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8 publication(s) since Avril 2010:

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11/2015 | Hippocampus   IF 3.3
Effects of spaced learning in the water maze on development of dentate granule cells generated in adult mice.
Trinchero MF, Koehl M, Bechakra M, Delage P, Charrier V, Grosjean N, Ladeveze E, Schinder AF, Abrous DN

New dentate granule cells (GCs) are generated in the hippocampus throughout life. These adult-born neurons are required for spatial learning in the Morris water maze (MWM). In rats, spatial learning shapes the network by regulating their number and dendritic development. Here, we explored whether such modulatory effects exist in mice. New GCs were tagged using thymidine analogs or a GFP-expressing retrovirus. Animals were exposed to a reference memory protocol for 10-14 days (spaced training) at different times after newborn cells labeling. Cell proliferation, cell survival, cell death, neuronal phenotype, and dendritic and spine development were examined using immunohistochemistry. Surprisingly, spatial learning did not modify any of the parameters under scrutiny including cell number and dendritic morphology. These results suggest that although new GCs are required in mice for spatial learning in the MWM, they are, at least for the developmental intervals analyzed here, refractory to behavioral stimuli generated in the course of learning in the MWM. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

25/04/2015 | Hippocampus   IF 3.3
Adult-born dentate neurons are recruited in both spatial memory encoding and retrieval.
Tronel S, Charrier V, Sage C, Maitre M, Leste-Lasserre T, Abrous DN

Adult neurogenesis occurs in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, which is a key structure in learning and memory. Adult-generated granule cells have been shown to play a role in spatial memory processes such as acquisition or retrieval, in particular during an immature stage when they exhibit a period of increased plasticity. Here, we demonstrate that immature and mature neurons born in the dentate gyrus of adult rats are similarly activated in spatial memory processes. By imaging the activation of these two different neuron generations in the same rat and by using the immediate early gene Zif268, we show that these neurons are involved in both spatial memory acquisition and retrieval. These results demonstrate that adult-generated granule cells are involved in memory beyond their immaturity stage. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

09/02/2014 | Brain Struct Funct   IF 3.6
Influence of ontogenetic age on the role of dentate granule neurons.
Tronel S, Lemaire V, Charrier V, Montaron MF, Abrous DN

New neurons are continuously produced in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, a key structure in learning and memory. It has been shown that adult neurogenesis is crucial for normal memory processing. However, it is not known whether neurons born during the developmental period and during adulthood support the same functions. Here, we demonstrate that neurons born in neonates (first postnatal week) are activated in different memory processes when they are mature compared to neurons born in adults. By imaging the activation of these two different neuron generations in the same rat and using the IEG Zif268 and Fos, we show that these neurons are involved in discriminating dissimilar contexts and spatial problem solving, respectively. These findings demonstrate that the ontogenetic stage during which neurons are generated is crucial for their function within the memory network.

02/2014 | zoology (jena)
Modular functional organisation of the axial locomotor system in salamanders.
Cabelguen JM, Charrier V, Mathou A

Most investigations on tetrapod locomotion have been concerned with limb movements. However, there is compelling evidence that the axial musculoskeletal system contributes to important functions during locomotion. Adult salamanders offer a remarkable opportunity to examine these functions because these amphibians use axial undulations to propel themselves in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. In this article, we review the currently available biological data on axial functions during various locomotor modes in salamanders. We also present data showing the modular organisation of the neural networks that generate axial synergies during locomotion. The functional implication of this modular organisation is discussed.

23/10/2013 | Neuroscience   IF 3.2
Fictive rhythmic motor patterns produced by the tail spinal cord in salamanders.
Charrier V, Cabelguen JM

Most investigations into the role of the body axis in vertebrate locomotion have focused on the trunk, although in most tetrapods, the tail also plays an active role. In salamanders, the tail contributes to propulsion during swimming and to dynamic balance and maneuverability during terrestrial locomotion. The aim of the present study was to obtain information concerning the neural mechanisms that produce tail muscle contractions during locomotion in the salamander Pleurodeles waltlii. We recorded the ventral root activities in in vitro spinal cord preparations in which locomotor-like activity was induced via bath application of N-methyl-d-aspartate (20muM) and d-serine (10muM). Recordings showed that the tail spinal cord is capable of producing propagated waves of motor activity that alternate between the left and right sides. Lesion experiments further revealed that the tail rhythmogenic network is composed of a double chain of identical hemisegmental oscillators. Finally, using spinal cord preparations bathed in a chamber partitioned into two pools, we revealed efficient short-distance coupling between the trunk and tail networks. Together, our results demonstrate the existence of a pattern generator for rhythmic tail movements in the salamander and show that the global architecture of the tail network is similar to that previously proposed for the mid-trunk locomotor network in the salamander. Our findings further support the view that salamanders can control their trunk and tail independently during stepping movements. The relevance of our results in relation to the generation of tail muscle contractions in freely moving salamanders is discussed.

10/2013 | Biol Cybern   IF 1.3
Decoding the mechanisms of gait generation in salamanders by combining neurobiology, modeling and robotics.
Bicanski A, Ryczko D, Knuesel J, Harischandra N, Charrier V, Ekeberg O, Cabelguen JM, Ijspeert AJ

Vertebrate animals exhibit impressive locomotor skills. These locomotor skills are due to the complex interactions between the environment, the musculo-skeletal system and the central nervous system, in particular the spinal locomotor circuits. We are interested in decoding these interactions in the salamander, a key animal from an evolutionary point of view. It exhibits both swimming and stepping gaits and is faced with the problem of producing efficient propulsive forces using the same musculo-skeletal system in two environments with significant physical differences in density, viscosity and gravitational load. Yet its nervous system remains comparatively simple. Our approach is based on a combination of neurophysiological experiments, numerical modeling at different levels of abstraction, and robotic validation using an amphibious salamander-like robot. This article reviews the current state of our knowledge on salamander locomotion control, and presents how our approach has allowed us to obtain a first conceptual model of the salamander spinal locomotor networks. The model suggests that the salamander locomotor circuit can be seen as a lamprey-like circuit controlling axial movements of the trunk and tail, extended by specialized oscillatory centers controlling limb movements. The interplay between the two types of circuits determines the mode of locomotion under the influence of sensory feedback and descending drive, with stepping gaits at low drive, and swimming at high drive.

11/2010 | J Neurophysiol   IF 2.6
Segmental oscillators in axial motor circuits of the salamander: distribution and bursting mechanisms.
Ryczko D, Charrier V, Ijspeert A, Cabelguen JM

The rhythmic and coordinated activation of axial muscles that underlie trunk movements during locomotion are generated by specialized networks in the spinal cord. The operation of these networks has been extensively investigated in limbless swimming vertebrates. But little is known about the architecture and functioning of the axial locomotor networks in limbed vertebrates. We investigated the rhythm-generating capacity of the axial segmental networks in the salamander (Pleurodeles waltlii). We recorded ventral root activity from hemisegments and segments that were surgically isolated from the mid-trunk cord and chemically activated with bath-applied N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA). We provide evidence that the rhythmogenic capacity of the axial network is distributed along the mid-trunk spinal cord without an excitability gradient. We demonstrate that the burst generation in a hemisegment depends on glutamatergic excitatory interactions. Reciprocal glycinergic inhibition between opposite hemisegments ensures left-right alternation and lowers the rhythm frequency in segments. Our results further suggest that persistent sodium current contributes to the rhythmic regenerating process both in hemisegments and segments. Burst termination in hemisegments is not achieved through the activation of apamine-sensitive Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels and burst termination in segments relies on crossed glycinergic inhibition. Together our results indicate that the basic design of the salamander axial network is similar to most of axial networks investigated in other vertebrates, albeit with some significant differences in the cellular mechanism that underlies segmental bursting. This finding supports the view of a phylogenetic conservation of basic building blocks of the axial locomotor network among the vertebrates.

27/04/2010 | Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A   IF 9.6
Spatial learning sculpts the dendritic arbor of adult-born hippocampal neurons.
Tronel S, Fabre A, Charrier V, Oliet SH, Gage FH, Abrous DN

Neurogenesis in the hippocampus is characterized by the birth of thousand of cells that generate neurons throughout life. The fate of these adult newborn neurons depends on life experiences. In particular, spatial learning promotes the survival and death of new neurons. Whether learning influences the development of the dendritic tree of the surviving neurons (a key parameter for synaptic integration and signal processing) is unknown. Here we show that learning accelerates the maturation of their dendritic trees and their integration into the hippocampal network. We demonstrate that these learning effects on dendritic arbors are homeostatically regulated, persist for several months, and are specific to neurons born during adulthood. Finally, we show that this dendritic shaping depends on the cognitive demand and relies on the activation of NMDA receptors. In the search for the structural changes underlying long-term memory, these findings lead to the conclusion that shaping neo-networks is important in forming spatial memories.