of the consequences of the impairment of NFkappaB pathway activation in in vivo experimentation should bring important clues about the precise role of this transcription factor.