Chronic alcohol consumption contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) while decreasing the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF may be an important regulator of glucose metabolism, so it may be associated with an increased risk for T2DM in alcoholism. We evaluated the association of chronic heavy alcohol exposure, T2DM and BDNF level. Ten week-old type 2 diabetic OLETF rats and non-diabetic LETO rats of similar weight were used. The rats were randomized by weight into four treatment groups: (1) OLETF-Ethanol (O-E, n=13), (2) OLETF-Control (O-C, n=15), (3) LETO-Ethanol (L-E, n=11), and (4) LETO-Control (L-C, n=14). The ethanol groups were fed an isocaloric liquid diet containing ethanol while the control groups were fed with the same diet containing maltose-dextran over a 6-week period using a pair-feeding control model in order to regulate different caloric ingestion. After 6 weeks of feeding, an Intraperitoneal Glucose Tolerance Test (IP-GTT) was performed and BDNF levels were analyzed. Prior to IP-GTT, the mean glucose levels in the O-E, O-C, L-E, and L-C groups were 90.38+/-12.84, 102.13+/-5.04, 95.18+/-6.43, and 102.36+/-4.43mg/dL, respectively. Thirty minutes after intraperitoneal injection, the mean glucose levels were 262.62+/-63.77, 229.07+/-51.30, 163.45+/-26.63, and 156.64+/-34.42mg/dL, respectively; the increased amount of the mean glucose level in the O-E group was significantly higher than that in the O-C group (p<0.05). One hundred twenty minutes after intraperitoneal injection, the mean glucose levels were 167.38+/-45.37, 121.20+/-18.54, 106.73+/-6.94, and 104.57+/-9.49mg/dL, respectively; the increased amount of the mean glucose level in the O-E group was significantly higher than that in the O-C group (p<0.01). The difference in mean glucose levels between the O-E group and O-C group was still significant even after adjusting for time (p<0.05). Mean BDNF levels were 405.95+/-326.16, 618.23+/-462.15, 749.18+/-599.93, and 1172.00+/-839.17pg/mL, respectively; mean BDNF level in the O-E group was significantly lower than the L-C group (p<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that chronic heavy alcohol ingestion may aggravate T2DM and may possibly lower BDNF level.