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Giovanni MARSICANO




Principal Investigator

Phone : 33(0)5 57 57 37 56 / 33(0)5 57 57 37 61
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Cursus:
PhD à l'Institut Max-Planck de Munich (1997-2001)
Post-Doc, Institut Max-Planck, Munich (2001-2004)
CR1 Neurocentre Magendie, Bordeaux (2007)






156 publication(s) since Mai 1996:


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* equal contribution
The indicated IF have been collected by the Web of Sciences in


22/03/2017 | Neuron   IF 14.4
The CB1 Receptor as the Cornerstone of Exostasis.
Piazza PV, Cota D, Marsicano G

Abstract:
The type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) is the main effector of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in most brain and body functions. In this Perspective, we provide evidence indicating that CB1 receptor functions are key determinants of bodily coordinated exostatic processes. First, we will introduce the concepts of endostasis and exostasis as compensation or accumulation for immediate or future energy needs and discuss how exostasis has been necessary for the survival of species during evolution. Then, we will argue how different specific biological functions of the CB1 receptor in the body converge to provide physiological exostatic processes. Finally, we will introduce the concept of proactive evolution-induced diseases (PEIDs), which helps explain the seeming paradox that an evolutionary-selected physiological function can become the cause of epidemic pathological conditions, such as obesity. We propose here a possible unifying theory of CB1 receptor functions that can be tested by future experimental studies.




17/03/2017 | acs chem biol   IF 4.4
Chemical Proteomics Maps Brain Region Specific Activity of Endocannabinoid Hydrolases.
Baggelaar MP, van Esbroeck AC, van Rooden EJ, Florea BI, Overkleeft HS, Marsicano G, Chaouloff F, van der Stelt M

Abstract:
The biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes of the endocannabinoids tightly regulate endocannabinoid-mediated activation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Monitoring the activities of these endocannabinoid hydrolases in different brain regions is, therefore, key to gaining insight into spatiotemporal control of CB1 receptor-mediated physiology. We have employed a comparative chemical proteomics approach to quantitatively map the activity profile of endocannabinoid hydrolases in various mouse brain regions at the same time. To this end, we used two different activity-based probes: fluorophosphonate-biotin (FP-biotin), which quantifies FAAH, ABHD6, and MAG-lipase activity, and MB108, which detects DAGL-alpha, ABHD4, ABHD6, and ABHD12. In total, 32 serine hydrolases were evaluated in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum. Comparison of endocannabinoid hydrolase activity in the four brain regions revealed that FAAH activity was highest in the hippocampus, and MAGL activity was most pronounced in the frontal cortex, whereas DAGL-alpha was most active in the cerebellum. Comparison of the activity profiles with a global proteomics data set revealed pronounced differences. This could indicate that post-translational modification of the endocannabinoid hydrolases is important to regulate their activity. Next, the effect of genetic deletion of the CB1 receptor was studied. No difference in the enzymatic activity was found in the cerebellum, striatum, frontal cortex, and hippocampus of CB1 receptor knockout animals compared to wild type mice. Our results are in line with previous reports and indicate that the CB1 receptor exerts no regulatory control over the basal production and degradation of endocannabinoids and that genetic deletion of the CB1 receptor does not induce compensatory mechanisms in endocannabinoid hydrolase activity.




21/02/2017 | Mol Psychiatry   IF 12
Pregnenolone blocks cannabinoid-induced acute psychotic-like states in mice.
Busquets-Garcia A, Soria-Gomez E, Redon B, Mackenbach Y, Vallee M, Chaouloff F, Varilh M, Ferreira G, Piazza PV, Marsicano G

Abstract:
Cannabis-induced acute psychotic-like states (CIAPS) represent a growing health issue, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms are poorly understood. The use of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines against CIAPS is limited by side effects and/or by their ability to tackle only certain aspects of psychosis. Thus, safer wide-spectrum treatments are currently needed. Although the blockade of cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1) had been suggested as a therapeutical means against CIAPS, the use of orthosteric CB1 receptor full antagonists is strongly limited by undesired side effects and low efficacy. The neurosteroid pregnenolone has been recently shown to act as a potent endogenous allosteric signal-specific inhibitor of CB1 receptors. Thus, we tested in mice the potential therapeutic use of pregnenolone against acute psychotic-like effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of cannabis. We found that pregnenolone blocks a wide spectrum of THC-induced endophenotypes typically associated with psychotic-like states, including impairments in cognitive functions, somatosensory gating and social interaction. In order to capture THC-induced positive psychotic-like symptoms (e.g. perceptual delusions), we adapted a behavioral paradigm based on associations between different sensory modalities and selective devaluation, allowing the measurement of mental sensory representations in mice. Acting at hippocampal CB1 receptors, THC impaired the correct processing of mental sensory representations (reality testing) in an antipsychotic- and pregnenolone-sensitive manner. Overall, this work reveals that signal-specific inhibitors mimicking pregnenolone effects can be considered as promising new therapeutic tools to treat CIAPS.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 21 February 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.4.




01/02/2017 | J Comp Neurol   IF 3.2
Anatomical characterization of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in cell-type-specific mutant mouse rescue models.
Gutierrez-Rodriguez A, Puente N, Elezgarai I, Ruehle S, Lutz B, Reguero L, Gerrikagoitia I, Marsicano G, Grandes P

Abstract:
Type 1 cannabinoid (CB1 ) receptors are widely distributed in the brain. Their physiological roles depend on their distribution pattern, which differs remarkably among cell types. Hence, subcellular compartments with little but functionally relevant CB1 receptors can be overlooked, fostering an incomplete mapping. To overcome this, knockin mice with cell-type-specific rescue of CB1 receptors have emerged as excellent tools for investigating CB1 receptors' cell-type-specific localization and sufficient functional role with no bias. However, to know whether these rescue mice maintain endogenous CB1 receptor expression level, detailed anatomical studies are necessary. The subcellular distribution of hippocampal CB1 receptors of rescue mice that express the gene exclusively in dorsal telencephalic glutamatergic neurons (Glu-CB1 -RS) or GABAergic neurons (GABA-CB1 -RS) was studied by immunoelectron microscopy. Results were compared with conditional CB1 receptor knockout lines. As expected, CB1 immunoparticles appeared at presynaptic plasmalemma, making asymmetric and symmetric synapses. In the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum, the values of the CB1 receptor-immunopositive excitatory and inhibitory synapses were Glu-CB1 -RS, 21.89% (glutamatergic terminals); 2.38% (GABAergic terminals); GABA-CB1 -RS, 1.92% (glutamatergic terminals); 77.92% (GABAergic terminals). The proportion of CB1 receptor-immunopositive excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the inner one-third of the dentate molecular layer was Glu-CB1 -RS, 53.19% (glutamatergic terminals); 2.30% (GABAergic terminals); GABA-CB1 -RS, 3.19% (glutamatergic terminals); 85.07% (GABAergic terminals). Taken together, Glu-CB1 -RS and GABA-CB1 -RS mice show the usual CB1 receptor distribution and expression in hippocampal cell types with specific rescue of the receptor, thus being ideal for in-depth anatomical and functional investigations of the endocannabinoid system. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:302-318, 2017. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.




2017 | front mol neurosci   IF 3.7
Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation Is Involved in Novelty-Induced Locomotion, Synaptic Plasticity and mRNA Translation.
Puighermanal E, Biever A, Pascoli V, Melser S, Pratlong M, Cutando L, Rialle S, Severac D, Boubaker-Vitre J, Meyuhas O, Marsicano G, Luscher C, Valjent E

Abstract:
The phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) is widely used to track neuronal activity. Although it is generally assumed that rpS6 phosphorylation has a stimulatory effect on global protein synthesis in neurons, its exact biological function remains unknown. By using a phospho-deficient rpS6 knockin mouse model, we directly tested the role of phospho-rpS6 in mRNA translation, plasticity and behavior. The analysis of multiple brain areas shows for the first time that, in neurons, phospho-rpS6 is dispensable for overall protein synthesis. Instead, we found that phospho-rpS6 controls the translation of a subset of mRNAs in a specific brain region, the nucleus accumbens (Acb), but not in the dorsal striatum. We further show that rpS6 phospho-mutant mice display altered long-term potentiation (LTP) in the Acb and enhanced novelty-induced locomotion. Collectively, our findings suggest a previously unappreciated role of phospho-rpS6 in the physiology of the Acb, through the translation of a selective subclass of mRNAs, rather than the regulation of general protein synthesis.




2017 | methods enzymol   IF 1.9
Functional Analysis of Mitochondrial CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors (mtCB1) in the Brain.
Melser S, Pagano Zottola AC, Serrat R, Puente N, Grandes P, Marsicano G, Hebert-Chatelain E

Abstract:
Recent evidence indicates that, besides its canonical localization at cell plasma membranes, the type-1 cannabinoid receptor, CB1 is functionally present at brain and muscle mitochondrial membranes (mtCB1). Through mtCB1 receptors, cannabinoids can directly regulate intramitochondrial signaling and respiration. This new and surprising discovery paves the way to new potential fields of research, dealing with the direct impact of G protein-coupled receptors on bioenergetic processes and its functional implications. In this chapter, we summarize some key experimental approaches established in our laboratories to identify anatomical, biochemical, and functional features of mtCB1 receptors in the brain. In particular, we describe the procedures to obtain reliable and controlled detection of mtCB1 receptors by immunogold electromicroscopy and by immunoblotting methods. Then, we address the study of direct cannabinoid effects on the electron transport system and oxidative phosphorylation. Finally, we present a functional example of the impact of mtCB1 receptors on mitochondrial mobility in cultured neurons. Considering the youth of the field, these methodological approaches will very likely be improved and refined in the future, but this chapter aims at presenting the methods that are currently used and, in particular, at underlining the need of rigorous controls to obtain reliable results. We hope that this chapter might help scientists becoming interested in this new and exciting field of research.




09/11/2016 | Nature   IF 43.1
A cannabinoid link between mitochondria and memory.
Hebert-Chatelain E, Desprez T, Serrat R, Bellocchio L, Soria-Gomez E, Busquets-Garcia A, Zottola AC, Delamarre A, Cannich A, Vincent P, Varilh M, Robin LM, Terral G, Garcia-Fernandez MD, Colavita M, Mazier W, Drago F, Puente N, Reguero L, Elezgarai I, Dupuy JW, Cota D, Lopez-Rodriguez ML, Barreda-Gomez G, Massa F, Grandes P, Benard G, Marsicano G

Abstract:
Cellular activity in the brain depends on the high energetic support provided by mitochondria, the cell organelles which use energy sources to generate ATP. Acute cannabinoid intoxication induces amnesia in humans and animals, and the activation of type-1 cannabinoid receptors present at brain mitochondria membranes (mtCB1) can directly alter mitochondrial energetic activity. Although the pathological impact of chronic mitochondrial dysfunctions in the brain is well established, the involvement of acute modulation of mitochondrial activity in high brain functions, including learning and memory, is unknown. Here, we show that acute cannabinoid-induced memory impairment in mice requires activation of hippocampal mtCB1 receptors. Genetic exclusion of CB1 receptors from hippocampal mitochondria prevents cannabinoid-induced reduction of mitochondrial mobility, synaptic transmission and memory formation. mtCB1 receptors signal through intra-mitochondrial Galphai protein activation and consequent inhibition of soluble-adenylyl cyclase (sAC). The resulting inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of specific subunits of the mitochondrial electron transport system eventually leads to decreased cellular respiration. Hippocampal inhibition of sAC activity or manipulation of intra-mitochondrial PKA signalling or phosphorylation of the Complex I subunit NDUFS2 inhibit bioenergetic and amnesic effects of cannabinoids. Thus, the G protein-coupled mtCB1 receptors regulate memory processes via modulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. By directly linking mitochondrial activity to memory formation, these data reveal that bioenergetic processes are primary acute regulators of cognitive functions.




15/08/2016 | Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A   IF 9.6
Peripheral and central CB1 cannabinoid receptors control stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation.
Busquets-Garcia A, Gomis-Gonzalez M, Srivastava RK, Cutando L, Ortega-Alvaro A, Ruehle S, Remmers F, Bindila L, Bellocchio L, Marsicano G, Lutz B, Maldonado R, Ozaita A

Abstract:
Stressful events can generate emotional memories linked to the traumatic incident, but they also can impair the formation of nonemotional memories. Although the impact of stress on emotional memories is well studied, much less is known about the influence of the emotional state on the formation of nonemotional memories. We used the novel object-recognition task as a model of nonemotional memory in mice to investigate the underlying mechanism of the deleterious effect of stress on memory consolidation. Systemic, hippocampal, and peripheral blockade of cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors abolished the stress-induced memory impairment. Genetic deletion and rescue of CB1 receptors in specific cell types revealed that the CB1 receptor population specifically in dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH)-expressing cells is both necessary and sufficient for stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation, but CB1 receptors present in other neuronal populations are not involved. Strikingly, pharmacological manipulations in mice expressing CB1 receptors exclusively in DBH+ cells revealed that both hippocampal and peripheral receptors mediate the impact of stress on memory consolidation. Thus, CB1 receptors on adrenergic and noradrenergic cells provide previously unrecognized cross-talk between central and peripheral mechanisms in the stress-dependent regulation of nonemotional memory consolidation, suggesting new potential avenues for the treatment of cognitive aspects on stress-related disorders.




06/2016 | Neurobiol Dis   IF 5.2
MitoBrain, Putting energy into the brain.
Benard G, Bezard E, Marsicano G, Pouvreau S

Abstract:





01/01/2016 | dis model mech   IF 4
The cannabinoid CB1 receptor and mTORC1 signalling pathways interact to modulate glucose homeostasis in mice.
Bermudez-Silva FJ, Romero-Zerbo SY, Haissaguerre M, Ruz-Maldonado I, Lhamyani S, El Bekay R, Tabarin A, Marsicano G, Cota D

Abstract:
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an intercellular signalling mechanism that is present in the islets of Langerhans and plays a role in the modulation of insulin secretion and expansion of the beta-cell mass. The downstream signalling pathways mediating these effects are poorly understood. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling is a key intracellular pathway involved in energy homeostasis and is known to importantly affect the physiology of pancreatic islets. We investigated the possible relationship between cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor signalling and the mTORC1 pathway in the endocrine pancreas of mice by using pharmacological analysis as well as mice genetically lacking the CB1 receptor or the downstream target of mTORC1, the kinase p70S6K1. In vitro static secretion experiments on islets, western blotting, and in vivo glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. The CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) at 0.1 microM while increasing phosphorylation of p70S6K1 and ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) within the islets. Specific pharmacological blockade of mTORC1 by 3 nM rapamycin, as well as genetic deletion of p70S6K1, impaired the CB1-antagonist-mediated decrease in GSIS. In vivo experiments showed that 3 mg/kg body weight rimonabant decreased insulin levels and induced glucose intolerance in lean mice without altering peripheral insulin sensitivity; this effect was prevented by peripheral administration of low doses of rapamycin (0.1 mg/kg body weight), which increased insulin sensitivity. These findings suggest a functional interaction between the ECS and the mTORC1 pathway within the endocrine pancreas and at the whole-organism level, which could have implications for the development of new therapeutic approaches for pancreatic beta-cell diseases.