Neurocentre Magendie

Nathalie SANS




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Cursus:
PhD Université Montpellier II (1996)
Post-Doc National Institutes of Health, USA (1997-2002)
Senior Research Fellow, NIH, MD, USA (2003-2005)
CR1 INSERM (2007)
DR2 INSERM (2014)







33 publication(s) depuis Janvier 1995:


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Les IF indiqués ont été collectés par le Web of Sciences en


Abstract:
Extensive evidence suggests that long term dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) deficiency results in altered emotional behaviour. We have recently demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs deficiency induces emotional alterations through abnormal corticosterone secretion which leads to altered dendritic arborisation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here we show that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis feedback inhibition was not compromised in n-3 deficient mice. Rather, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling pathway was inactivated in the PFC but not in the hippocampus of n-3 deficient mice. Consequently, only dendritic arborisation in PFC was affected by dietary n-3 PUFAs deficiency. In addition, occlusion experiment with GR blockade altered GR signaling in the PFC of control mice, with no further alterations in n-3 deficient mice. In conclusion, n-3 PUFAs deficiency compromised PFC, leading to dendritic atrophy, but did not change hippocampal GR function and dendritic arborisation. We argue that this GR sensitivity contributes to n-3 PUFAs deficiency-related emotional behaviour deficits.




18/02/2015 | J Neurosci   IF 5.9
Microglial activation enhances associative taste memory through purinergic modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission.
Delpech JC, Saucisse N, Parkes SL, Lacabanne C, Aubert A, Casenave F, Coutureau E, Sans N, Laye S, Ferreira G, Nadjar A

Abstract:
The cerebral innate immune system is able to modulate brain functioning and cognitive processes. During activation of the cerebral innate immune system, inflammatory factors produced by microglia, such as cytokines and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), have been directly linked to modulation of glutamatergic system on one hand and learning and memory functions on the other hand. However, the cellular mechanisms by which microglial activation modulates cognitive processes are still unclear. Here, we used taste memory tasks, highly dependent on glutamatergic transmission in the insular cortex, to investigate the behavioral and cellular impacts of an inflammation restricted to this cortical area in rats. We first show that intrainsular infusion of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide induces a local inflammation and increases glutamatergic AMPA, but not NMDA, receptor expression at the synaptic level. This cortical inflammation also enhances associative, but not incidental, taste memory through increase of glutamatergic AMPA receptor trafficking. Moreover, we demonstrate that ATP, but not proinflammatory cytokines, is responsible for inflammation-induced enhancement of both associative taste memory and AMPA receptor expression in insular cortex. In conclusion, we propose that inflammation restricted to the insular cortex enhances associative taste memory through a purinergic-dependent increase of glutamatergic AMPA receptor expression at the synapse.




10/11/2014 | Nat Neurosci   IF 16.7
Dendritic channelopathies contribute to neocortical and sensory hyperexcitability in Fmr1 mice.
Zhang Y*, Bonnan A*, Bony G*, Ferezou I, Pietropaolo S, Ginger M, Sans N, Rossier J, Oostra B, Lemasson G, Frick A

Abstract:
Hypersensitivity in response to sensory stimuli and neocortical hyperexcitability are prominent features of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and autism spectrum disorders, but little is known about the dendritic mechanisms underlying these phenomena. We found that the primary somatosensory neocortex (S1) was hyperexcited in response to tactile sensory stimulation in Fmr1-/y mice. This correlated with neuronal and dendritic hyperexcitability of S1 pyramidal neurons, which affect all major aspects of neuronal computation, from the integration of synaptic input to the generation of action potential output. Using dendritic electrophysiological recordings, calcium imaging, pharmacology, biochemistry and a computer model, we found that this defect was, at least in part, attributable to the reduction and dysfunction of dendritic h- and BKCa channels. We pharmacologically rescued several core hyperexcitability phenomena by targeting BKCa channels. Our results provide strong evidence pointing to the utility of BKCa channel openers for the treatment of the sensory hypersensitivity aspects of FXS.




23/10/2014 | Cell Rep   IF 7.9
Scribble1/AP2 complex coordinates NMDA receptor endocytic recycling.
Piguel NH, Fievre S, Blanc JM, Carta M, Moreau MM, Moutin E, Pinheiro VL, Medina C, Ezan J, Lasvaux L, Loll F, Durand CM, Chang K, Petralia RS, Wenthold RJ, Stephenson FA, Vuillard L, Darbon H, Perroy J, Mulle C, Montcouquiol M, Racca C, Sans N

Abstract:
The appropriate trafficking of glutamate receptors to synapses is crucial for basic synaptic function and synaptic plasticity. It is now accepted that NMDA receptors (NMDARs) internalize and are recycled at the plasma membrane but also exchange between synaptic and extrasynaptic pools; these NMDAR properties are also key to governing synaptic plasticity. Scribble1 is a large PDZ protein required for synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Herein, we show that the level of Scribble1 is regulated in an activity-dependent manner and that Scribble1 controls the number of NMDARs at the plasma membrane. Notably, Scribble1 prevents GluN2A subunits from undergoing lysosomal trafficking and degradation by increasing their recycling to the plasma membrane following NMDAR activation. Finally, we show that a specific YxxR motif on Scribble1 controls these mechanisms through a direct interaction with AP2. Altogether, our findings define a molecular mechanism to control the levels of synaptic NMDARs via Scribble1 complex signaling.




2014 | Front Cell Neurosci   IF 4.6
ER to synapse trafficking of NMDA receptors.
Horak M, Petralia RS, Kaniakova M, Sans N

Abstract:
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. There are three distinct subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs) that have been identified including 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid receptors (AMPARs), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and kainate receptors. The most common GluRs in mature synapses are AMPARs that mediate the fast excitatory neurotransmission and NMDARs that mediate the slow excitatory neurotransmission. There have been large numbers of recent reports studying how a single neuron regulates synaptic numbers and types of AMPARs and NMDARs. Our current research is centered primarily on NMDARs and, therefore, we will focus in this review on recent knowledge of molecular mechanisms occurring (1) early in the biosynthetic pathway of NMDARs, (2) in the transport of NMDARs after their release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); and (3) at the plasma membrane including excitatory synapses. Because a growing body of evidence also indicates that abnormalities in NMDAR functioning are associated with a number of human psychiatric and neurological diseases, this review together with other chapters in this issue may help to enhance research and to gain further knowledge of normal synaptic physiology as well as of the etiology of many human brain diseases.




2014 | Transl Psychiatry
Nutritional omega-3 modulates neuronal morphology in the prefrontal cortex along with depression-related behaviour through corticosterone secretion.
Larrieu T, Hilal ML, Fourrier C, De Smedt-Peyrusse V, Sans N, Capuron L, Laye S

Abstract:
Understanding how malnutrition contributes to depression is building momentum. In the present study we unravel molecular and cellular mechanisms by which nutritional disturbances lead to impaired emotional behaviour in mice. Here we report that nutritional n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) deficiency induces a chronic stress state reflected by disrupted glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated signalling pathway along with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity. This hyperactivity in turn resulted in neuronal atrophy in the dorsolateral (dl)- and dorsomedial (dm)- prefrontal cortex (PFC) and subsequent mood-related behaviour alterations, similarly to chronic social defeat stress. Supplementation of n-3 PUFA prevented detrimental chronic social defeat stress-induced emotional and neuronal impairments by impeding HPA axis hyperactivity. These results indicate a role for dietary n-3 PUFA in the prevention of HPA axis dysfunction associated with the development of some neuropsychiatric disorders including depression.




09/2013 | Nat Cell Biol   IF 18.7
Primary cilium migration depends on G-protein signalling control of subapical cytoskeleton.
Ezan J , Lasvaux L , Gezer A , Novakovic A , May-Simera H , Belotti E , Lhoumeau AC , Birnbaumer L , Beer-Hammer S , Borg JP , Le Bivic A , Nurnberg B , Sans N , Montcouquiol M

Abstract:
In ciliated mammalian cells, the precise migration of the primary cilium at the apical surface of the cells, also referred to as translational polarity, defines planar cell polarity (PCP) in very early stages. Recent research has revealed a co-dependence between planar polarization of some cell types and cilium positioning at the surface of cells. This important role of the primary cilium in mammalian cells is in contrast with its absence from Drosophila melanogaster PCP establishment. Here, we show that deletion of GTP-binding protein alpha-i subunit 3 (Galphai3) and mammalian Partner of inscuteable (mPins) disrupts the migration of the kinocilium at the surface of cochlear hair cells and affects hair bundle orientation and shape. Inhibition of G-protein function in vitro leads to kinocilium migration defects, PCP phenotype and abnormal hair bundle morphology. We show that Galphai3/mPins are expressed in an apical and distal asymmetrical domain, which is opposite and complementary to an aPKC/Par-3/Par-6b expression domain, and non-overlapping with the core PCP protein Vangl2. Thus G-protein-dependent signalling controls the migration of the cilium cell autonomously, whereas core PCP signalling controls long-range tissue PCP.




10/2012 | Development   IF 6.1
Gipc1 has a dual role in Vangl2 trafficking and hair bundle integrity in the inner ear.
Giese AP*, Ezan J*, Wang L, Lasvaux L, Lembo F, Mazzocco C, Richard E, Reboul J, Borg JP, Kelley MW, Sans N, Brigande J, Montcouquiol M

Abstract:
Vangl2 is one of the central proteins controlling the establishment of planar cell polarity in multiple tissues of different species. Previous studies suggest that the localization of the Vangl2 protein to specific intracellular microdomains is crucial for its function. However, the molecular mechanisms that control Vangl2 trafficking within a cell are largely unknown. Here, we identify Gipc1 (GAIP C-terminus interacting protein 1) as a new interactor for Vangl2, and we show that a myosin VI-Gipc1 protein complex can regulate Vangl2 traffic in heterologous cells. Furthermore, we show that in the cochlea of MyoVI mutant mice, Vangl2 presence at the membrane is increased, and that a disruption of Gipc1 function in hair cells leads to maturation defects, including defects in hair bundle orientation and integrity. Finally, stimulated emission depletion microscopy and overexpression of GFP-Vangl2 show an enrichment of Vangl2 on the supporting cell side, adjacent to the proximal membrane of hair cells. Altogether, these results indicate a broad role for Gipc1 in the development of both stereociliary bundles and cell polarization, and suggest that the strong asymmetry of Vangl2 observed in early postnatal cochlear epithelium is mostly a 'tissue' polarity readout.




01/2012 | Mol Psychiatry   IF 15
SHANK3 mutations identified in autism lead to modification of dendritic spine morphology via an actin-dependent mechanism.
Durand CM, Perroy J, Loll F, Perrais D, Fagni L, Bourgeron T, Montcouquiol M, Sans N

Abstract:
Genetic mutations of SHANK3 have been reported in patients with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. At the synapse, Shank3/ProSAP2 is a scaffolding protein that connects glutamate receptors to the actin cytoskeleton via a chain of intermediary elements. Although genetic studies have repeatedly confirmed the association of SHANK3 mutations with susceptibility to psychiatric disorders, very little is known about the neuronal consequences of these mutations. Here, we report the functional effects of two de novo mutations (STOP and Q321R) and two inherited variations (R12C and R300C) identified in patients with ASD. We show that Shank3 is located at the tip of actin filaments and enhances its polymerization. Shank3 also participates in growth cone motility in developing neurons. The truncating mutation (STOP) strongly affects the development and morphology of dendritic spines, reduces synaptic transmission in mature neurons and also inhibits the effect of Shank3 on growth cone motility. The de novo mutation in the ankyrin domain (Q321R) modifies the roles of Shank3 in spine induction and morphology, and actin accumulation in spines and affects growth cone motility. Finally, the two inherited mutations (R12C and R300C) have intermediate effects on spine density and synaptic transmission. Therefore, although inherited by healthy parents, the functional effects of these mutations strongly suggest that they could represent risk factors for ASD. Altogether, these data provide new insights into the synaptic alterations caused by SHANK3 mutations in humans and provide a robust cellular readout for the development of knowledge-based therapies.




21/07/2010 | J Neurosci   IF 5.9
The planar polarity protein Scribble1 is essential for neuronal plasticity and brain function.
Moreau MM, Piguel N, Papouin T, Koehl M, Durand CM, Rubio ME, Loll F, Richard EM, Mazzocco C, Racca C, Oliet SH, Abrous DN, Montcouquiol M, Sans N

Abstract:
Scribble (Scrib) is a key regulator of apicobasal polarity, presynaptic architecture, and short-term synaptic plasticity in Drosophila. In mammals, its homolog Scrib1 has been implicated in cancer, neural tube closure, and planar cell polarity (PCP), but its specific role in the developing and adult nervous system is unclear. Here, we used the circletail mutant, a mouse model for PCP defects, to show that Scrib1 is located in spines where it influences actin cytoskeleton and spine morphing. In the hippocampus of these mutants, we observed an increased synapse pruning associated with an increased number of enlarged spines and postsynaptic density, and a decreased number of perforated synapses. This phenotype was associated with a mislocalization of the signaling pathway downstream of Scrib1, leading to an overall activation of Rac1 and defects in actin dynamic reorganization. Finally, Scrib1-deficient mice exhibit enhanced learning and memory abilities and impaired social behavior, two features relevant to autistic spectrum disorders. Our data identify Scrib1 as a crucial regulator of brain development and spine morphology, and suggest that Scrib1(crc/+) mice might be a model for studying synaptic dysfunction and human psychiatric disorders.