Neurocentre Magendie

Les publications

IF du Neurocentre

702 publications

* equal contribution
Les IF indiqués ont été collectés par le Web of Sciences en Juin 2016

11/08/2015 | stress   IF 2.4
Adaptive emotional memory: the key hippocampal-amygdalar interaction.
Desmedt A, Marighetto A, Richter-Levin G, Calandreau L

For centuries philosophical and clinical studies have emphasized a fundamental dichotomy between emotion and cognition, as, for instance, between behavioral/emotional memory and explicit/representative memory. However, the last few decades cognitive neuroscience have highlighted data indicating that emotion and cognition, as well as their underlying neural networks, are in fact in close interaction. First, it turns out that emotion can serve cognition, as exemplified by its critical contribution to decision-making or to the enhancement of episodic memory. Second, it is also observed that reciprocally cognitive processes as reasoning, conscious appraisal or explicit representation of events can modulate emotional responses, like promoting or reducing fear. Third, neurobiological data indicate that reciprocal amygdalar-hippocampal influences underlie such mutual regulation of emotion and cognition. While supporting this view, the present review discusses experimental data, obtained in rodents, indicating that the hippocampal and amygdalar systems not only regulate each other and their functional outcomes, but also qualify specific emotional memory representations through specific activations and interactions. Specifically, we review consistent behavioral, electrophysiological, pharmacological, biochemical and imaging data unveiling a direct contribution of both the amygdala and hippocampal-septal system to the identification of the predictor of a threat in different situations of fear conditioning. Our suggestion is that these two brain systems and their interplay determine the selection of relevant emotional stimuli, thereby contributing to the adaptive value of emotional memory. Hence, beyond the mutual quantitative regulation of these two brain systems described so far, we develop the idea that different activations of the hippocampus and amygdala, leading to specific configurations of neural activity, qualitatively impact the formation of emotional memory representations, thereby producing either adaptive or maladaptive fear memories.

11/08/2015 | bioessays   IF 4.7
Dissecting the cannabinergic control of behavior: The where matters.
Busquets-Garcia A, Desprez T, Metna-Laurent M, Bellocchio L, Marsicano G, Soria-Gomez E

The endocannabinoid system is the target of the main psychoactive component of the plant Cannabis sativa, the Delta9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This system is composed by the cannabinoid receptors, the endogenous ligands, and the enzymes involved in their metabolic processes, which works both centrally and peripherally to regulate a plethora of physiological functions. This review aims at explaining how the site-specific actions of the endocannabinoid system impact on memory and feeding behavior through the cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1 R). Centrally, CB1 R is widely distributed in many brain regions, different cell types (e.g. neuronal or glial cells) and intracellular compartments (e.g. mitochondria). Interestingly, cellular and molecular effects are differentially mediated by CB1 R according to their cell-type localization (e.g. glutamatergic or GABAergic neurons). Thus, understanding the cellular and subcellular function of CB1 R will provide new insights and aid the design of new compounds in cannabinoid-based medicine. Also watch the Video Abstract.

31/07/2015 | Biol Psychiatry   IF 8.9
Temporal Memory and Its Enhancement by Estradiol Requires Surface Dynamics of Hippocampal CA1 N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors.
Potier M, Georges F, Brayda-Bruno L, Ladepeche L, Lamothe V, Al Abed AS, Groc L, Marighetto A

BACKGROUND: Identifying the underlying cellular mechanisms of episodic memory is an important challenge, since this memory, based on temporal and contextual associations among events, undergoes preferential degradation in aging and various neuropsychiatric disorders. Memory storage of temporal and contextual associations is known to rely on hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity, which depends ex vivo on dynamic organization of surface NMDARs. Whether NMDAR surface trafficking sustains the formation of associative memory, however, remains unknown. METHODS: We tested this hypothesis, using single nanoparticle imaging, electrophysiology, and behavioral approaches, in hippocampal networks challenged with a potent modulator of NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity and memory, 17beta-estradiol (E2). RESULTS: We demonstrate that E2 modulates NMDAR surface trafficking, a necessary condition for E2-induced potentiation at hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 synapses. Strikingly, cornu ammonis 1 NMDAR surface trafficking controls basal and E2-enhanced mnemonic retention of temporal, but not contextual, associations. CONCLUSIONS: NMDAR surface trafficking and its modulation by the sex hormone E2 is a cellular mechanism critical for a major component of episodic memory, opening a new and noncanonical research avenue in the physiopathology of cognition.

13/07/2015 | Neurosci Lett   IF 2.1
Neuropathic pain depends upon d-serine co-activation of spinal NMDA receptors in rats.
Lefevre Y, Amadio A, Vincent P, Descheemaeker A, Oliet SH, Dallel R, Voisin DL

Activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is critical for hypersensitivity in chronic neuropathic pain. Since astroglia can regulate NMDA receptor activation by releasing the NMDA receptor co-agonist d-serine, we investigated the role of NMDA receptor and d-serine in neuropathic chronic pain. Male Wistar rats underwent right L5-L6 spinal nerve ligation or sham surgery and were tested for mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia after 14 days. Acute intrathecal administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist AP-5 as well as chronic administration of the glia metabolism inhibitor fluoroacetate significantly reduced mechanical allodynia in neuropathic rats. The effect of fluoroacetate was reversed by acutely administered intrathecal d-serine. Degrading d-serine using acute intrathecal administration of d-aminoacid oxidase also reduced pain symptoms. Immunocytochemistry showed that about 70% of serine racemase, the synthesizing enzyme of d-serine, was expressed in astrocyte processes in the superficial laminae of L5 dorsal horn. Serine racemase expression was upregulated in astrocyte processes in neuropathic rats compared to sham rats. These results show that neuropathic pain depends upon glial d-serine that co-activates spinal NMDA receptors.

25/06/2015 | Neuropharmacology   IF 4.9
Central serotonin receptor blockade inhibits cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion independently of changes of subcortical dopamine outflow.
Devroye C, Cathala A, Di Marco B, Caraci F, Drago F, Piazza PV, Spampinato U

The central serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR) is currently considered as an interesting pharmacological target for improved treatment of drug addiction. In the present study, we assessed the effect of two selective 5-HT2BR antagonists, RS 127445 and LY 266097, on cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion and dopamine (DA) outflow in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the dorsal striatum of freely moving rats. The peripheral administration of RS 127445 (0.16 mg/kg, i.p.) or LY 266097 (0.63 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced basal DA outflow in the NAc shell, but had no effect on cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced DA outflow in this brain region. Also, RS 127445 failed to modify both basal and cocaine-induced DA outflow in the NAc core and the dorsal striatum. Conversely, both 5-HT2BR antagonists reduced cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. Furthermore, RS 127445 as well as the DA-R antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced significantly the late-onset hyperlocomotion induced by the DA-R agonist quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). Altogether, these results demonstrate that 5-HT2BR blockade inhibits cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion independently of changes of subcortical DA outflow. This interaction takes place downstream to DA neurons and could involve an action at the level of dorsostriatal and/or NAc DA transmission, in keeping with the importance of these brain regions in the behavioural responses of cocaine. Overall, this study affords additional knowledge into the regulatory control exerted by the 5-HT2BR on ascending DA pathways, and provides additional support to the proposed role of 5-HT2BRs as a new pharmacological target in drug addiction.

16/06/2015 | Neuroscience   IF 3.2
Preventing long-lasting fear recovery using bilateral alternating sensory stimulation: A translational study.
Wurtz H, El-Khoury-Malhame M, Wilhelm FH, Michael T, Beetz EM, Roques J, Reynaud E, Courtin J, Khalfa S, Herry C

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly debilitating and prevalent psychological disorder. It is characterized by highly distressing intrusive trauma memories that are partly explained by fear conditioning. Despite efficient therapeutic approaches, a subset of PTSD patients displays spontaneous recurrence of traumatic memories after successful treatment. The development of animal behavioral models mimicking the individual variability in treatment outcome for PTSD patients represent therefore an important challenge as it allows for the identification of predicting factors of resilience or susceptibility to relapse. However, to date, only few animal behavioral models of long-lasting fear recovery have been developed and their predictive validity has not been tested directly. The objectives of this study were twofold. First we aimed to develop a simple animal behavioral model of long-lasting fear recovery based on auditory cued fear conditioning and extinction learning, which recapitulates the heterogeneity of fear responses observed in PTSD patients after successful treatment. Second we aimed at testing the predictive validity of our behavioral model and used to this purpose a translational approach based (i) on the demonstration of the efficiency of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy to reduce conditioned fear responses in PTSD patients and (ii) on the implementation in our behavioral model of an electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid which mimics the core feature of EMDR. Our data indicate that electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid during extinction learning alleviates long-lasting fear recovery of conditioned fear responses and dramatically reduces inter-individual variability. These results demonstrate the face and predictive validity of our animal behavioral model and provide an interesting tool to understand the neurobiological underpinnings of long-lasting fear recovery.

06/2015 | cold spring harb perspect biol
Interaction between Neurogenesis and Hippocampal Memory System: New Vistas.
Abrous DN, Wojtowicz JM

During the last decade, the questions on the functionality of adult neurogenesis have changed their emphasis from if to how the adult-born neurons participate in a variety of memory processes. The emerging answers are complex because we are overwhelmed by a variety of behavioral tasks that apparently require new neurons to be performed optimally. With few exceptions, the hippocampal memory system seems to use the newly generated neurons for multiple roles. Adult neurogenesis has given the dentate gyrus new capabilities not previously thought possible within the scope of traditional synaptic plasticity. Looking at these new developments from the perspective of past discoveries, the science of adult neurogenesis has emerged from its initial phase of being, first, a surprising oddity and, later, exciting possibility, to the present state of being an integral part of mainstream neuroscience. The answers to many remaining questions regarding adult neurogenesis will come along only with our growing understanding of the functionality of the brain as a whole. This, in turn, will require integration of multiple levels of organization from molecules and cells to circuits and systems, ultimately resulting in comprehension of behavioral outcomes.

09/05/2015 | Neuroscience   IF 3.2
Astroglial type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB): A new player in the tripartite synapse.
Oliveira da Cruz JF, Robin LM, Drago F, Marsicano G, Metna-Laurent M

The endocannabinoid system is an important regulator of physiological functions. In the brain, this control is mainly exerted through the type-1-cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. CB1 receptors are abundant at neuron terminals where their stimulation inhibits neurotransmitter release. However, CB1 receptors are also expressed in astrocytes and recent studies showed that astroglial cannabinoid signalling is a key element of the tripartite synapse. In this review we discuss the different mechanisms by which astroglial CB1 receptors control synaptic transmission and plasticity. The recent involvement of astroglial CB1 receptors in the effects of cannabinoids on memory highlights their key roles in cognitive processes and further indicates that astrocytes are central active elements of high order brain functions.

25/04/2015 | Hippocampus   IF 4.1
Adult-born dentate neurons are recruited in both spatial memory encoding and retrieval.
Tronel S, Charrier V, Sage C, Maitre M, Leste-Lasserre T, Abrous DN

Adult neurogenesis occurs in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, which is a key structure in learning and memory. Adult-generated granule cells have been shown to play a role in spatial memory processes such as acquisition or retrieval, in particular during an immature stage when they exhibit a period of increased plasticity. Here, we demonstrate that immature and mature neurons born in the dentate gyrus of adult rats are similarly activated in spatial memory processes. By imaging the activation of these two different neuron generations in the same rat and by using the immediate early gene Zif268, we show that these neurons are involved in both spatial memory acquisition and retrieval. These results demonstrate that adult-generated granule cells are involved in memory beyond their immaturity stage. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18/02/2015 | J Neurosci   IF 5.9
Microglial activation enhances associative taste memory through purinergic modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission.
Delpech JC, Saucisse N, Parkes SL, Lacabanne C, Aubert A, Casenave F, Coutureau E, Sans N, Laye S, Ferreira G, Nadjar A

The cerebral innate immune system is able to modulate brain functioning and cognitive processes. During activation of the cerebral innate immune system, inflammatory factors produced by microglia, such as cytokines and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), have been directly linked to modulation of glutamatergic system on one hand and learning and memory functions on the other hand. However, the cellular mechanisms by which microglial activation modulates cognitive processes are still unclear. Here, we used taste memory tasks, highly dependent on glutamatergic transmission in the insular cortex, to investigate the behavioral and cellular impacts of an inflammation restricted to this cortical area in rats. We first show that intrainsular infusion of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide induces a local inflammation and increases glutamatergic AMPA, but not NMDA, receptor expression at the synaptic level. This cortical inflammation also enhances associative, but not incidental, taste memory through increase of glutamatergic AMPA receptor trafficking. Moreover, we demonstrate that ATP, but not proinflammatory cytokines, is responsible for inflammation-induced enhancement of both associative taste memory and AMPA receptor expression in insular cortex. In conclusion, we propose that inflammation restricted to the insular cortex enhances associative taste memory through a purinergic-dependent increase of glutamatergic AMPA receptor expression at the synapse.