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Stéphane OLIET





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Cursus:
PhD, McGill University (1994)
Posdoc, UCSF (1994-1997) HFSP fellow
CR1 CNRS, Inserm U378(2001)
HDR, Université Bordeaux 2 (2003)
DR1 CNRS, Neurocentre Magendie Inserm (2009)

Expertise: Astrocyte, gliotransmitters, plasticity, synapse, NMDA receptors





95 publication(s) since Juillet 1991:


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* equal contribution
The indicated IF have been collected by the Web of Sciences in


2003 | Eur J Neurosci   IF 2.8
Modulation of GABAergic transmission by endogenous glutamate in the rat supraoptic nucleus
Piet R, Bonhomme R, Theodosis D, Poulain D, Oliet S

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04/2002 | J Physiol Paris   IF 2.7
Modulation of synaptic transmission by astrocytes in the rat supraoptic nucleus.
Piet R, Poulain DA, Oliet SH

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One of the functions of astroglial cells in the central nervous system is to clear synaptically-released glutamate from the extracellular space. This is performed thanks to specific transporters of the excitatory amino acid expressed on their surface. The way by which astrocytic glutamate uptake contributes to synaptic transmission has been investigated via numerous experimental approaches but has never been addressed under conditions where neuroglial interactions are physiologically modified. Recently, we took advantage of the neuroglial plastic properties of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system to examine the consequences of a physiological reduction in the astrocytic coverage of neurons on glutamatergic synaptic transmission. This experimental model has brought some insights on the physiological interactions between glial cells and neurons at the level of the synapse. In particular, it has revealed that the degree of glial coverage of neurons influences glutamate concentration at the vicinity of excitatory synapses and, as a consequence, affects the level of activation of presynaptic glutamate receptors. Astrocytes, therefore, appear to contribute to the regulation of neuronal excitability by modulating synaptic efficacy at glutamatergic nerve terminals.




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The supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus undergo reversible anatomical changes under conditions of intense neurohypophysial hormone secretion, such as lactation, parturition and chronic dehydration. This morphological remodelling includes a reduction in astrocytic coverage of neurones resulting in an increase in the number and extent of directly juxtaposed somatic and dendritic surfaces. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that such anatomical plasticity is of functional significance. Astrocytic-dependent clearance of electrolytes and neurotransmitters from the extracellular space appears to be altered under conditions where glial coverage of magnocellular neurones is reduced. Glutamate, for example, has been found to accumulate in the extracellular space in the supraoptic nucleus of lactating animals and cause a modulation of synaptic efficacy. On the other hand, the range of action of substances released from astrocytes and acting on adjacent magnocellular neurones is expected to be limited during such anatomical remodelling. It thus appears that the structural plasticity of the magnocellular nuclei does affect neuroglial interactions, inducing significant changes in signal transmission and processing.




04/05/2001 | Science   IF 41
Control of glutamate clearance and synaptic efficacy by glial coverage of neurons.
Oliet SH, Piet R, Poulain DA

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Analysis of excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus revealed that glutamate clearance and, as a consequence, glutamate concentration and diffusion in the extracellular space, is associated with the degree of astrocytic coverage of its neurons. Reduction in glutamate clearance, whether induced pharmacologically or associated with a relative decrease of glial coverage in the vicinity of synapses, affected transmitter release through modulation of presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors. Astrocytic wrapping of neurons, therefore, contributes to the regulation of synaptic efficacy in the central nervous system.




03/2001 | j dent educ   IF 1.5
Founding a new dental school at Nova Southeastern University.
Melnick A, Oliet S

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The dental school arose from the premise that a dental school would round out the university and add prestige to the burgeoning Health Professions Division with its five schools and eight health programs. The school was founded in light of the following circumstances. Patient Pool Evaluation of community facilities and services revealed that there was an increasing patient pool, without disturbing the present mix. There was evidence of a need for dental care for large numbers of unserved or underserved people. Financial Considerations Proforma and cash flow budget projections showed financial stability of this project. The university was recognized to have the ability to absorb initial capital costs. HPD had a history of the success in functioning with tuition-dependent budgets. University Factors The university has had success in establishing and operating five health professions schools. A complete and experienced infrastructure has existed for sixteen years in the University and in the Health Professions Division. The university would provide unconditional administrative support.




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1. The effects of adenosine on synaptic transmission in magnocellular neurosecretory cells were investigated using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in acute rat hypothalamic slices that included the supraoptic nucleus. 2. Adenosine reversibly reduced the amplitude of evoked inhibitory (IPSCs) and excitatory (EPSCs) postsynaptic currents in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 approximately 10 microM for both types of current). 3. Depression of IPSCs and EPSCs by adenosine was reversed by the application of the A1 adenosine receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dimethylxanthine (CPT; 10 microM). 4. When pairs of stimuli were given at short intervals, adenosine inhibitory action was always less effective on the second of the two responses than on the first, resulting in an increased paired-pulse facilitation and suggesting a presynaptic site of action. This observation was confirmed by analysis of spontaneous miniature synaptic currents whose frequency, but not amplitude or kinetics, was reversibly reduced by 100 microM adenosine. 5. CPT had no effect on synaptic responses evoked at a low frequency of stimulation (0.05-0.5 Hz), indicating the absence of tonic activation of A1 receptors under these recording conditions. However, CPT inhibited a time-dependent depression of both IPSCs and EPSCs induced during a 1 Hz train of stimuli. 6. Taken together, these results suggest that adenosine can be released within the supraoptic nucleus at a concentration sufficient to inhibit the release of GABA and glutamate via the activation of presynaptic A1 receptors. By its inhibitory feedback action on the major afferent inputs to oxytocin and vasopressin neurones, adenosine could optimally adjust electrical and secretory activities of hypothalamic magnocellular neurones.




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10/1998 | dent today   IF 0.2
Are dental school graduates prepared for the real world?. Interview by Phillip Bonner.
Galbally JF Jr, Oliet S, Nathanson D

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