Neurocentre Magendie

Les publications de l'équipe







IF du Neurocentre
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80 publications

* equal contribution
Les IF indiqués ont été collectés par le Web of Sciences en Juin 2016



Abstract:
The possible effects on cognitive processes of external electric fields, such as those generated by power line pillars and household appliances are of increasing public concern. They are difficult to study experimentally, and the relatively scarce and contradictory evidence make it difficult to clearly assess these effects. In this study, we investigate how, why and to what extent external perturbations of the intrinsic neuronal activity, such as those that can be caused by generation, transmission and use of electrical energy can affect neuronal activity during cognitive processes. For this purpose, we used a morphologically and biophysically realistic three-dimensional model of CA1 pyramidal neurons. The simulation findings suggest that an electric field oscillating at power lines frequency, and environmentally measured strength, can significantly alter both the average firing rate and temporal spike distribution properties of a hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron. This effect strongly depends on the specific and instantaneous relative spatial location of the neuron with respect to the field, and on the synaptic input properties. The model makes experimentally testable predictions on the possible functional consequences for normal hippocampal functions such as object recognition and spatial navigation. The results suggest that, although EF effects on cognitive processes may be difficult to occur in everyday life, their functional consequences deserve some consideration, especially when they constitute a systematic presence in living environments.





Abstract:
Post-learning hippocampal sharp wave-ripples (SWRs) generated during slow wave sleep are thought to play a crucial role in memory formation. While in Alzheimer's disease, abnormal hippocampal oscillations have been reported, the functional contribution of SWRs to the typically observed spatial memory impairments remains unclear. These impairments have been related to degenerative synaptic changes produced by soluble amyloid beta oligomers (Abetaos) which, surprisingly, seem to spare the SWR dynamics during routine behavior. To unravel a potential effect of Abetaos on SWRs in cognitively-challenged animals, we submitted vehicle- and Abetao-injected mice to spatial recognition memory testing. While capable of forming short-term recognition memory, Abeta mice exhibited faster forgetting, suggesting successful encoding but an inability to adequately stabilize and/or retrieve previously acquired information. Without prior cognitive requirements, similar properties of SWRs were observed in both groups. In contrast, when cognitively challenged, the post-encoding and -recognition peaks in SWR occurrence observed in controls were abolished in Abeta mice, indicating impaired hippocampal processing of spatial information. These results point to a crucial involvement of SWRs in spatial memory formation and identify the Abeta-induced impairment in SWRs dynamics as a disruptive mechanism responsible for the spatial memory deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease.





2016 | neural plast   IF 3.6
Mechanisms Underlying Adaptation of Respiratory Network Activity to Modulatory Stimuli in the Mouse Embryo.
Chevalier M, De Sa R, Cardoit L, Thoby-Brisson M

Abstract:
Breathing is a rhythmic behavior that requires organized contractions of respiratory effector muscles. This behavior must adapt to constantly changing conditions in order to ensure homeostasis, proper body oxygenation, and CO2/pH regulation. Respiratory rhythmogenesis is controlled by neural networks located in the brainstem. One area considered to be essential for generating the inspiratory phase of the respiratory rhythm is the preBotzinger complex (preBotC). Rhythmogenesis emerges from this network through the interplay between the activation of intrinsic cellular properties (pacemaker properties) and intercellular synaptic connections. Respiratory activity continuously changes under the impact of numerous modulatory substances depending on organismal needs and environmental conditions. The preBotC network has been shown to become active during the last third of gestation. But only little is known regarding the modulation of inspiratory rhythmicity at embryonic stages and even less on a possible role of pacemaker neurons in this functional flexibility during the prenatal period. By combining electrophysiology and calcium imaging performed on embryonic brainstem slice preparations, we provide evidence showing that embryonic inspiratory pacemaker neurons are already intrinsically sensitive to neuromodulation and external conditions (i.e., temperature) affecting respiratory network activity, suggesting a potential role of pacemaker neurons in mediating rhythm adaptation to modulatory stimuli in the embryo.





11/2015 | sci adv
Structural-functional connectivity deficits of neocortical circuits in the Fmr1 (-/y) mouse model of autism.
Haberl MG, Zerbi V, Veltien A, Ginger M, Heerschap A, Frick A

Abstract:
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited form of intellectual disability disorder and a frequent cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is characterized by a high prevalence of sensory symptoms. Perturbations in the anatomical connectivity of neocortical circuits resulting in their functional defects have been hypothesized to contribute to the underlying etiology of these disorders. We tested this idea by probing alterations in the functional and structural connectivity of both local and long-ranging neocortical circuits in the Fmr1 (-/y) mouse model of FXS. To achieve this, we combined in vivo ultrahigh-field diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI, and viral tracing approaches in adult mice. Our results show an anatomical hyperconnectivity phenotype for the primary visual cortex (V1), but a disproportional low connectivity of V1 with other neocortical regions. These structural data are supported by defects in the structural integrity of the subcortical white matter in the anterior and posterior forebrain. These anatomical alterations might contribute to the observed functional decoupling across neocortical regions. We therefore identify FXS as a 'connectopathy,' providing a translational model for understanding sensory processing defects and functional decoupling of neocortical areas in FXS and ASD.





11/09/2015 | Science   IF 34.7
Tuning of fast-spiking interneuron properties by an activity-dependent transcriptional switch.
Dehorter N, Ciceri G, Bartolini G, Lim L, del Pino I, Marin O

Abstract:
The function of neural circuits depends on the generation of specific classes of neurons. Neural identity is typically established near the time when neurons exit the cell cycle to become postmitotic cells, and it is generally accepted that, once the identity of a neuron has been established, its fate is maintained throughout life. Here, we show that network activity dynamically modulates the properties of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons through the postmitotic expression of the transcriptional regulator Er81. In the adult cortex, Er81 protein levels define a spectrum of FS basket cells with different properties, whose relative proportions are, however, continuously adjusted in response to neuronal activity. Our findings therefore suggest that interneuron properties are malleable in the adult cortex, at least to a certain extent.





09/2015 | brain behav   IF 2.1
Genetic deletion of the Histone Deacetylase 6 exacerbates selected behavioral deficits in the R6/1 mouse model for Huntington's disease.
Ragot A, Pietropaolo S, Vincent J, Delage P, Zhang H, Allinquant B, Leinekugel X, Fischer A, Cho YH

Abstract:
INTRODUCTION: The inhibition of the Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) increases tubulin acetylation, thus stimulating intracellular vesicle trafficking and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release, that is, cellular processes markedly reduced in Huntington's disease (HD). METHODS: We therefore tested that reducing HDAC6 levels by genetic manipulation would attenuate early cognitive and behavioral deficits in R6/1 mice, a mouse model which develops progressive HD-related phenotypes. RESULTS: In contrast to our initial hypothesis, the genetic deletion of HDAC6 did not reduce the weight loss or the deficits in cognitive abilities and nest-building behavior shown by R6/1 mice, and even worsened their social impairments, hypolocomotion in the Y-maze, and reduced ultrasonic vocalizations. CONCLUSIONS: These results weaken the validity of HDAC6 reduction as a possible therapeutic strategy for HD. The data are discussed in terms of additional cellular consequences and anatomical specificity of HDAC6 that could explain these unexpected effects.





01/01/2015 | physiol rep
Low glucose microenvironment of normal kidney cells stabilizes a subset of messengers involved in angiogenesis.
de Laplanche E, Boudria A, Dacheux E, Vincent A, Gadot N, Assade F, Le Corf K, Leroy X, Mege Lechevallier F, Eymin B, Dalla Venezia N, Simonnet H

Abstract:
As glucose is a mandatory nutrient for cell proliferation and renewal, it is suspected that glucose microenvironment is sensed by all cell types to regulate angiogenesis. Several glucose-sensing components have been partially described to respond to high glucose levels. However, little is known about the response to low glucose. Here, we used well-differentiated isolated normal rat renal tubules under normal oxygenation conditions to assess the angiogenic response to low glucose. In apparent paradox, but confirming observations made separately in other models, high glucose but also low glucose increased mRNA level of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). A subset of mRNAs including hypoxia-inducible factor 1A (HIF1A), angiopoietin receptor (TIE-2), and VEGF receptor 2 (FLK1) were similarly glucose-sensitive and responded to low glucose by increased stability independently of HIF1A and HIF2A proteins. These results contribute to gain some insights as to how normal cells response to low glucose may play a role in the tumor microenvironment.





08/12/2014 | Nat Neurosci   IF 16.7
Early depolarizing GABA controls critical-period plasticity in the rat visual cortex.
Deidda G, Allegra M, Cerri C, Naskar S, Bony G, Zunino G, Bozzi Y, Caleo M, Cancedda L

Abstract:
Hyperpolarizing and inhibitory GABA regulates critical periods for plasticity in sensory cortices. Here we examine the role of early, depolarizing GABA in the control of plasticity mechanisms. We report that brief interference with depolarizing GABA during early development prolonged critical-period plasticity in visual cortical circuits without affecting the overall development of the visual system. The effects on plasticity were accompanied by dampened inhibitory neurotransmission, downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and reduced density of extracellular matrix perineuronal nets. Early interference with depolarizing GABA decreased perinatal BDNF signaling, and a pharmacological increase of BDNF signaling during GABA interference rescued the effects on plasticity and its regulators later in life. We conclude that depolarizing GABA exerts a long-lasting, selective modulation of plasticity of cortical circuits by a strong crosstalk with BDNF.





10/11/2014 | Nat Neurosci   IF 16.7
Dendritic channelopathies contribute to neocortical and sensory hyperexcitability in Fmr1 mice.
Zhang Y*, Bonnan A*, Bony G*, Ferezou I, Pietropaolo S, Ginger M, Sans N, Rossier J, Oostra B, Lemasson G, Frick A

Abstract:
Hypersensitivity in response to sensory stimuli and neocortical hyperexcitability are prominent features of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and autism spectrum disorders, but little is known about the dendritic mechanisms underlying these phenomena. We found that the primary somatosensory neocortex (S1) was hyperexcited in response to tactile sensory stimulation in Fmr1-/y mice. This correlated with neuronal and dendritic hyperexcitability of S1 pyramidal neurons, which affect all major aspects of neuronal computation, from the integration of synaptic input to the generation of action potential output. Using dendritic electrophysiological recordings, calcium imaging, pharmacology, biochemistry and a computer model, we found that this defect was, at least in part, attributable to the reduction and dysfunction of dendritic h- and BKCa channels. We pharmacologically rescued several core hyperexcitability phenomena by targeting BKCa channels. Our results provide strong evidence pointing to the utility of BKCa channel openers for the treatment of the sensory hypersensitivity aspects of FXS.





29/09/2014 | Dev Cell   IF 9.3
Sculpting circuits: CRH interneurons modulate neuronal integration.
Del Pino I, Marin O

Abstract:
Integration of newly generated neurons into adult cell assemblies is a key mechanism for network plasticity. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Garcia et al. (2014) reveal a neuropeptidergic signaling mechanism by which interneurons of the olfactory system act as directors for the activity-dependent integration of adult-born granule cells.