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Sebastien DELCASSO


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10 publication(s) depuis Février 2006:

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24/01/2018 | sci transl med   IF 17.2
Miniaturized neural system for chronic, local intracerebral drug delivery.
Dagdeviren C, Ramadi KB, Joe P, Spencer K, Schwerdt HN, Shimazu H, Delcasso S, Amemori KI, Nunez-Lopez C, Graybiel AM, Cima MJ, Langer R

Recent advances in medications for neurodegenerative disorders are expanding opportunities for improving the debilitating symptoms suffered by patients. Existing pharmacologic treatments, however, often rely on systemic drug administration, which result in broad drug distribution and consequent increased risk for toxicity. Given that many key neural circuitries have sub-cubic millimeter volumes and cell-specific characteristics, small-volume drug administration into affected brain areas with minimal diffusion and leakage is essential. We report the development of an implantable, remotely controllable, miniaturized neural drug delivery system permitting dynamic adjustment of therapy with pinpoint spatial accuracy. We demonstrate that this device can chemically modulate local neuronal activity in small (rodent) and large (nonhuman primate) animal models, while simultaneously allowing the recording of neural activity to enable feedback control.

2018 | Front Neural Circuits   IF 3.1
HOPE: Hybrid-Drive Combining Optogenetics, Pharmacology and Electrophysiology.
Delcasso S, Denagamage S, Britton Z, Graybiel AM

Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying human cognition and determining the causal factors for the development of brain pathologies are among the greatest challenges for society. Electrophysiological recordings offer remarkable observations of brain activity as they provide highly precise representations of information coding in both temporal and spatial domains. With the development of genetic tools over the last decades, mice have been a key model organism in neuroscience. However, conducting chronic in vivo electrophysiology in awake, behaving mice remains technically challenging, and this difficulty prevents many research teams from acquiring critical recordings in their mouse models. Behavioral training, implant fabrication, brain surgery, data acquisition and data analysis are all required steps that must be mastered in order to perform cutting-edge experiments in systems neuroscience. Here, we present a new method that simplifies the construction of a drivable and multi-task electrophysiological recording implant without loss of flexibility and recording power. The hybrid-drive combining optogenetics, pharmacology and electrophysiology (HOPE) can support up to 16 tetrodes, attached to a single drive mechanism, organized in two bundles of eight tetrodes, allowing recordings in two different mouse brain regions simultaneously with two optical fibers for optogenetic manipulation or two injection cannulas for drug-delivery experiments. Because it can be printed with a latest-generation desktop 3D printer, the production cost is low compared to classical electrophysiology implants, and it can be built within a few hours. The HOPE implant is also reconfigurable to specific needs as it has been created in a computer-aided design (CAD) software and all the files used for its construction are open-source.

16/11/2017 | Cell   IF 36.2
Chronic Stress Alters Striosome-Circuit Dynamics, Leading to Aberrant Decision-Making.
Friedman A, Homma D, Bloem B, Gibb LG, Amemori KI, Hu D, Delcasso S, Truong TF, Yang J, Hood AS, Mikofalvy KA, Beck DW, Nguyen N, Nelson ED, Toro Arana SE, Vorder Bruegge RH, Goosens KA, Graybiel AM

Effective evaluation of costs and benefits is a core survival capacity that in humans is considered as optimal, 'rational' decision-making. This capacity is vulnerable in neuropsychiatric disorders and in the aftermath of chronic stress, in which aberrant choices and high-risk behaviors occur. We report that chronic stress exposure in rodents produces abnormal evaluation of costs and benefits resembling non-optimal decision-making in which choices of high-cost/high-reward options are sharply increased. Concomitantly, alterations in the task-related spike activity of medial prefrontal neurons correspond with increased activity of their striosome-predominant striatal projection neuron targets and with decreased and delayed striatal fast-firing interneuron activity. These effects of chronic stress on prefronto-striatal circuit dynamics could be blocked or be mimicked by selective optogenetic manipulation of these circuits. We suggest that altered excitation-inhibition dynamics of striosome-based circuit function could be an underlying mechanism by which chronic stress contributes to disorders characterized by aberrant decision-making under conflict. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

The hippocampus is important for contextual behavior, and the striatum plays key roles in decision making. When studying the functional relationships with the hippocampus, prior studies have focused mostly on the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), emphasizing the antagonistic relationships between the hippocampus and DLS in spatial versus response learning. By contrast, the functional relationships between the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and hippocampus are relatively unknown. The current study reports that lesions to both the hippocampus and DMS profoundly impaired performance of rats in a visual scene-based memory task in which the animals were required to make a choice response by using visual scenes displayed in the background. Analysis of simultaneous recordings of local field potentials revealed that the gamma oscillatory power was higher in the DMS, but not in CA1, when the rat performed the task using familiar scenes than novel ones. In addition, the CA1-DMS networks increased coherence at gamma, but not at theta, rhythm as the rat mastered the task. At the single-unit level, the neuronal populations in CA1 and DMS showed differential firing patterns when responses were made using familiar visual scenes than novel ones. Such learning-dependent firing patterns were observed earlier in the DMS than in CA1 before the rat made choice responses. The present findings suggest that both the hippocampus and DMS process memory representations for visual scenes in parallel with different time courses and that flexible choice action using background visual scenes requires coordinated operations of the hippocampus and DMS at gamma frequencies.

01/2012 | Neurobiol Aging   IF 4.4
Early temporal short-term memory deficits in double transgenic APP/PS1 mice.
Lagadec S, Rotureau L, Hemar A, Macrez N, Delcasso S, Jeantet Y, Cho YH

We tested single APP (Tg2576) transgenic, PS1 (PS1dE9) transgenic, and double APP/PS1 transgenic mice at 3 and 6 months of age on the acquisition of a hippocampal-dependent operant 'differential reinforcement of low rate schedule' (DRL) paradigm. In this task mice are required to wait for at least 10 seconds (DRL-10s) between 2 consecutive nose poke responses. Our data showed that while single APP and PS1 transgene expression did not affect DRL learning and performance, mice expressing double APP/PS1 transgenes were impaired in the acquisition of DRL-10s at 6 months, but not at 3 months of age. The same impaired double transgenic mice, however, were perfectly capable of normal acquisition of signaled DRL-10s (SDRL-10s) task, a hippocampal-independent task, wherein mice were required to emit responses when the end of the 10-second delay was signaled by a lighting of the chamber. The age-dependent and early deficits of APP/PS1 mice suggest that the appetitive DRL paradigm is sensitive to the amyloid pathology present in double APP/PS1 mice, and that this mouse line represents a good model with which to study the efficacy of therapeutic strategies against Alzheimer's disease.

23/11/2011 | J Neurosci   IF 6.1
Neural correlates of object-in-place learning in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.
Kim J, Delcasso S, Lee I

Hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) process spatiotemporally discrete events while maintaining goal-directed task demands. Although some studies have reported that neural activities in the two regions are coordinated, such observations have rarely been reported in an object-place paired-associate (OPPA) task in which animals must learn an object-in-place rule. In this study, we recorded single units and local field potentials simultaneously from the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus and PFC as rats learned that Object A, but not Object B, was rewarded in Place 1, but not in Place 2 (vice versa for Object B). Both hippocampus and PFC are required for normal performance in this task. PFC neurons fired in association with the regularity of the occurrence of a certain type of event independent of space, whereas neuronal firing in CA1 was spatially localized for representing a discrete place. Importantly, the differential firing patterns were observed in tandem with common learning-related changes in both regions. Specifically, once OPPA learning occurred and rats used an object-in-place strategy, (1) both CA1 and PFC neurons exhibited spatially more similar and temporally more synchronized firing patterns, (2) spiking activities in both regions were more phase locked to theta rhythms, and (3) CA1-medial PFC coherence in theta oscillation was maximal before entering a critical place for decision making. The results demonstrate differential as well as common neural dynamics between hippocampus and PFC in acquiring the OPPA task and strongly suggest that both regions form a unified functional network for processing an episodic event.

31/05/2011 | Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A   IF 9.6
Changes in striatal procedural memory coding correlate with learning deficits in a mouse model of Huntington disease.
Cayzac S, Delcasso S, Paz V, Jeantet Y, Cho YH

In hereditary neurodegenerative Huntington disease (HD), early cognitive impairments before motor deficits have been hypothesized to result from dysfunction in the striatum and cortex before degeneration. To test this hypothesis, we examined the firing properties of single cells and local field activity in the striatum and cortex of pre-motor-symptomatic R6/1 transgenic mice while they were engaged in a procedural learning task, the performance on which typically depends on the integrity of striatum and basal ganglia. Here, we report that a dramatically diminished recruitment of the vulnerable striatal projection cells, but not local interneurons, of R6/1 mice in coding for the task, compared with WT littermates, is associated with severe deficits in procedural learning. In addition, both the striatum and cortex in these mice showed a unique oscillation at high gamma-frequency. These data provide crucial information on the in vivo cellular processes in the corticostriatal pathway through which the HD mutation exerts its effects on cognitive abilities in early HD.

16/04/2007 | Behav Brain Res   IF 2.8
A long list visuo-spatial sequential learning in mice.
Cho YH, Delcasso S, Israel A, Jeantet Y

Sequential learning has been extensively studied in humans using the serial reaction time (SRT) paradigm, and has contributed significantly to the description of the neurobiological processes and substrates underlying different memory systems. More precisely, patients with basal ganglia, but not medial temporal lobe pathology exhibit selective deficits in this task, qualified as implicit learning, since this learning occurs without any conscious awareness of the subjects. While, the construction of transgenic mouse models of human neurological diseases has created a great need for developing mouse analogs of this or other types of human memory tasks, only a few studies exist in rodents, and more specifically in mice. The present study is aimed at examining a SRT protocol for mice using our new operant chamber designed to be polyvalent for different experimental conditions and uses. We provide data for learning by normal C57BL/6 mice of a repeating sequence of 12 nose poke responses, first, via the observation of increases in reaction times when repeated sequence is replaced by random sequence, and, second, by analysis of behavior during transfer trials in which one sequential element is discretely replaced by a new item. The potential of our protocol for dissecting the different neural systems of learning and memory is discussed as well as its usefulness for the validation of transgenic mouse models of human neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease.

28/03/2007 | Behav Brain Res   IF 2.8
A new test for long-term spatial memory using an operant chamber in mice.
Delcasso S, Jeantet Y, Cho YH

As part of ongoing efforts to develop fully automated and standardized behavioral tasks to probe cognitive and mnemonic capabilities of mice, we have constructed a new rectangular operant chamber. The chamber contains numerous nose poke holes, distributed over three of its inner walls that are identifiable by their spatial locations. Using this apparatus, we have developed a 'spatial' memory task using a successive reversal discrimination paradigm. Mice learn to discriminate, by trial and error, the position of a single valid hole during a Presentation session wherein they obtained a maximum of 20 reinforcements or 15 min time elapsed. Following a delay interval, they were resubmitted to the same task (Test) using the same reinforced hole. Results indicated that C57BL/6 mice exhibited a significant improvement during the Test, the magnitude of the improvement (memory savings) being dependent on the length of retention intervals ranging from 5 min to 24h. In addition, discrimination performance was sensitive to scopolamine in a dose dependent manner. The simplicity in task set up and the minimal labor and space requirements make this task suitable for high throughput behavioral characterization of genetically modified mice.

In order to study spatial cognition as well as operant/instrumental conditioning or attention processes in the same experimental context in mice, we have designed and constructed an operant chamber that contains a large number of nose poke holes distributed over its inner walls. The nose poke holes were placed three in a horizontal row on one left wall, five in a form of an X on the front wall, and three in a vertical column on one right wall in a hexagonal shaped chamber. This organization of nose poke holes was intended to provide mice with spatially structured environmental cues. Here, we report on an experiment in which providing additional structuring to the standard condition, favoring either further spatial grouping or perceptual/visual clustering of subsets of holes, tremendously facilitated nose poke discrimination learning in normal C57BL/6 mice. More interestingly, mice were able to use their (spatial or mental) representation of holes organization elaborated under spatially or visually structured environment, to improve their learning of a new discrimination under the standard less-structured environment. These findings support the idea that mice are sensitive to subtle visual background information, in addition to spatial information, to organize nose poke items, process similar to both pattern separation and chunking process, in order to minimize interference and to increase items discriminability and their capacity for (long-term) memory.