Neurocentre Magendie

Les publications







IF du Neurocentre
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723 publications

* equal contribution
Les IF indiqués ont été collectés par le Web of Sciences en Juin 2016



01/08/2016 | Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A   IF 9.6
Reducing C-terminal truncation mitigates synucleinopathy and neurodegeneration in a transgenic model of multiple system atrophy.
Bassil F, Fernagut PO, Bezard E, Pruvost A, Leste-Lasserre T, Hoang QQ, Ringe D, Petsko GA, Meissner WG

Abstract:
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic orphan neurodegenerative disorder. No treatment is currently available to slow down the aggressive neurodegenerative process, and patients die within a few years after disease onset. The cytopathological hallmark of MSA is the accumulation of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) aggregates in affected oligodendrocytes. Several studies point to alpha-syn oligomerization and aggregation as a mediator of neurotoxicity in synucleinopathies including MSA. C-terminal truncation by the inflammatory protease caspase-1 has recently been implicated in the mechanisms that promote aggregation of alpha-syn in vitro and in neuronal cell models of alpha-syn toxicity. We present here an in vivo proof of concept of the ability of the caspase-1 inhibitor prodrug VX-765 to mitigate alpha-syn pathology and to mediate neuroprotection in proteolipid protein alpha-syn (PLP-SYN) mice, a transgenic mouse model of MSA. PLP-SYN and age-matched wild-type mice were treated for a period of 11 wk with VX-765 or placebo. VX-765 prevented motor deficits in PLP-SYN mice compared with placebo controls. More importantly, VX-765 was able to limit the progressive toxicity of alpha-syn aggregation by reducing its load in the striatum of PLP-SYN mice. Not only did VX-765 reduce truncated alpha-syn, but it also decreased its monomeric and oligomeric forms. Finally, VX-765 showed neuroprotective effects by preserving tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra of PLP-SYN mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that VX-765, a drug that was well tolerated in a 6 wk-long phase II trial in patients with epilepsy, is a promising candidate to achieve disease modification in synucleinopathies by limiting alpha-syn accumulation.





21/07/2016 | Nature   IF 38.1
Prefrontal neuronal assemblies temporally control fear behaviour.
Dejean C, Courtin J, Karalis N, Chaudun F, Wurtz H, Bienvenu TC, Herry C

Abstract:
Precise spike timing through the coordination and synchronization of neuronal assemblies is an efficient and flexible coding mechanism for sensory and cognitive processing. In cortical and subcortical areas, the formation of cell assemblies critically depends on neuronal oscillations, which can precisely control the timing of spiking activity. Whereas this form of coding has been described for sensory processing and spatial learning, its role in encoding emotional behaviour remains unknown. Fear behaviour relies on the activation of distributed structures, among which the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) is known to be critical for fear memory expression. In the dmPFC, the phasic activation of neurons to threat-predicting cues, a spike-rate coding mechanism, correlates with conditioned fear responses and supports the discrimination between aversive and neutral stimuli. However, this mechanism does not account for freezing observed outside stimuli presentations, and the contribution of a general spike-time coding mechanism for freezing in the dmPFC remains to be established. Here we use a combination of single-unit and local field potential recordings along with optogenetic manipulations to show that, in the dmPFC, expression of conditioned fear is causally related to the organization of neurons into functional assemblies. During fear behaviour, the development of 4 Hz oscillations coincides with the activation of assemblies nested in the ascending phase of the oscillation. The selective optogenetic inhibition of dmPFC neurons during the ascending or descending phases of this oscillation blocks and promotes conditioned fear responses, respectively. These results identify a novel phase-specific coding mechanism, which dynamically regulates the development of dmPFC assemblies to control the precise timing of fear responses.





08/07/2016 | cell death differ   IF 8.2
Astroglial connexin43 contributes to neuronal suffering in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
Yi C, Mei X, Ezan P, Mato S, Matias I, Giaume C, Koulakoff A

Abstract:
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), astrocyte properties are modified but their involvement in this pathology is only beginning to be appreciated. The expression of connexins, proteins forming gap junction channels and hemichannels, is increased in astrocytes contacting amyloid plaques in brains of AD patients and APP/PS1 mice. The consequences on their channel functions was investigated in a murine model of familial AD, the APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Whereas gap junctional communication was not affected, we revealed that hemichannels were activated in astrocytes of acute hippocampal slices containing Abeta plaques. Such hemichannel activity was detected in all astrocytes, whatever their distance from amyloid plaques, but with an enhanced activity in the reactive astrocytes contacting amyloid plaques. Connexin43 was the main hemichannel contributor, however, a minor pannexin1 component was also identified in the subpopulation of reactive astrocytes in direct contact with plaques. Distinct regulatory pathways are involved in connexin and pannexin hemichannel activation. Inflammation triggered pannexin hemichannel activity, whereas connexin43 hemichannels were activated by the increase in resting calcium level of astrocytes. Importantly, hemichannel activation led to the release of ATP and glutamate that contributed to maintain a high calcium level in astrocytes placing them in the center of a vicious circle. The astroglial targeted connexin43 gene knocking-out in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice allowed to diminish gliotransmitter release and to alleviate neuronal damages, reducing oxidative stress and neuritic dystrophies in hippocampal neurons associated to plaques. Altogether, these data highlight the importance of astroglial hemichannels in AD and suggest that blocking astroglial hemichannel activity in astrocytes could represent an alternative therapeutic strategy in AD.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 8 July 2016; doi:10.1038/cdd.2016.63.





09/06/2016 | Nature   IF 38.1
Midbrain circuits for defensive behaviour.
Tovote P, Esposito MS, Botta P, Chaudun F, Fadok JP, Markovic M, Wolff SB, Ramakrishnan C, Fenno L, Deisseroth K, Herry C, Arber S, Luthi A

Abstract:
Survival in threatening situations depends on the selection and rapid execution of an appropriate active or passive defensive response, yet the underlying brain circuitry is not understood. Here we use circuit-based optogenetic, in vivo and in vitro electrophysiological, and neuroanatomical tracing methods to define midbrain periaqueductal grey circuits for specific defensive behaviours. We identify an inhibitory pathway from the central nucleus of the amygdala to the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey that produces freezing by disinhibition of ventrolateral periaqueductal grey excitatory outputs to pre-motor targets in the magnocellular nucleus of the medulla. In addition, we provide evidence for anatomical and functional interaction of this freezing pathway with long-range and local circuits mediating flight. Our data define the neuronal circuitry underlying the execution of freezing, an evolutionarily conserved defensive behaviour, which is expressed by many species including fish, rodents and primates. In humans, dysregulation of this 'survival circuit' has been implicated in anxiety-related disorders.





06/2016 | data brief
Effects of glia metabolism inhibition on nociceptive behavioral testing in rats.
Lefevre Y, Amadio A, Vincent P, Descheemaeker A, Oliet SH, Dallel R, Voisin DL

Abstract:
Fluoroacetate has been widely used to inhibit glia metabolism in vivo. It has yet to be shown what the effects of chronic intrathecal infusion of fluoroacetate on nociceptive behavioral testing are. The effects of chronic infusion of fluoroacetate (5 nmoles/h) for 2 weeks were examined in normal rats. Chronic intrathecal fluoroacetate did not alter mechanical threshold (von Frey filaments), responses to supra-threshold mechanical stimuli (von Frey filaments), responses to hot (hot plate) or cool (acetone test) stimuli and did not affect motor performance of the animals, which was tested with rotarod. This suggests that fluoroacetate at appropriate dose did not suppress neuronal activity in the spinal cord.





31/05/2016 | Neuropharmacology   IF 4.9
Differential control of dopamine ascending pathways by serotonin2B receptor antagonists: New opportunities for the treatment of schizophrenia.
Devroye C, Cathala A, Haddjeri N, Rovera R, Vallee M, Drago F, Piazza PV, Spampinato U

Abstract:
Recent studies suggest that the central serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR) could be an interesting pharmacological target for treating neuropsychiatric disorders related to dopamine (DA) dysfunction, such as schizophrenia. Thus, the present study was aimed at characterizing the role of 5-HT2BRs in the control of ascending DA pathway activity. Using neurochemical, electrophysiological and behavioral approaches, we assessed the effects of two selective 5-HT2BR antagonists, RS 127445 and LY 266097, on in vivo DA outflow in DA-innervated regions, on mesencephalic DA neuronal firing, as well as in behavioral tests predictive of antipsychotic efficacy and tolerability, such as phencyclidine (PCP)-induced deficit in novel object recognition (NOR) test, PCP-induced hyperlocomotion and catalepsy. Both RS 127445 (0.16 mg/kg, i.p.) and LY 266097 (0.63 mg/kg, i.p.) increased DA outflow in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). RS 127445, devoid of effect in the striatum, decreased DA outflow in the nucleus accumbens, and potentiated haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.)-induced increase in mPFC DA outflow. Also, RS 127445 decreased the firing rate of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area, but had no effect in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Finally, both RS 127445 and LY 266097 reversed PCP-induced deficit in NOR test, and reduced PCP-induced hyperlocomotion, without inducing catalepsy. These results demonstrate that 5-HT2BRs exert a differential control on DA pathway activity, and suggest that 5-HT2BR antagonists could represent a new class of drugs for improved treatment of schizophrenia, with an ideal profile of effects expected to alleviate cognitive and positive symptoms, without eliciting extrapyramidal symptoms.







20/05/2016 | Neuroscience   IF 3.2
Early GABAergic transmission defects in the external globus pallidus and rest/activity rhythm alteration in a mouse model of Huntington's disease.
Du Z, Chazalon M, Bestaven E, Leste-Lasserre T, Baufreton J, Cazalets JR, Cho YH, Garret M

Abstract:
Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by progressive motor symptoms preceded by cognitive deficits and is regarded as a disorder that primarily affects the basal ganglia. The external globus pallidus (GPe) has a central role in the basal ganglia, projects directly to the cortex, and is majorly modulated by GABA. To gain a better understanding of the time course of HD progression and gain insight into the underlying mechanisms, we analysed GABAergic neurotransmission in the GPe of the R6/1 mouse model at purportedly asymptomatic and symptomatic stages (i.e., 2 and 6 months). Western blot and quantitative PCR analyses revealed alterations in the GPe of male R6/1 mice compared with wild type littermates. Expression of proteins involved in pre- and post-synaptic GABAergic compartments as well as synapse number were severely decreased at 2 and 6 months. At both ages, patch clamp electrophysiological recordings showed a decrease of spontaneous and miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents suggesting that Huntington's disease mutation has an early effect on the GABA signalling in the brain. Therefore, we performed continuous locomotor activity recordings from 2 to 4 months of age. Actigraphy analyses revealed rest/activity fragmentation alterations that parallel GABAergic system impairment at 2 months, while the locomotor deficit is evident only at 3 months in R6/1 mice. Our results reveal early deficits in Huntington's disease and support growing evidence for a critical role played by the GPe in physiological and pathophysiological states. We suggest that actimetry may be used as a non-invasive tool to monitor early disease progression.





20/04/2016 | Neuron   IF 14
Divergent Routing of Positive and Negative Information from the Amygdala during Memory Retrieval.
Beyeler A, Namburi P, Glober GF, Simonnet C, Calhoon GG, Conyers GF, Luck R, Wildes CP, Tye KM

Abstract:
Although the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is known to play a critical role in the formation of memories of both positive and negative valence, the coding and routing of valence-related information is poorly understood. Here, we recorded BLA neurons during the retrieval of associative memories and used optogenetic-mediated phototagging to identify populations of neurons that synapse in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the central amygdala (CeA), or ventral hippocampus (vHPC). We found that despite heterogeneous neural responses within each population, the proportions of BLA-NAc neurons excited by reward predictive cues and of BLA-CeA neurons excited by aversion predictive cues were higher than within the entire BLA. Although the BLA-vHPC projection is known to drive behaviors of innate negative valence, these neurons did not preferentially code for learned negative valence. Together, these findings suggest that valence encoding in the BLA is at least partially mediated via divergent activity of anatomically defined neural populations.





21/03/2016 | Psychoneuroendocrinology   IF 4.2
Estradiol enhances retention but not organization of hippocampus-dependent memory in intact male mice.
Al Abed AS, Sellami A, Brayda-Bruno L, Lamothe V, Nogues X, Potier M, Bennetau-Pelissero C, Marighetto A

Abstract:
Because estrogens have mostly been studied in gonadectomized females, effects of chronic exposure to environmental estrogens in the general population are underestimated. Estrogens can enhance hippocampus-dependent memory through the modulation of information storage. However, declarative memory, the hippocampus-dependent memory of facts and events, demands more than abilities to retain information. Specifically, memory of repetitive events of everyday life such as 'where I parked' requires abilities to organize/update memories to prevent proactive interference from similar memories of previous 'parking events'. Whether such organizational processes are estrogen-sensitive is unknown. We here studied, in intact young and aged adult mice, drinking-water (1muM) estradiol effects on both retention and organizational components of hippocampus-dependent memory, using a radial-maze task of everyday-like memory. Demand on retention vs organization was manipulated by varying the time-interval separating repetitions of similar events. Estradiol increased performance in young and aged mice under minimized organizational demand, but failed to improve the age-associated memory impairment and diminished performance in young mice under high organizational demand. In fact, estradiol prolonged mnemonic retention of successive events without improving organization abilities, hence resulted in more proactive interference from irrelevant memories. c-Fos imaging of testing-induced brain activations showed that the deterioration of young memory was associated with dentate gyrus dysconnectivity, reminiscent of that seen in aged mice. Our findings support the view that estradiol is promnesic but also reveal that such property can paradoxically impair memory. These findings have important outcomes regarding health issues relative to the impact of environmental estrogens in the general population.