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Bruno BROCHET





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Cursus:
Neurologue
MD
PU-PH

Expertise: Multiple Sclerosis, Cognition, Imaging





157 publication(s) since Janvier 1987:


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The indicated IF have been collected by the Web of Sciences in


05/2019 | Mult Scler   IF 5.3
Efficacy of rituximab in refractory RRMS.
Durozard P, Maarouf A, Boutiere C, Ruet A, Brochet B, Vukusic S, Carra-Dalliere C, Labauge P, Mathey G, Debouverie M, Papeix C, Maillart E, Lubetzki C, Bensa C, Gout O, Giannesini C, Stankoff B, Ciron J, Brassat D, Pelletier J, Rico Lamy A, Audoin B

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of rituximab as rescue therapy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and persistent disease activity confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) despite immunosuppressive disease-modifying therapy (DMT). METHODS: In this observational nationwide retrospective multicenter study, we first identified 351 off-label rituximab-treated patients through a cohort of 15,984 RRMS patients. In this group, we identified patients with disease activity prior to rituximab confirmed by MRI (one or more new T2 lesion and/or gadolinium-enhancing lesion) despite immunosuppressive DMT (fingolimod, natalizumab, or mitoxantrone) with a follow-up after rituximab initiation longer than 6 months. Outcome data were collected from the French Observatory of Multiple Sclerosis (OFSEP) register and medical charts. RESULTS: A total of 50 patients were identified. Median rituximab treatment duration was 1.1 (0.5-6.4) year. Mean annualized relapse rate significantly decreased from 0.8 during last immunosuppressive DMT to 0.18 after rituximab ( p < 0.0001). While 72% of patients showed gadolinium-enhancing lesions on the last MRI performed during last immunosuppressive DMT, 8% of them showed gadolinium-enhancing lesions on the first MRI performed 6.1 (range 1.4-18.4) months after rituximab ( p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: This study provides level IV evidence that rituximab reduces clinical and MRI disease activity in patients with active RRMS despite immunosuppressive DMT.




02/2019 | mult scler relat disord   IF 3.2
First clinical inflammatory demyelinating events of the central nervous system in a population aged over 70 years: A multicentre study.
Lavandier N, Bonnan M, Carra-Dalliere C, Charif M, Labauge P, Camdessanche JP, Edan G, Naudin A, Brassat D, Ciron J, Clavelou P, Dulau C, Moroso A, Brochet B, Ouallet JC

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Few data are available regarding patients with very late-onset inflammatory demyelinating events. (VLO-IDE). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical, biological, and radiological characteristics and aetiological diagnosis of very late first inflammatory demyelinating events of the central nervous system. METHODS: We conducted a national descriptive retrospective multicentre study on a case series of patients aged >70 years at the time of VLO-IDE. Patients were recruited from a national call on behalf of the 'Societe Francophone de la Sclerose en Plaques' (French Multiple Sclerosis Society). RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were referred (F:M sex ratio 2.1:1). The most frequent clinical impairment was a spinal cord deficit (23/25), usually severe (disability score, median EDSS 4.5 [2-9.5]). Spinal cord lesions were usually extensive, spanning at least three segments (11/25), and large brain lesions were also observed (lesions >20mm in 6/25). The final aetiological diagnoses comprised multiple sclerosis (9/25), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (7/25), neurosystemic lupus erythematosus (2/25), transverse myelitis without aetiological diagnosis (6/25) and optic neuritis (1/25). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights a particular phenotype of first clinical inflammatory demyelinating events in predominantly female patients aged >70 years who have severe motor impairment with common longitudinal extensive myelitis and large and common very active radiological inflammatory lesions. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders seem overrepresented.




11/01/2019 | Neurology   IF 7.6
The cognitive effects of anxiety and depression in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.
Feinstein A, Brochet B, Sumowski J

Abstract:





Abstract:
The relationships between cognitive impairment that exist during the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) remain poorly described. The effect of disease duration has been studied in a few longitudinal cohorts and some cross-sectional studies that suggest that cognitive deficits tend to extend with disease duration. However, the effect of disease duration seems to be confounded by the effect of age. At the pre-clinical stage, cognitive deficits have been observed in patients with radiologically isolated syndromes, and their profile is similar than in clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) and relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). The frequency of cognitive impairment tends to be higher in RRMS than in CIS. In these phenotypes, slowness of information processing speed (IPS) and episodic verbal and visuo-spatial memory deficits are frequently observed, but executive functions, and in particular verbal fluency, could also be impaired. More frequent and severe deficits are reported in SPMS than in RRMS with more severe deficits for memory tests, working memory and IPS. Similarly to what is observed in SPMS, patients with primary progressive MS (PPMS) present with a wide range of cognitive deficits in IPS, attention, working memory, executive functions, and verbal episodic memory with more tests and domains impaired than RRMS patients. Altogether these data suggested that not only the duration of the disease and age play an important role in the cognitive profile of patients, but also the phenotype itself, probably because of its specific pathological mechanism.




13/12/2018 | Mult Scler   IF 5.3
Observatoire Francais de la Sclerose en Plaques (OFSEP): A unique multimodal nationwide MS registry in France.
Vukusic S, Casey R, Rollot F, Brochet B, Pelletier J, Laplaud DA, De Seze J, Cotton F, Moreau T, Stankoff B, Fontaine B, Guillemin F, Debouverie M, Clanet M

Abstract:
The care of multiple sclerosis (MS) in France is based on two complementary interlinked networks: MS expert centers in university hospitals and regional networks of neurologists. The routine use of European database for multiple sclerosis (EDMUS) in all those centers has paved the way for the constitution of a national registry, designated as Observatoire Francais de la Sclerose En Plaques (OFSEP). It promotes a prospective, standardized, high-quality, and multimodal collection of data. On June 2018, there were 68.097 files, with 71.1% females, representing 761,185 person-years. This huge database is open to the scientific community and might contribute exploring unresolved issues and unmet needs in MS.




27/11/2018 | Mult Scler   IF 5.3
Longitudinal study of functional brain network reorganization in clinically isolated syndrome.
Koubiyr I, Deloire M, Besson P, Coupe P, Dulau C, Pelletier J, Tourdias T, Audoin B, Brochet B, Ranjeva JP, Ruet A

Abstract:
BACKGROUND:: There is a lack of longitudinal studies exploring the topological organization of functional brain networks at the early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE:: This study aims to assess potential brain functional reorganization at rest in patients with CIS (PwCIS) after 1 year of evolution and to characterize the dynamics of functional brain networks at the early stage of the disease. METHODS:: We prospectively included 41 PwCIS and 19 matched healthy controls (HCs). They were scanned at baseline and after 1 year. Using graph theory, topological metrics were calculated for each region. Hub disruption index was computed for each metric. RESULTS:: Hub disruption indexes of degree and betweenness centrality were negative at baseline in patients ( p < 0.05), suggesting brain reorganization. After 1 year, hub disruption indexes for degree and betweenness centrality were still negative ( p < 0.00001), but such reorganization appeared more pronounced than at baseline. Different brain regions were driving these alterations. No global efficiency differences were observed between PwCIS and HCs either at baseline or at 1 year. CONCLUSION:: Dynamic changes in functional brain networks appear at the early stages of MS and are associated with the maintenance of normal global efficiency in the brain, suggesting a compensatory effect.




22/05/2018 | Neurology   IF 7.6
Clinical spectrum and prognostic value of CNS MOG autoimmunity in adults: The MOGADOR study.
Cobo-Calvo A, Ruiz A, Maillart E, Audoin B, Zephir H, Bourre B, Ciron J, Collongues N, Brassat D, Cotton F, Papeix C, Durand-Dubief F, Laplaud D, Deschamps R, Cohen M, Biotti D, Ayrignac X, Tilikete C, Thouvenot E, Brochet B, Dulau C, Moreau T, Tourbah A, Lebranchu P, Michel L, Lebrun-Frenay C, Montcuquet A, Mathey G, Debouverie M, Pelletier J, Labauge P, Derache N, Coustans M, Rollot F, De Seze J, Vukusic S, Marignier R

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical and radiologic features associated with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) in a large French nationwide adult cohort, to assess baseline prognostic features of MOG-Ab-associated diseases after a first acute demyelinating syndrome, and to evaluate the clinical value of MOG-Ab longitudinal analysis. METHODS: Clinical data were obtained from 197 MOG-Ab-positive patients >/=18 years of age. Complete imaging data were available in 108, and 54 serum samples were eligible for longitudinal evaluation. For survival analysis comparison, 169 aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab)-positive patients from the NOMADMUS database were included. RESULTS: Median age at onset was 36.46 (range 18.0-76.8) years, and patients were predominantly white (92.9%) with male:female ratio, 1.1. Clinical phenotype at onset included optic neuritis or myelitis in 90.86%, isolated brainstem or encephalopathy syndromes in 6.6%, and a combination of syndromes in 2.5%. Distinctive brain MRI findings in MOG-Ab-positive patients were thalamic and pontine lesions. Cortical and leptomeningeal lesions were found in 16.3% and 6.1%, respectively. The probability of reaching a first relapse after 2 and 5 years was 44.8% and 61.8%, respectively. MOG-Ab-positive patients were at lower risk at presentation of further clinical relapse (hazard ratio [HR] 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.26-0.79) compared to AQP4-Ab-positive individuals. MOG-Ab-positive individuals had a lower risk of reaching Disability Status Scale score of 3.0 (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22-0.94) and visual acuity of 20/100 (HR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.72). Finally, MOG-Ab titers were higher at relapse than in remission (p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: In adults, MOG-Ab-associated disease extends beyond clinical and radiologic abnormalities in the optic nerve and spinal cord. Despite the relapsing course, the overall visual and motor outcome is better compared with AQP4-Ab-positive patients.




Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment (CI) is frequent in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and could negatively affect family social and vocational activities. Detecting CI is clinically relevant, so the emerging question is the strategy for assessing cognition in MS. OBJECTIVE: An update on cognitive assessment in PwMS with use of standard neuropsychological (NP) tests and ecological tools. RESULTS: The minimal cognitive assessment in MS should include at least NP tests assessing information processing speed (IPS) and verbal and visuospatial episodic memory. The IPS could be easily and quickly evaluated with symbol digit substitution tests by using paper for the oral version of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test or a laptop for the Computerised Speed Cognitive Test. The comprehensive NP battery must be performed by a qualified neuropsychologist to adequately characterize the extent and severity of CI in PwMS. The quiet and controlled environment used for this standardized assessment could be a limitation for generalizing the results because it does not reflect real daily life conditions. Thus, this context could decrease the ability to detect some cognitive deficits that could occur only in more complex situations. Thus, ecological evaluation seems a complementary and promising approach for detecting cognitive abnormalities in daily activities. CONCLUSION: Recent efforts have been made to detect and characterize cognitive deficits in PwMS. Some IPS and episodic memory NP tests have been validated in MS and should be proposed to patients in the clinical setting. Besides NP tests, ecological tools are becoming important for detecting cognitive dysfunction in everyday-like conditions. Further research is needed to validate relevant tools for monitoring cognition in MS and the ability to detect clinically meaningful change in longitudinal studies.




15/02/2018 | J Neurol Sci   IF 2.4
Preliminary evidence of the cerebellar role on cognitive performances in clinically isolated syndrome.
Moroso A, Ruet A, Lamargue-Hamel D, Munsch F, Deloire M, Ouallet JC, Cubizolle S, Charre-Morin J, Saubusse A, Tourdias T, Dousset V, Brochet B

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar and cognitive dysfunction can occur early in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). Eye tracking is a reliable tool for the evaluation of both subtle cerebellar symptoms and cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the early cognitive profile using neuropsychological and ocular motor (OM) testing in CIS with and without cerebellar dysfunction with OM testing compared to healthy subjects (HS). METHODS: Twenty-eight patients and 12 HC underwent OM and neuropsychological testing. Cerebellar impairment was defined by the registration of saccadic intrusions and/or at least 10% of dysmetria during ocular motor recording. Visually guided saccade (VGS), memory-guided saccade (MGS) and antisaccade (AS) paradigms were compared to neuropsychological assessments. RESULTS: The group of patients with cerebellar dysfunction (n=16) performed worse on MGS latencies and error rates, and had worse working memory, executive function and information processing speed (IPS) z scores than patients without cerebellar dysfunction. IPS was correlated with the AS error rate in all patients and with the VGS error rate and the MGS final eye position ratio in cerebellar patients. CONCLUSION: Eye tracking is a sensitive tool to assess cognitive and cerebellar dysfunctions in CIS. In CIS patients, cerebellar impairment is associated with working memory, executive functions and IPS slowness.




13/01/2018 | Hum Brain Mapp   IF 4.9
Regional hippocampal vulnerability in early multiple sclerosis: Dynamic pathological spreading from dentate gyrus to CA1.
Planche V, Koubiyr I, Romero JE, Manjon JV, Coupe P, Deloire M, Dousset V, Brochet B, Ruet A, Tourdias T

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Whether hippocampal subfields are differentially vulnerable at the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) and how this impacts memory performance is a current topic of debate. METHOD: We prospectively included 56 persons with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of MS in a 1-year longitudinal study, together with 55 matched healthy controls at baseline. Participants were tested for memory performance and scanned with 3 T MRI to assess the volume of 5 distinct hippocampal subfields using automatic segmentation techniques. RESULTS: At baseline, CA4/dentate gyrus was the only hippocampal subfield with a volume significantly smaller than controls (p < .01). After one year, CA4/dentate gyrus atrophy worsened (-6.4%, p < .0001) and significant CA1 atrophy appeared (both in the stratum-pyramidale and the stratum radiatum-lacunosum-moleculare, -5.6%, p < .001 and -6.2%, p < .01, respectively). CA4/dentate gyrus volume at baseline predicted CA1 volume one year after CIS (R(2) = 0.44 to 0.47, p < .001, with age, T2 lesion-load, and global brain atrophy as covariates). The volume of CA4/dentate gyrus at baseline was associated with MS diagnosis during follow-up, independently of T2-lesion load and demographic variables (p < .05). Whereas CA4/dentate gyrus volume was not correlated with memory scores at baseline, CA1 atrophy was an independent correlate of episodic verbal memory performance one year after CIS (ss = 0.87, p < .05). CONCLUSION: The hippocampal degenerative process spread from dentate gyrus to CA1 at the earliest stage of MS. This dynamic vulnerability is associated with MS diagnosis after CIS and will ultimately impact hippocampal-dependent memory performance.