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Francis CHAOULOFF





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134 publication(s) since Janvier 1985:


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1986 | J Neural Transm   IF 2.9
Peripheral and central short-term effects of fusaric acid, a DBH inhibitor, on tryptophan and serotonin metabolism in the rat.
Chaouloff F, Laude D, Merino D, Serrurrier B, Elghozi JL

Abstract:
Fusaric acid (FA) administration to the rats promoted one hour later a large decrease in plasma total tryptophan (TRP), without affecting either plasma free TRP or lipolysis, as measured by plasma non esterified fatty acid concentration. The previous change was associated with hypoinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and increased plasma corticosterone level. Regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between brain TRP and the percentage of plasma TRP which was free (i.e. unbound to albumin), both increased by FA injection. The increase in brain TRP promoted an increased brain serotonin synthesis, as measured by the enhanced brain and CSF 5-HIAA levels. Valine pretreatment, which blocks TRP entry into the brain, completely prevented FA-induced brain TRP and brain 5-HIAA increases. These results suggest that the increased brain serotonergic turnover following FA treatment was due to a peripheral action of the drug upon TRP disposition. The latter effect may be caused (i) by in vivo peripheral alterations in catecholaminergic metabolism and (ii) by FA chemical structure since in vitro experiments revealed that FA was able to displace TRP binding to albumin, thus increasing the plasma free TRP pool.




Abstract:
The effect of the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor, fusaric acid (FA), on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homovanillic acid (HVA) was studied in pentobarbitone-anesthetized rats. Idazoxan, a selective alpha 2-antagonist, accentuated the FA-induced HVA elevation in CSF while alpha-methyldopa pretreatment prevented this effect of FA on the HVA level in CSF. These results could indicate that the rate of dopamine synthesis in noradrenaline neurons could be the main determinant of the FA-induced HVA elevation.




Abstract:
An investigation was made into the effects of conditioned running (1 h and 2 h at 20 m min-1), which accelerates lipolysis, on the concentrations of tryptophan (Trp) in plasma, liver and brain and on 5-hydroxytrptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in brain. Running caused time-dependent increases in plasma free Trp and brain Trp of the rat, leading to increased brain 5-HT turnover as revealed by higher amounts of its metabolite, 5-HIAA. The ratio of brain Trp to plasma free Trp was decreased after 2 h of running. Liver Trp content rose only after 3 h of running, while liver unesterified fatty acid (UFA) concentrations remained unmodified. A comparison between food deprivation and running (both of which promote lipolysis) was performed. Running for 2 h affected to the same extent plasma Trp disposition when compared with 24 h food deprivation. Nevertheless, the ratio of brain Trp to plasma free Trp was decreased in the food-deprived rats, when compared to the runners. Nicotinic acid, which inhibits fat catabolism, completely abolished the plasma UFA increase induced by 1 h of running. The drug did not affect plasma free Trp, brain Trp, 5-HT or 5-HIAA but enhanced plasma total Trp level. Naloxone, an opiate antagonist, which decreased running-induced lipolysis, did not alter plasma Trp disposition. Desipramine, an antidepressant compound, affected only peripheral Trp concentrations of the runners. Plasma free and total Trp concentrations were increased in desipramine-treated runners, compared with saline-treated runners. In addition, desipramine increased the ratio of brain Trp to plasma free Trp of the runners. Brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA were increased in both desipramine-treated controls and runners. 9 The results suggest that running, which like food deprivatiQn accelerates lipolysis, increases brain Trp content and then 5-HT turnover. Comparison of these two physiological situations suggests that effectiveness of brain Trp entry is much more altered by fasting.




1985 | neurochem int   IF 4
Tryptophan and serotonin turnover rate in the brain of genetically hyperammonemic mice.
Chaouloff F, Laude D, Mignot E, Kamoun P, Elghozi JL

Abstract:
An investigation was made into the effects of hyperammonemia on the metabolism of brain serotonin (5-HT). The animal model used was the sparse fur (spf) mouse, which possesses an inborn error of the urea cycle, i.e. an abnormal form of ornithine transcarbamylase. Several indoles were measured in brain and plasma using liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection coupled to an u.v. detection (LCEC-u.v.). In the mutant mice, plasma total tryptophan (TRP) was higher when compared with the controls, while plasma free-TRP portion was unchanged. In these animals, brain TRP was increased whilst the 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were significantly higher in the hypothalamus and midbrain. Experiments with NSD-1015 (100 mg/kg i.p.) indicated that the 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) synthesis rate was increased in the hyperammonemic mice. Pargyline experiments (100 mg/kg i.p.) confirmed the enhanced brain 5-HT turnover rate in the spf mice. In addition, these experiments led to the conclusion that hyperammonemia does not affect the various rate constants. After administration of NSD-1015, TRP level slightly increased in the spf mouse brains, while it was stationary in those of the controls. This result could indicate an increased activity of hepatic TRP-pyrrolase in the hyperammonemic mice. Valine (VAL) administration (200 mg/kg i.p.) reduced brain TRP content in the two kinds of mice, but its effect was of shorter duration in the spf when compared with the control. Comparison of brain tryptamine level indicated a slight but not significant increase in the mutant mice. The data reported here indicate that hyperammonemia may affect peripheral TRP metabolism with consequences upon brain 5-HT synthesis, which could promote certain neurologic disorders.