Neurocentre Magendie



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15/08/2016 | chem res toxicol
Embryonic Stage-Dependent Teratogenicity of Ketamine in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Felix LM, Serafim C, Valentim AM, Antunes LM, Campos S, Matos M, Coimbra AM

Ketamine, a widely used anesthetic, has been shown to have NMDA receptor dependent and independent actions during zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryogenesis. Notwithstanding, the effects of developmental toxicity and the mechanisms of ketamine action on fish embryos are still not well understood, and its implications for early vertebrate development remains to be clarified. In this work, zebrafish embryos were exposed to ketamine (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg mL(-1)) in order to study the stage-developmental toxicity of this pharmaceutical. During 256-cell (2.5 h post-fertilization, hpf), 50% epiboly (5.5 hpf) and 1-4 somites (10.5 hpf), embryos were exposed to the referred ketamine concentrations for a period of 20 min and were allowed to grow until 144 hpf. Both lethal and nonlethal parameters were evaluated. Skeletal development was assessed by alcian blue and calcein staining. Additionally, the expression of the developmental genes sonic hedgehog a (shh a) and noggin 3 (nog3) was evaluated. Similar to our previous work, bone and cartilage malformations were observed after 256-cell exposure. During 50% epiboly, ketamine exposure induced concentration-dependent mortality and malformations, such as lordosis and/or kyphosis and microcephaly, namely, at higher concentrations. Conversely, exposure during 1-4 somites showed the induction of nonspecific effects with no rise in mortality. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis showed differences in shh a and nog3 expressions comparatively to the control group. Overall, this study shows that the ketamine toxic profile is developmental phase-dependent with 256-cell being the most susceptible phase. The effects observed may result from ketamine interaction with cellular signaling pathways that merits further investigation.

08/2016 | aquat toxicol
Disruption of apoptosis pathways involved in zebrafish gonad differentiation by 17alpha-ethinylestradiol and fadrozole exposures.
Luzio A, Matos M, Santos D, Fontainhas-Fernandes AA, Monteiro SM, Coimbra AM

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) sex determination seems to involve genetic factors (GSD) but also environmental factors (ESD), such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are known to mimic endogenous hormones and disrupt gonad differentiation. Apoptosis has also been proposed to play a crucial role in zebrafish gonad differentiation. Nevertheless, the interactions between EDCs and apoptosis have received little attention. Thus, this study aimed to assess if and which apoptotic pathways are involved in zebrafish gonad differentiation and how EDCs may interfere with this process. With these purposes, zebrafish were exposed to 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2, 4ng/L) and fadrozole (Fad, 50mug/L) from 2h to 35days post-fertilization (dpf). Afterwards, a gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR and a stereological analysis, based on systematic sampling and protein immunohistochemistry, were performed. The death receptors (FAS; TRADD), anti-apoptotic (BCL-2; MDM2), pro-apoptotic (CASP-2 and -6) and cell proliferation (BIRC5/survivin; JUN) genes and proteins were evaluated. In general, apoptosis was inhibited in females through the involvement of anti-apoptotic pathways, while in males apoptosis seemed to be crucial to the failure of the 'juvenile ovary' development and the induction of testes transformation. The JUN protein was shown to be necessary in juvenile ovaries, while the BIRC5 protein seemed to be involved in zebrafish spermatogenesis. Both EDCs, EE2 and Fad, increased the apoptosis stimulus in zebrafish gonad. It was noticed that the few females that were resistant to Fad-induced sex reversal had increased anti-apoptotic factor levels, while males exposed to EE2 showed increased pro-apoptotic genes/proteins and were more advanced in gonad differentiation. Overall, our findings show that apoptosis pathways are involved in zebrafish gonad differentiation and that EDCs can disrupt this process.

In the present study, inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) was experimentally induced by oral inoculation of two groups of specific pathogen-free (SPF) broilers and two groups of SPF layers at day-old with either a fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV)-D or a FAdV-E strain. A substantial variation in the degree of susceptibility was observed with mortalities of 100 and 96% in the FAdV-E and D infected SPF broiler groups, respectively, whereas in the groups of infected SPF layers mortalities of only 20 and 8% were noticed. Significant changes in clinical chemistry analytes of all infected birds together with histopathological lesions indicated impairment of liver and pancreas integrity and functions. Furthermore, significantly lower blood glucose concentrations were recorded at peak of infection in both inoculated SPF broiler groups, in comparison to the control group, corresponding to a hypoglycaemic status. High viral loads were determined in liver and pancreas of SPF broilers already at 4 days post-infection (dpi), in comparison to SPF layers, indicating a somewhat faster viral replication in the target organs. Overall, highest values were noticed in the pancreas of SPF broilers independent of the virus used for infection. The actual study provides new insights into the pathogenesis of IBH, a disease evolving to a metabolic disorder, to which SPF broilers were highly susceptible. Hence, this is the first study to report a significant higher susceptibility of SPF broiler chickens to experimentally induced IBH in direct comparison to SPF layers.

06/2016 | j genet   IF 1.1
Molecular diversity and genetic relationships in Secale.
Santos E, Matos M, Silva P, Figueiras AM, Benito C, Pinto-Carnide O

The objective of this study was to quantify the molecular diversity and to determine the genetic relationships among Secale spp. and among cultivars of Secale cereale using RAPDs, ISSRs and sequence analysis of six exons of ScMATE1 gene. Thirteen ryes (cultivated and wild) were genotyped using 21 RAPD and 16 ISSR primers. A total of 435 markers (242 RAPDs and 193 ISSRs) were obtained, with 293 being polymorphic (146 RAPDs and 147 ISSRs). Two RAPD and nine ISSR primers generated more than 80% of polymorphism. The ISSR markers were more polymorphic and informative than RAPDs. Further, 69% of the ISSR primers selected achieved at least 70% of DNA polymorphism. The study of six exons of the ScMATE1 gene also demonstrated a high genetic variability that subsists in Secale genus. One difference observed in exon 1 sequences from S. vavilovii seems to be correlated with Al sensitivity in this species. The genetic relationships obtained using RAPDs, ISSRs and exons of ScMATE1 gene were similar. S. ancestrale, S. kuprijanovii and S. cereale were grouped in the same cluster and S. segetale was in another cluster. S. vavilovii showed evidences of not being clearly an isolate species and having great intraspecific differences.

The emulsifying ability of OSA-modified and native starch in the granular form, in the dissolved state and a combination of both was compared. This study aims to understand mixed systems of particles and dissolved starch with respect to what species dominates at droplet interfaces and how stability is affected by addition of one of the species to already formed emulsions. It was possible to create emulsions with OSA-modified starch isolated from Quinoa as sole emulsifier. Similar droplet sizes were obtained with emulsions prepared at 7% (w/w) oil content using OSA-modified starch in the granular form or molecularly dissolved but large differences were observed regarding stability. Pickering emulsions kept their droplet size constant after one month while emulsions formulated with OSA-modified starch dissolved exhibited coalescence. All emulsions stabilized combining OSA-modified starch in granular form and in solution showed larger mean droplet sizes with no significant differences with respect to the order of addition. These emulsions were unstable due to coalescence regarding presence of free oil. Similar results were obtained when emulsions were prepared by combining OSA-modified granules with native starch in solution. The degree of surface coverage of starch granules was much lower in presence of starch in solution which indicates that OSA-starch is more surface active in the dissolved state than in granular form, although it led to unstable systems compared to starch granule stabilized Pickering emulsions, which demonstrated to be extremely stable.

2016 | j neuroinflammation
Oncostatin M promotes excitotoxicity by inhibiting glutamate uptake in astrocytes: implications in HIV-associated neurotoxicity.
Moidunny S, Matos M, Wesseling E, Banerjee S, Volsky DJ, Cunha RA, Agostinho P, Boddeke HW, Roy S

BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of oncostatin M (OSM), an interleukin-6 cytokine family member, have been observed in HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and Alzheimer's disease. However, the function of OSM in these disease conditions is unclear. Since deficient glutamate uptake by astrocytes is instrumental in HAND-associated neurotoxicity, we hypothesized that OSM impairs glutamate uptake in astrocytes and thereby promotes neuronal excitotoxicity. METHODS: Primary cultures of mouse cortical astrocytes, neurons, microglia, and BV2 cell line were used. The expression of glutamate transporters (GLAST/EAAT1 and GLT-1/EAAT2) was investigated using real-time PCR and Western blot, and their activity was assessed by measuring (3)H-D-aspartate uptake. Neuronal toxicity was measured using the colorimetric MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and immunocytochemistry. A chimeric HIV-1 that infects murine cells (EcoHIV/NL4-3-GFP virus (EcoHIV)) was used to investigate whether the virus induces OSM, OSM receptor (OSMR)-beta, glycoprotein 130 (gp130), GLT-1, GLAST (mRNA and protein), and OSM release (ELISA) in cultured BV2 cells, primary microglia, or astrocytes. Statistical analyses of the data were performed using one-way ANOVA (to allow multiple comparisons) and two-tailed Student's t test. RESULTS: OSM treatment (10 ng/mL) time-dependently reduced GLAST and GLT-1 expression and inhibited (3)H-D-aspartate uptake in cultured astrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect prevented by the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)3 inhibitor AG490. Down-regulation of astrocytic glutamate transport by OSM resulted in NMDA receptor-dependent excitotoxicity in cortical neurons. Infection with EcoHIV induced OSM gene expression and protein release in BV2 cells and microglia, but not in astrocytes. Conversely, EcoHIV caused a fivefold increase in OSMR-beta mRNA (but not gp130) and protein in astrocytes, but not in microglia, which did not express OSMR-beta protein. Finally, astrocytic expression of GLAST gene was unaffected by EcoHIV, whereas GLT-1 mRNA was increased by twofold. CONCLUSIONS: We provide first evidence that activation of JAK/STAT3 signaling by OSM inhibits glutamate uptake in astrocytes, which results in neuronal excitotoxicity. Our findings with EcoHIV suggest that targeting OSMR-beta signaling in astrocytes might alleviate HIV-1-associated excitotoxicity.

01/12/2015 | Biol Psychiatry   IF 8.9
Deletion of adenosine A2A receptors from astrocytes disrupts glutamate homeostasis leading to psychomotor and cognitive impairment: relevance to schizophrenia.
Matos M, Shen HY, Augusto E, Wang Y, Wei CJ, Wang YT, Agostinho P, Boison D, Cunha RA, Chen JF

BACKGROUND: Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) modulate dopamine and glutamate signaling and thereby may influence some of the psychomotor and cognitive processes associated with schizophrenia. Because astroglial A2AR regulate the availability of glutamate, we hypothesized that they might play an unprecedented role in some of the processes leading to the development of schizophrenia, which we investigated using a mouse line with a selective deletion of A2AR in astrocytes (Gfa2-A2AR knockout [KO] mice]. METHODS: We examined Gfa2-A2AR KO mice for behaviors thought to recapitulate some features of schizophrenia, namely enhanced MK-801 psychomotor response (positive symptoms) and decreased working memory (cognitive symptoms). In addition, we probed for neurochemical alterations in the glutamatergic circuitry, evaluating glutamate uptake and release and the levels of key proteins defining glutamatergic signaling (glutamate transporter-I [GLT-I], N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors [NMDA-R] and alpha-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors [AMPA-R]) to provide a mechanistic understanding of the phenotype encountered. RESULTS: We show that Gfa2-A2AR KO mice exhibited enhanced MK-801 psychomotor response and decreased working memory; this was accompanied by a disruption of glutamate homeostasis characterized by aberrant GLT-I activity, increased presynaptic glutamate release, NMDA-R 2B subunit upregulation, and increased internalization of AMPA-R. Accordingly, selective GLT-I inhibition or blockade of GluR1/2 endocytosis prevented the psychomotor and cognitive phenotypes in Gfa2-A2AR KO mice, namely in the nucleus accumbens. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the dysfunction of astrocytic A2AR, by controlling GLT-I activity, triggers an astrocyte-to-neuron wave of communication resulting in disrupted glutamate homeostasis, thought to underlie several endophenotypes relevant to schizophrenia.

20/11/2013 | J Neurosci   IF 5.9
Antagonistic interaction between adenosine A2A receptors and Na+/K+-ATPase-alpha2 controlling glutamate uptake in astrocytes.
Matos M, Augusto E, Agostinho P, Cunha RA, Chen JF

Astrocytic glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-I) is critical to control the bulk of glutamate uptake and, thus, to regulate synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity. GLT-I glutamate uptake is driven by the sodium gradient implemented by Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases (NKAs) and the alpha2 subunit of NKA (NKA-alpha2) is actually linked to GLT-I to regulate astrocytic glutamate transport. We recently found that adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs), which control synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration, regulate glutamate uptake through unknown mechanisms. Here we report that A2AR activation decreases NKA activity selectively in astrocytes to inhibit glutamate uptake. Furthermore, we found a physical association of A2ARs with NKA-alpha2s in astrocytes, as gauged by coimmunoprecipitation and in situ proximity ligation assays, in the cerebral cortex and striatum, two brain regions where A2ARs inhibit the astrocytic glutamate uptake. Moreover, the selective deletion of A2ARs in astrocytes (using Gfa2-A2AR-KO mice) leads to a concurrent increase of both astrocytic glutamate uptake and NKA-alpha2 levels and activity in the striatum and cortex. This coupling of astrocytic A2ARs to the regulation of glutamate transport through modulation of NKA-alpha2 activity provides a novel mechanism linking neuronal activity to ion homeostasis controlling glutamatergic activity, all of which are processes intricately associated with the etiology of several brain diseases.

10/07/2013 | J Neurosci   IF 5.9
Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73)-mediated formation of adenosine is critical for the striatal adenosine A2A receptor functions.
Augusto E, Matos M, Sevigny J, El-Tayeb A, Bynoe MS, Muller CE, Cunha RA, Chen JF

Adenosine is a neuromodulator acting through inhibitory A1 receptors (A1Rs) and facilitatory A2ARs, which have similar affinities for adenosine. It has been shown that the activity of intracellular adenosine kinase preferentially controls the activation of A1Rs, but the source of the adenosine activating A2ARs is unknown. We now show that ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73), the major enzyme able to convert extracellular AMP into adenosine, colocalizes with A2ARs in the basal ganglia. In addition to astrocytes, striatal CD73 is prominently localized to postsynaptic sites. Notably, CD73 coimmunoprecipitated with A2ARs and proximity ligation assays confirmed the close proximity of CD73 and A2ARs in the striatum. Accordingly, the cAMP formation in synaptosomes as well as the hypolocomotion induced by a novel A2AR prodrug that requires CD73 metabolization to activate A2ARs were observed in wild-type mice, but not in CD73 knock-out (KO) mice or A2AR KO mice. Moreover, CD73 KO mice displayed increased working memory performance and a blunted amphetamine-induced sensitization, mimicking the phenotype of global or forebrain-A2AR KO mice, as well as upon pharmacological A2AR blockade. These results show that CD73-mediated formation of extracellular adenosine is responsible for the activation of striatal A2AR function. This study points to CD73 as a new target that can fine-tune A2AR activity, and a novel therapeutic target to manipulate A2AR-mediated control of striatal function and neurodegeneration.

05/2012 | Glia   IF 6
Adenosine A2A receptors modulate glutamate uptake in cultured astrocytes and gliosomes.
Matos M, Augusto E, Santos-Rodrigues AD, Schwarzschild MA, Chen JF, Cunha RA, Agostinho P

Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, where its toxic build-up leads to synaptic dysfunction and excitotoxic cell death that underlies many neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, efforts have been made to understand the regulation of glutamate transporters, which are responsible for the clearance of extracellular glutamate. We now report that adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A) R) control the uptake of D-aspartate in primary cultured astrocytes as well as in an ex vivo preparation enriched in glial plasmalemmal vesicles (gliosomes) from adult rats, whereas A(1) R and A(3) R were devoid of effects. Thus, the acute exposure to the A(2A) R agonist, CGS 21680, inhibited glutamate uptake, an effect prevented by the A(2A) R antagonist, SCH 58261, and abbrogated in cultured astrocytes from A(2A) R knockout mice. Furthermore, the prolonged activation of A(2A) R lead to a cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent reduction of GLT-I and GLAST mRNA and protein levels, which leads to a sustained decrease of glutamate uptake. This dual mechanism of inhibition of glutamate transporters by astrocytic A(2A) R provides a novel candidate mechanism to understand the ability of A(2) (A) R to control synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration, two conditions tightly associated with the control of extracellular glutamate levels by glutamate transporters.