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02/2015 | Neuropsychopharmacology   IF 7
Transgenic increase in n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio protects against cognitive deficits induced by an immune challenge through decrease of neuroinflammation.
Delpech JC, Madore C, Joffre C, Aubert A, Kang JX, Nadjar A, Laye S

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) display immunomodulatory properties in the brain, n-3 PUFAs being able to reduce inflammation whereas n-6 PUFAs are more pro-inflammatory. It has been extensively demonstrated that exposure to a peripheral immune challenge leads to the production and release of inflammatory mediators in the brain in association with cognitive deficits. The question arises whether n-3 PUFA supplementation could downregulate the brain inflammatory response and subsequent cognitive alterations. In this study, we used a genetically modified mouse line carrying the fat-1 gene from the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, encoding an n-3 PUFA desaturase that catalyzes conversion of n-6 into n-3 PUFA. Consequently, these mice display endogenously elevated n-3 PUFA tissue contents. Fat-1 mice or wild-type (WT) littermates were injected peripherally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, to induce an inflammatory episode. Our results showed that LPS altered differently the phenotype of microglia and the expression of cytokines and chemokines in Fat-1 and WT mice. In Fat-1 mice, pro-inflammatory factors synthesis was lowered compared with WT mice, whereas anti-inflammatory mechanisms were favored 24 h after LPS treatment. Moreover, LPS injection impaired spatial memory in WT mice, whereas interestingly, the Fat-1 mice showed normal cognitive performances. All together, these data suggest that the central n-3 PUFA increase observed in Fat-1 mice modulated the brain innate immune system activity, leading to the protection of animals against LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and subsequent spatial memory alteration.

10/2014 | Brain Behav Immun   IF 6.1
Nutritional n-3 PUFAs deficiency during perinatal periods alters brain innate immune system and neuronal plasticity-associated genes.
Madore C, Nadjar A, Delpech JC, Sere A, Aubert A, Portal C, Joffre C, Laye S

Low dietary intake of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a causative factor of neurodevelopmental disorders. However the mechanisms linking n-3 PUFAs low dietary intake and neurodevelopmental disorders are poorly understood. Microglia, known mainly for their immune function in the injured or infected brain, have recently been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in regulating maturation of neuronal circuits during normal brain development. Disruption of this role during the perinatal period therefore could significantly contribute to psychopathologies with a neurodevelopmental neurodevelopmental component. N-3 PUFAs, essential lipids and key structural components of neuronal membrane phospholipids, are highly incorporated in cell membranes during the gestation and lactation phase. We previously showed that in a context of perinatal n-3 PUFAs deficiency, accretion of these latter is decreased and this is correlated to an alteration of endotoxin-induced inflammatory response. We thus postulated that dietary n-3 PUFAs imbalance alters the activity of microglia in the developing brain, leading to abnormal formation of neuronal networks. We first confirmed that mice fed with a n-3 PUFAs deficient diet displayed decreased n-3 PUFAs levels in the brain at post-natal days (PND)0 and PND21. We then demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs deficiency altered microglia phenotype and motility in the post-natal developing brain. This was paralleled by an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines expression at PND21 and to modification of neuronal plasticity-related genes expression. Overall, our findings show for the first time that a dietary n-3 PUFAs deficiency from the first day of gestation leads to the development of a pro-inflammatory condition in the central nervous system that may contribute to neurodevelopmental alterations.

07/2014 | Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids   IF 2
n-3 LCPUFA improves cognition: the young, the old and the sick.
Joffre C, Nadjar A, Lebbadi M, Calon F, Laye S

Due to the implication of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, neurite outgrowth and to its high incorporation into the brain, this n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) is considered as crucial in the development and maintenance of the learning memory performance throughout life. In the present chapter we aimed at reviewing data investigating the relation between DHA and cognition during the perinatal period, young adult- and adulthood and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD). In Humans, dietary DHA supplementation from the perinatal period to adulthood does not reveal a clear and consistent memory improvement whereas it is the case in animal studies. The positive effects observed in animal models may have been enhanced by using n-3 PUFA deficient animal models as controls. In animal models of AD, a general consensus on the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in attenuating cognitive impairment was established. These studies make DHA a potential suitable micronutrient for the maintenance of cognitive performance at all periods of life.

2014 | PLoS ONE   IF 3.5
Mechanisms involved in dual vasopressin/apelin neuron dysfunction during aging.
Sauvant J, Delpech JC, Palin K, De Mota N, Dudit J, Aubert A, Orcel H, Roux P, Laye S, Moos F, Llorens-Cortes C, Nadjar A

Normal aging is associated with vasopressin neuron adaptation, but little is known about its effects on the release of apelin, an aquaretic peptide colocalized with vasopressin. We found that plasma vasopressin concentrations were higher and plasma apelin concentrations lower in aged rats than in younger adults. The response of AVP/apelin neurons to osmotic challenge was impaired in aged rats. The overactivity of vasopressin neurons was sustained partly by the increased expression of Transient receptor potential vanilloid2 (Trpv2), because central Trpv blocker injection reversed the age-induced increase in plasma vasopressin concentration without modifying plasma apelin concentration. The morphofunctional plasticity of the supraoptic nucleus neuron-astrocyte network normally observed during chronic dehydration in adults appeared to be impaired in aged rats as well. IL-6 overproduction by astrocytes and low-grade microglial neuroinflammation may contribute to the modification of neuronal functioning during aging. Indeed, central treatment with antibodies against IL-6 decreased plasma vasopressin levels and increased plasma apelin concentration toward the values observed in younger adults. Conversely, minocycline treatment (inhibiting microglial metabolism) did not affect plasma vasopressin concentration, but increased plasma apelin concentration toward control values for younger adults. This study is the first to demonstrate dual vasopressin/apelin adaptation mediated by inflammatory molecules and neuronal Trpv2, during aging.

11/2013 | Brain Behav Immun   IF 5.6
Early morphofunctional plasticity of microglia in response to acute lipopolysaccharide.
Madore C, Joffre C, Delpech JC, De Smedt-Peyrusse V, Aubert A, Coste L, Laye S, Nadjar A

Within the central nervous system (CNS) the traditional role of microglia has been in brain infection and disease, phagocytosing debris and secreting factors to modify disease progression. This led to the concept of 'resting' versus 'activated' microglia. However, this is misleading because multiple phenotypic and morphological stages of microglia can influence neuronal structure and function in any condition and recent evidence extends their role to healthy brain homeostasis. The present work was thus aimed at reappraising the concept of morphofunctional activity of microglia in a context of peripheral acute immune challenge, where microglial activity is known to be modified, using the new state-of-the-art techniques available. To do so, mice were injected peripherally with lipopolysaccharide, a potent inducer of cerebral inflammation, and we assessed early cytokines production, phenotype, motility and morphology of microglial cells. Our results showed that LPS induced a widespread inflammatory response both peripherally and centrally, as revealed by the quantification of cytokines levels. We also found an alteration of microglial motility that was confirmed by in vivo studies showing an overall reduction of microglial processes length in the hippocampus of LPS-treated animals. Finally, analysis of various surface receptors expression revealed that LPS did not significantly impact microglial phenotype 2h after the injection but rather induced an increase of CD11b(+)/CD45(high) cells. These latter may be at the vasculature, at the CNS vicinity, or may have invaded the CNS.

05/2013 | Glia   IF 5.1
Astrocyte-derived adenosine modulates increased sleep pressure during inflammatory response.
Nadjar A, Blutstein T, Aubert A, Laye S, Haydon PG

Activation of the immune system elicits several behavioral changes collectively called sickness. Among the behavioral changes, systemic infections induce an increase in time spent in nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep and an increase of slow wave activity (or 'sleep pressure'). Using an inducible, astrocyte-specific transgenic dominant negative SNARE (dnSNARE) mouse line we recently demonstrated that gliotransmission plays an important role in sleep homeostasis through an adenosine receptor 1 (A1R)-sensitive pathway. It has been hypothesized that systemic infection, mimicked by peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), increases sleeping behavior in part through upregulation of central adenosine levels. Moreover, as a source of immunologically relevant factors, astrocytes play a pivotal role in the central nervous system immune and inflammatory responses. However, little is known about the role of astrocytes in the CNS response to a peripheral immune challenge. We hypothesize that LPS impacts sleep homeostasis through the modulation of astrocyte-derived adenosine accumulation. We therefore used dnSNARE mice to determine whether astrocytes contribute to the increased sleep pressure under immune challenge and whether this is a result of changes in adenosine signaling. We demonstrate that dnSNARE-mediated gliotransmission is required for the ability of LPS to elevate sleep pressure as measured by the power of slow wave activity during NREM sleep. Moreover, in agreement with a role of astrocyte-derived adenosine in modulating sleep homeostasis, we find that intracerebroventricular infusion of the A1R antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT) mimics this dnSNARE phenotype. Taken together, our data demonstrate that astrocytic adenosine acting through A1 receptors contributes to the modulation of sleep pressure by LPS.

2012 | PLoS ONE   IF 4.1
Short-term long chain omega3 diet protects from neuroinflammatory processes and memory impairment in aged mice.
Labrousse VF, Nadjar A, Joffre C, Costes L, Aubert A, Gregoire S, Bretillon L, Laye S

Regular consumption of food enriched in omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3 PUFAs) has been shown to reduce risk of cognitive decline in elderly, and possibly development of Alzheimer's disease. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are the most likely active components of omega3-rich PUFAs diets in the brain. We therefore hypothesized that exposing mice to a DHA and EPA enriched diet may reduce neuroinflammation and protect against memory impairment in aged mice. For this purpose, mice were exposed to a control diet throughout life and were further submitted to a diet enriched in EPA and DHA during 2 additional months. Cytokine expression together with a thorough analysis of astrocytes morphology assessed by a 3D reconstruction was measured in the hippocampus of young (3-month-old) and aged (22-month-old) mice. In addition, the effects of EPA and DHA on spatial memory and associated Fos activation in the hippocampus were assessed. We showed that a 2-month EPA/DHA treatment increased these long-chain omega3 PUFAs in the brain, prevented cytokines expression and astrocytes morphology changes in the hippocampus and restored spatial memory deficits and Fos-associated activation in the hippocampus of aged mice. Collectively, these data indicated that diet-induced accumulation of EPA and DHA in the brain protects against neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment linked to aging, further reinforcing the idea that increased EPA and DHA intake may provide protection to the brain of aged subjects.

Interleukin-1beta acts on the CNS to induce fever, neuroendocrine activation, and behavioral changes, but cannot passively cross the blood-brain barrier. According to a widely accepted hypothesis interleukin-1beta induces the synthesis of cyclooxygenase-2 at the blood-brain interface, which produces prostaglandins that diffuse into brain parenchyma to activate neurons. We studied the role of brain cyclooxygenase-2 in interleukin-1beta-induced fever, neuroendocrine and behavioral responses and cellular activation by intracerebroventricular infusion of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor NS-398. Central cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition attenuated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 phosphorylation and c-Fos induction in the median preoptic area and arcuate hypothalamus, but not in other hypothalamic or brainstem structures, after intraperitoneal interleukin-1beta administration. However, the same treatment did not affect interleukin-1beta-induced fever, rises in corticosterone or anorexia. These findings moderate the prevailing view and indicate that brain cyclooxygenase-2-dependent prostaglandin production is important to activation of the median preoptic and arcuate hypothalamus, but not necessarily involved in fever, rises in plasma corticosterone and anorexia after peripheral interleukin-1beta administration.

12/2009 | Neurobiol Aging
IGF-1 signaling reduces neuro-inflammatory response and sensitivity of neurons to MPTP.
Nadjar A, Berton O, Guo S, Leneuve P, Dovero S, Diguet E, Tison F, Zhao B, Holzenberger M, Bezard E

Reduced expression of IGF-1R increases lifespan and resistance to oxidative stress in the mouse, raising the possibility that this also confers relative protection against the pro-parkinsonian neurotoxin MPTP, known to involve an oxidative stress component. We used heterozygous IGF-1R(+/-) mice and challenged them with MPTP. Interestingly, MPTP induced more severe lesions of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, in IGF-1R(+/-) mice than in wild-type animals. Using electron spin resonance, we found that free radicals were decreased in IGF-1R(+/-) mice in comparison with controls, both before and after MPTP exposure, suggesting that the increased vulnerability of dopamine neurons is not caused by oxidative stress. Importantly, we showed that IGF-1R(+/-) mice display a dramatically increased neuro-inflammatory response to MPTP that may ground the observed increase in neuronal death. Microarray analysis revealed that oxidative stress-associated genes, but also several anti-inflammatory signaling pathways were downregulated under control conditions in IGF-1R(+/-) mice compared to WT. Collectively, these data indicate that IGF signaling can reduce neuro-inflammation dependent sensitivity of neurons to MPTP.

09/2009 | Neurobiol Dis
High frequency stimulation of the entopeduncular nucleus sets the cortico-basal ganglia network to a new functional state in the dystonic hamster.
Reese R, Charron G, Nadjar A, Aubert I, Thiolat ML, Hamann M, Richter A, Bezard E, Meissner WG

High frequency stimulation (HFS) of the internal pallidum is effective for the treatment of dystonia. Only few studies have investigated the effects of stimulation on the activity of the cortex-basal ganglia network. We here assess within this network the effect of entopeduncular nucleus (EP) HFS on the expression of c-Fos and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) in the dt(sz)-hamster, a well-characterized model of paroxysmal dystonia. In dt(sz)-hamsters, we identified abnormal activity in motor cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus. These structures have already been linked to the pathophysiology of human dystonia. EP-HFS (i) increased striatal c-Fos expression in controls and dystonic hamsters and (ii) reduced thalamic c-Fos expression in dt(sz)-hamsters. EP-HFS had no effect on COI expression. The present results suggest that EP-HFS induces a new network activity state which may improve information processing and finally reduces the severity of dystonic attacks in dt(sz)-hamsters.