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Mélanie GINGER


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Expertise: cortical circuits, viral tracing

13 publication(s) since Décembre 2001:

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15/02/2009 | J Physiol   IF 4.5
Synaptic ionotropic glutamate receptors and plasticity are developmentally altered in the CA1 field of Fmr1 knockout mice
Pilpel Y, Kolleker A, Berberich S, Ginger M, Frick A, Mientjes E, Oostra B A, Seeburg P H

Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of mental retardation, yet little is known about the physiological mechanisms causing the disease. In this study, we probed the ionotropic glutamate receptor content in synapses of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in a mouse model for fragile X (Fmr1 KO2). We found that Fmr1 KO2 mice display a significantly lower AMPA to NMDA ratio than wild-type mice at 2 weeks of postnatal development but not at 6-7 weeks of age. This ratio difference at 2 weeks postnatally is caused by down-regulation of the AMPA and up-regulation of the NMDA receptor components. In correlation with these changes, the induction of NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation following a low-frequency pairing protocol is increased in Fmr1 KO2 mice at this developmental stage but not later in maturation. We propose that ionotropic glutamate receptors, as well as potentiation, are altered at a critical time point for hippocampal network development, causing long-term changes. Associated learning and memory deficits would contribute to the fragile X mental retardation phenotype.

11/04/2006 | Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A   IF 9.5
A noncoding RNA is a potential marker of cell fate during mammary gland development
Ginger M R, Shore A N, Contreras A, Rijnkels M, Miller J, Gonzalez-Rimbau M F, Rosen J M

PINC is a large, alternatively spliced, developmentally regulated, noncoding RNA expressed in the regressed terminal ductal lobular unit-like structures of the parous mammary gland. Previous studies have shown that this population of cells possesses not only progenitor-like qualities (the ability to proliferate and repopulate a mammary gland) and the ability to survive developmentally programmed cell death but also the inhibition of carcinogen-induced proliferation. Here we report that PINC expression is temporally and spatially regulated in response to developmental stimuli in vivo and that PINC RNA is localized to distinct foci in either the nucleus or the cytoplasm in a cell-cycle-specific manner. Loss-of-function experiments suggest that PINC performs dual roles in cell survival and regulation of cell-cycle progression, suggesting that PINC may contribute to the developmentally mediated changes previously observed in the terminal ductal lobular unit-like structures of the parous gland. This is one of the first reports describing the functional properties of a large, developmentally regulated, mammalian, noncoding RNA.

12/2001 | Ann N Y Acad Sci   IF 4.3
Mechanisms of hormonal prevention of breast cancer.
Medina D, Sivaraman L, Hilsenbeck SG, Conneely O, Ginger M, Rosen J, Omalle BW

Reproductive history is a consistent risk factor for human breast cancer. Epidemiological studies have repeatedly demonstrated that early age of first pregnancy is a strong protective factor against breast cancer and provides a physiologically operative model to achieve a practical mode of prevention. In rodents, the effects of full-term pregnancy can be mimicked by a three-week exposure to low doses of estrogen and progesterone. Neither hormone alone is sufficient to induce protection. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie hormone-induced refractoriness are largely unresolved. Our recent studies have demonstrated that an early cellular response that is altered in hormone-treated mammary cells is the initial proliferative burst induced by the chemical carcinogen methylnitrosourea. The decrease in proliferation is also accompanied by a decrease in the ability of estrogen receptor-positive cells to proliferate. RNA expression of several mammary cell-cycle-related genes is not altered in hormone-treated mice; however, immunohistochemical assays demonstrate that the protein level and nuclear compartmentalization of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are markedly upregulated as a consequence of hormone treatment. These results support the hypothesis that hormone stimulation, at a critical period in mammary development, results in cells with persistent changes in the intracellular regulatory loops governing proliferation and response to DNA damage. A corollary to this hypothesis is that the genes affected by estrogen and progesterone are independent of alveolar differentiation-specific genes. Suppressive subtractive hybridization-PCR methods have identified several genes that are differentially expressed as a consequence of prior estrogen and progesterone treatment. Future experiments are aimed at determining the mechanisms of hormone-induced upregulation of p53 protein expression as part of the overall goal of identifying and functionally characterizing the genes responsible for the refractory phenotype.