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Aude PANATIER




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19 publication(s) depuis Septembre 2004:


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03/2017 | Glia   IF 6
Astrocytic IP3 Rs: Contribution to Ca2+ signalling and hippocampal LTP.
Sherwood MW, Arizono M, Hisatsune C, Bannai H, Ebisui E, Sherwood JL, Panatier A, Oliet SH, Mikoshiba K

Abstract:
Astrocytes regulate hippocampal synaptic plasticity by the Ca2+ dependent release of the N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) co-agonist d-serine. Previous evidence indicated that d-serine release would be regulated by the intracellular Ca2+ release channel IP3 receptor (IP3 R), however, genetic deletion of IP3 R2, the putative astrocytic IP3 R subtype, had no impact on synaptic plasticity or transmission. Although IP3 R2 is widely believed to be the only functional IP3 R in astrocytes, three IP3 R subtypes (1, 2, and 3) have been identified in vertebrates. Therefore, to better understand gliotransmission, we investigated the functionality of IP3 R and the contribution of the three IP3 R subtypes to Ca2+ signalling. As a proxy for gliotransmission, we found that long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired by dialyzing astrocytes with the broad IP3 R blocker heparin, and rescued by exogenous d-serine, indicating that astrocytic IP3 Rs regulate d-serine release. To explore which IP3 R subtypes are functional in astrocytes, we used pharmacology and two-photon Ca2+ imaging of hippocampal slices from transgenic mice (IP3 R2-/- and IP3 R2-/- ;3-/- ). This approach revealed that underneath IP3 R2-mediated global Ca2+ events are an overlooked class of IP3 R-mediated local events, occurring in astroglial processes. Notably, multiple IP3 Rs were recruited by high frequency stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals, a classical LTP induction protocol. Together, these findings show the dependence of LTP and gliotransmission on Ca2+ release by astrocytic IP3 Rs. GLIA 2017;65:502-513.




12/11/2016 | Brain Behav Immun   IF 5.9
Selective dentate gyrus disruption causes memory impairment at the early stage of experimental multiple sclerosis.
Planche V, Panatier A, Hiba B, Ducourneau EG, Raffard G, Dubourdieu N, Maitre M, Leste-Lasserre T, Brochet B, Dousset V, Desmedt A, Oliet SH, Tourdias T

Abstract:
Memory impairment is an early and disabling manifestation of multiple sclerosis whose anatomical and biological substrates are still poorly understood. We thus investigated whether memory impairment encountered at the early stage of the disease could be explained by a differential vulnerability of particular hippocampal subfields. By using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we identified that early memory impairment was associated with selective alteration of the dentate gyrus as pinpointed in vivo with diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI). Neuromorphometric analyses and electrophysiological recordings confirmed dendritic degeneration, alteration in glutamatergic synaptic transmission and impaired long-term synaptic potentiation selectively in the dentate gyrus, but not in CA1, together with a more severe pattern of microglial activation in this subfield. Systemic injections of the microglial inhibitor minocycline prevented DTI, morphological, electrophysiological and behavioral impairments in EAE-mice. Furthermore, daily infusions of minocycline specifically within the dentate gyrus were sufficient to prevent memory impairment in EAE-mice while infusions of minocycline within CA1 were inefficient. We conclude that early memory impairment in EAE is due to a selective disruption of the dentate gyrus associated with microglia activation. These results open new pathophysiological, imaging, and therapeutic perspectives for memory impairment in multiple sclerosis.




11/2016 | Cereb Cortex   IF 8.3
Activity-Dependent Neuroplasticity Induced by an Enriched Environment Reverses Cognitive Deficits in Scribble Deficient Mouse
Hilal ML, Moreau MM, Racca C, Pinheiro V, Piguel N, Santoni M-J, Dos santos carvalho S, Blanc JM, Abada Y, Peyroutou R, Medina C, Doat H, Papouin T, Vuillard L, Borg JP, Rachel R, Panatier A, Montcouquiol M*, Oliet SHR*, Sans N*

Abstract:
Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling is well known to play a critical role during prenatal brain development; whether it plays specific roles at postnatal stages remains rather unknown. Here, we investigated the role of a key PCP-associated gene scrib in CA1 hippocampal structure and function at postnatal stages. We found that Scrib is required for learning and memory consolidation in the Morris water maze as well as synaptic maturation and NMDAR-dependent bidirectional plasticity. Furthermore, we unveiled a direct molecular interaction between Scrib and PP1/PP2A phosphatases whose levels were decreased in postsynaptic density of conditional knock-out mice. Remarkably, exposure to enriched environment (EE) preserved memory formation in CaMK-Scrib−/− mice by recovering synaptic plasticity and maturation. Thus, Scrib is required for synaptic function involved in memory formation and EE has beneficiary therapeutic effects. Our results demonstrate a distinct new role for a PCP-associated protein, beyond embryonic development, in cognitive functions during adulthood.




03/04/2015 | Neuroscience   IF 3.2
Astrocytic mGluR5 and the tripartite synapse.
Panatier A, Robitaille R

Abstract:
In the brain, astrocytes occupy a key position between vessels and synapses. Among their numerous functions, these glial cells are key partners of neurons during synaptic transmission. Astrocytes detect transmitter release through receptors and transporters at the level of their processes, which are in close proximity to the tow neuronal elements of synapses. In response to transmitter-mediated activation, glial cells in turn regulate synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability. This process has been reported to involve several glial receptors. One of the best known of such receptors is the metabotropic glutamatergic receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5). In the present review we will discuss the implication of mGluR5s as detectors of synaptic transmission. In particular, we will discuss how the functional properties and localization of these receptors permit the detection of the synaptic signal in a defined temporal window and a given spatial area around the synapse. Furthermore, we will review the impact of their activation on synaptic transmission.




02/2015 | Nat Neurosci   IF 16.7
Surface diffusion of astrocytic glutamate transporters shapes synaptic transmission.
Murphy-Royal C, Dupuis JP, Varela JA, Panatier A, Pinson B, Baufreton J, Groc L, Oliet SH

Abstract:
Control of the glutamate time course in the synapse is crucial for excitatory transmission. This process is mainly ensured by astrocytic transporters, high expression of which is essential to compensate for their slow transport cycle. Although molecular mechanisms regulating transporter intracellular trafficking have been identified, the relationship between surface transporter dynamics and synaptic function remains unexplored. We found that GLT-1 transporters were highly mobile on rat astrocytes. Surface diffusion of GLT-1 was sensitive to neuronal and glial activities and was strongly reduced in the vicinity of glutamatergic synapses, favoring transporter retention. Notably, glutamate uncaging at synaptic sites increased GLT-1 diffusion, displacing transporters away from this compartment. Functionally, impairing GLT-1 membrane diffusion through cross-linking in vitro and in vivo slowed the kinetics of excitatory postsynaptic currents, indicative of a prolonged time course of synaptic glutamate. These data provide, to the best of our knowledge, the first evidence for a physiological role of GLT-1 surface diffusion in shaping synaptic transmission.




19/10/2014 | Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci   IF 5.1
Dissecting tripartite synapses with STED microscopy.
Panatier A, Arizono M, Nagerl UV

Abstract:
The concept of the tripartite synapse reflects the important role that astrocytic processes are thought to play in the function and regulation of neuronal synapses in the mammalian nervous system. However, many basic aspects regarding the dynamic interplay between pre- and postsynaptic neuronal structures and their astrocytic partners remain to be explored. A major experimental hurdle has been the small physical size of the relevant glial and synaptic structures, leaving them largely out of reach for conventional light microscopic approaches such as confocal and two-photon microscopy. Hence, most of what we know about the organization of the tripartite synapse is based on electron microscopy, which does not lend itself to investigating dynamic events and which cannot be carried out in parallel with functional assays. The development and application of superresolution microscopy for neuron-glia research is opening up exciting experimental opportunities in this regard. In this paper, we provide a basic explanation of the theory and operation of stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, outlining the potential of this recent superresolution imaging modality for advancing our understanding of the morpho-functional interactions between astrocytes and neurons that regulate synaptic physiology.




2013 | J Med Chem   IF 5.6
Structural, Kinetic, and Pharmacodynamic Mechanisms of d-Amino Acid Oxidase Inhibition by Small Molecules
Hopkins SC, Heffernan MLR, Saraswat LD, Bowen CA, Melnick L, Hardy LW, Orsini MA, Allen MS, Koch P, Spear KL, Foglesong RJ , Soukri M, Chytil M, Fang QK, Jones SW, Varney MA, Panatier A, Oliet SHR, Pollegioni L, Piubelli L, Molla G, Nardini M, Large TH

Abstract:
We characterized the mechanism and pharmacodynamics of five structurally distinct inhibitors of d-amino acid oxidase. All inhibitors bound the oxidized form of human enzyme with affinity slightly higher than that of benzoate (Kd &#8776; 2-4 &#956;M). Stopped-flow experiments showed that pyrrole-based inhibitors possessed high affinity (Kd &#8776; 100-200 nM) and slow release kinetics (k < 0.01 s(-1)) in the presence of substrate, while inhibitors with pendent aromatic groups altered conformations of the active site lid, as evidenced by X-ray crystallography, and showed slower kinetics of association. Rigid bioisosteres of benzoic acid induced a closed-lid conformation, had slower release in the presence of substrate, and were more potent than benzoate. Steady-state d-serine concentrations were described in a PK/PD model, and competition for d-serine sites on NMDA receptors was demonstrated in vivo. DAAO inhibition increased the spatiotemporal influence of glial-derived d-serine, suggesting localized effects on neuronal circuits where DAAO can exert a neuromodulatory role




11/12/2012 | Dev Cell   IF 9.3
The soothing touch: microglial contact influences neuronal excitability.
Panatier A, Robitaille R

Abstract:
Resting microglial cells in the brain scan their environment with their processes, primed to react to injury and disease. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Li and colleagues (2012) report that resting microglia also react to physiological neuronal activity, sending their processes toward highly active neurons to regulate their excitability.




Abstract:





02/09/2011 | Cell   IF 28.7
Astrocytes are endogenous regulators of Basal transmission at central synapses.
Panatier A, Vallee J, Haber M, Murai KK, Lacaille JC, Robitaille R

Abstract:
Basal synaptic transmission involves the release of neurotransmitters at individual synapses in response to a single action potential. Recent discoveries show that astrocytes modulate the activity of neuronal networks upon sustained and intense synaptic activity. However, their ability to regulate basal synaptic transmission remains ill defined and controversial. Here, we show that astrocytes in the hippocampal CA1 region detect synaptic activity induced by single-synaptic stimulation. Astrocyte activation occurs at functional compartments found along astrocytic processes and involves metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors. In response, astrocytes increase basal synaptic transmission, as revealed by the blockade of their activity with a Ca(2+) chelator. Astrocytic modulation of basal synaptic transmission is mediated by the release of purines and the activation of presynaptic A(2A) receptors by adenosine. Our work uncovers an essential role for astrocytes in the regulation of elementary synaptic communication and provides insight into fundamental aspects of brain function.