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35 publication(s) since Avril 1987:

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Recent studies indicate that calcium binding proteins may play a role in determining the electrical firing patterns of the hypothalamic magnocellular oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons. In this study we have examined the calbindin-D28k mRNA content of magnocellular neurons in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei and determined whether changes in expression correlate with the specific patterns of electrical activity displayed by these cells under different physiological circumstances. In situ hybridization with [35S]-labelled oligonucleotides revealed a heterogeneous pattern of calbindin-D28k mRNA expression in the SON and magnocellular PVN. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that the number of silver grains/cell in the dorsal half of the SON was approximately 30% higher (P < 0.05) than that of the ventral half of the nucleus. Within the PVN, calbindin-D28k mRNA-expressing neurons were detected in the medial magnocellular division of the PVN but not in magnocellular cells forming the core of the lateral magnocellular division. Dehydration for 24 h did not alter calbindin-D28k mRNA expression in the SON, PVN or cingulate cortex. In parturient and lactating rats, calbindin-D28k mRNA levels were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in the medial magnocellular division of the PVN compared with virgin animals. No significant differences in calbindin-D28k mRNA expression were observed in either ventral or dorsal halves of the SON, or in the cingulate cortex of these animals. These results provide evidence for the differential expression of calbindin-D28k mRNA by hypothalamic magnocellular neurons and suggest that OT cells may express more calbindin-D28k mRNA than VP neurons. The reduction in calbindin-D28k mRNA expression by putative OT neurons of the PVN at the time of parturition and lactation supports the hypothesis of Li and colleagues (J. Physiol., 488 (1995) 601-608) that calbindin may play a part in determining the electrical firing patterns of magnocellular neurons. However, the absence of any similar decrease in the SON suggests that changes in calbindin-D28k mRNA expression are not essential for OT neurons to exhibit episodic bursting behavior.

04/1996 | Neuroendocrinology
Effects of central GABAB receptor modulation upon the milk ejection reflex in the rat.
Voisin DL, Herbison AE, Chapman C, Poulain DA

In order to investigate the role of central GABAB receptors in the control of the milk ejection reflex, we have examined the effects of third ventricular and bilateral supraoptic nucleus (SON) injections of a GABAB receptor agonist (baclofen) and antagonist (hydroxy-saclofen) on the milk ejection reflex in the urethane-anaesthetised rat. In addition, microdialysis studies have evaluated whether the activation of GABAB receptors in the SON is able to modulate the release of GABA and glutamate, two major neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of the milk ejection reflex. Intracerebroventricular injections of baclofen (n = 9) in doses of 10, 50 and 100 pmol inhibited the milk ejection reflex in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting the electroencephalogram or attenuating the intramammary pressure response to intravenous injection of 0.5 mU exogenous oxytocin. Hydroxy-saclofen given into the third ventricle in doses of 100 pmol (n = 2) and 500 pmol (n = 4) did not modify the pattern of the milk ejection reflex. Bilateral SON microinfusions of baclofen in doses of 80 (n = 2) and 200 pmol (n = 4) did not modify the pattern of the milk ejection reflex. In microdialysis experiments (n = 8), inclusion of baclofen into the microdialysate at a concentration of 500 microM had no effect upon basal or potassium-stimulated GABA and glutamate outflow. These results show that the activation of GABAB receptors located outside, but not within, the SON are capable of inhibiting the milk ejection reflex. In contrast to our previous findings regarding the GABAA receptor, we found no evidence for a tonic role of GABAB receptors within the neural network inducing the periodic synchronous bursting of oxytocin neurons during suckling.

1. In order to determine whether GABAergic mechanisms are involved in the control of the milk ejection reflex in the rat, we examined the effects of central administration of a GABAA receptor agonist (muscimol) and antagonist (bicuculline) on the milk ejection reflex in the urethane-anaesthetized rat. 2. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of both muscimol (n = 17), at doses of 5, 10 and 20 ng, and bicuculline (n = 15), at doses of 0.01, 0.1 and 0.3 microgram, inhibited the milk ejection reflex in a dose-dependent manner. The bicuculline-induced inhibition was accompanied by desynchronization of the electroencephalogram and, at the highest dose, by alteration in the sensitivity of the mammary gland to oxytocin. No significant effect on the milk ejection reflex was seen with i.c.v. isotonic saline (n = 5). 3. Injection of 20 (n = 5) or 40 ng (n = 2) muscimol or 0.1 microgram bicuculline (n = 5) i.c.v. did not significantly alter the rise in intramammary pressure evoked by electrical stimulation of the neurohypophysis. 4. Bilateral 400 nl microinfusions directly into the supraoptic nuclei of either muscimol (20-100 ng microliter(-1); n = 10) or bicuculline (0.15 micrograms microliter(-1); n = 5) [corrected] resulted in an inhibition of the milk ejection reflex, which was not accompanied by desynchronization of the electroencephalogram. 5. The effects of i.c.v. injections of muscimol (15 and 20 ng) and bicuculline (0.01, 0.12 and 0.3 microgram) on the electrical activity of twenty-seven antidromically identified supraoptic magnocellular neurones were examined. Both compounds resulted in an inhibition of the background firing of oxytocinergic and vasopressinergic cells, and delayed the occurrence of high frequency bursts in oxytocin neurones. In five supraoptic neurones, bicuculline induced a transient activation before inhibition. 6. The powerful inhibitory action on the milk ejection reflex of both muscimol and bicuculline provides evidence for the importance of GABA neurones in maintaining the functional integrity of the mechanisms which allow the intermittent and pulsatile release of oxytocin during suckling.

Morphological and pharmacological evidence suggest that the dense GABAergic innervation of the supraoptic nucleus is important for regulating the electrical activity of vasopressin and oxytocin neurons. We have employed the technique of intracranial microdialysis to examine extracellular GABA concentrations in the supraoptic nucleus of the anaesthetized rat and questioned whether differences exist in the dynamics of GABA release between virgin and lactating rats, and if events during lactation or following blood pressure manipulation alter endogenous GABA levels in this nucleus. No significant differences were detected between virgin and lactating animals in either basal or 100 mM potassium ion-evoked GABA release. The inclusion of the GABA uptake blocker nipecotic acid (0.5 mM) into the dialysate resulted in a six- to eight-fold increase (P < 0.01) in GABA outflow in both groups of animals. In lactating rats, GABA outflow measured at 4 min intervals was not altered during a 60 min period of suckling by a full litter of pups and no significant change in GABA outflow was detected in relation to individual milk ejections. In virgin rats, removal of 1.5-2 ml of blood resulted in a 30-60 mmHg fall in blood pressure and a non-significant decline in GABA outflow. Replacement of blood resulted in an abrupt 50 mmHg increase in blood pressure and a significant 22% increase in GABA outflow (P < 0.01), but no change in aspartate or methionine concentrations. Repeated intravenous injections of the alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, metaraminol, similarly evoked approximately 50 mmHg increments in blood pressure and a 26% increase in GABA outflow (P < 0.05). Electrical stimulation of the diagonal band of Broca for 10 min produced a two-fold increase in GABA outflow from the supraoptic nucleus (P < 0.05). These results show that the overall profile of basal and potassium-stimulated GABA concentrations in the supraoptic nucleus is not substantially different between lactating and virgin rats. In lactating animals we have found that GABA levels are not altered in response to suckling or at the time of high-frequency firing by oxytocin neurons to induce milk ejection. In contrast, our data further support the hypothesis that GABA inputs to supraoptic neurons are part of a baroreceptor reflex, relaying through the diagonal band of Broca, to signal periods of acute hypertension and inhibit the firing of vasopressin neurons. Such observations suggest the physiological importance of GABA inputs to the supraoptic nuclei and indicate that GABA may be used in a stimulus-specific manner to influence the activity of magnocellular neurons.

25/04/1987 | Presse Med
[Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy and Behcet's syndrome].
Larrue V, Moulinier L, Arne-Bes MC, Voisin D, Bes A