Neurocentre Magendie

Philippe ZIZZARI


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46 publication(s) depuis Mars 2000:

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10/2016 | J Endocrinol   IF 4.5
Mild pituitary phenotype in 3- and 12-month-old Aip-deficient male mice.
Lecoq AL, Zizzari P, Hage M, Decourtye L, Adam C, Viengchareun S, Veldhuis JD, Geoffroy V, Lombes M, Tolle V, Guillou A, Karhu A, Kappeler L, Chanson P, Kamenicky P

Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene predispose humans to pituitary adenomas, particularly of the somatotroph lineage. Mice with global heterozygous inactivation of Aip (Aip(+/-)) also develop pituitary adenomas but differ from AIP-mutated patients by the high penetrance of pituitary disease. The endocrine phenotype of these mice is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the endocrine phenotype of Aip(+/-) mice by assessing the somatic growth, ultradian pattern of GH secretion and IGF1 concentrations of longitudinally followed male mice at 3 and 12 months of age. As the early stages of pituitary tumorigenesis are controversial, we also studied the pituitary histology and somatotroph cell proliferation in these mice. Aip(+/-) mice did not develop gigantism but exhibited a leaner phenotype than wild-type mice. Analysis of GH pulsatility by deconvolution in 12-month-old Aip(+/-) mice showed a mild increase in total GH secretion, a conserved GH pulsatility pattern, but a normal IGF1 concentration. No pituitary adenomas were detected up to 12 months of age. An increased ex vivo response to GHRH of pituitary explants from 3-month-old Aip(+/-) mice, together with areas of enlarged acini identified on reticulin staining in the pituitary of some Aip(+/-) mice, was suggestive of somatotroph hyperplasia. Global heterozygous Aip deficiency in mice is accompanied by subtle increase in GH secretion, which does not result in gigantism. The absence of pituitary adenomas in 12-month-old Aip(+/-) mice in our experimental conditions demonstrates the important phenotypic variability of this congenic mouse model.

05/2016 | Endocr Relat Cancer
AIP mutations impair AhR signaling in pituitary adenoma patients fibroblasts and in GH3 cells.
Lecoq AL, Viengchareun S, Hage M, Bouligand J, Young J, Boutron A, Zizzari P, Lombes M, Chanson P, Kamenicky P

Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene predispose humans to pituitary adenomas through unknown molecular mechanisms. The best-known interacting partner of AIP is the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor that mediates the effects of xenobiotics implicated in carcinogenesis. As 75% of AIP mutations disrupt the physical and/or functional interaction with AhR, we postulated that the tumorigenic potential of AIP mutations might result from altered AhR signaling. We evaluated the impact of AIP mutations on the AhR signaling pathway, first in fibroblasts from AIP-mutated patients with pituitary adenomas, by comparison with fibroblasts from healthy subjects, then in transfected pituitary GH3 cells. The AIP protein level in mutated fibroblasts was about half of that in cells from healthy subjects, but AhR expression was unaffected. Gene expression analyses showed significant modifications in the expression of the AhR target genes CYP1B1 and AHRR in AIP-mutated fibroblasts, both before and after stimulation with the endogenous AhR ligand kynurenine. Kynurenine increased Cyp1b1 expression to a greater extent in GH3 cells overexpressing wild type compared with cells expressing mutant AIP Knockdown of endogenous Aip in these cells attenuated Cyp1b1 induction by the AhR ligand. Both mutant AIP expression and knockdown of endogenous Aip affected the kynurenine-dependent GH secretion of GH3 cells. This study of human fibroblasts bearing endogenous heterozygous AIP mutations and transfected pituitary GH3 cells shows that AIP mutations affect the AIP protein level and alter AhR transcriptional activity in a gene- and tissue-dependent manner.

19/04/2016 | sci signal   IF 7.4
Enhanced responsiveness of Ghsr Q343X rats to ghrelin results in enhanced adiposity without increased appetite.
Chebani Y, Marion C, Zizzari P, Chettab K, Pastor M, Korostelev M, Geny D, Epelbaum J, Tolle V, Morisset-Lopez S, Pantel J

The ability of the gut hormone ghrelin to promote positive energy balance is mediated by the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). GHSR is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is found centrally and peripherally and that can signal in a ligand-independent manner basally or when heterodimerized with other GPCRs. However, current Ghsr knockout models cannot dissect ghrelin-dependent and ghrelin-independent signaling, precluding assessment of the physiological importance of these signaling pathways. An animal model carrying a Ghsr mutation that preserves GHSR cell surface abundance, but selectively alters GHSR signaling, would be a useful tool to decipher GHSR signaling in vivo. We used rats with the Ghsr(Q343X) mutation (Ghsr(M/M)), which is predicted to delete the distal part of the GHSR carboxyl-terminal tail, a domain critical for the signal termination processes of receptor internalization and beta-arrestin recruitment. In cells, the GHSR-Q343X mutant showed enhanced ligand-induced G protein-dependent signaling and blunted activity of processes involved in GPCR signal termination. Ghsr(M/M)rats displayed enhanced responses to submaximal doses of ghrelin or GHSR agonist. Moreover, Ghsr(M/M)rats had a more stable body weight under caloric restriction, a condition that increases endogenous ghrelin tone, whereas under standard housing conditions,Ghsr(M/M)rats showed increased body weight and adiposity and reduced glucose tolerance. Overall, our data stress the physiological role of the distal domain of GHSR carboxyl terminus as a suppressor of ghrelin sensitivity, and we propose using the Ghsr(M/M)rat as a physiological model of gain of function in Ghsr to identify treatments for obesity-related conditions.

10/2015 | chem senses
Long-Lasting Metabolic Imbalance Related to Obesity Alters Olfactory Tissue Homeostasis and Impairs Olfactory-Driven Behaviors.
Lacroix MC, Caillol M, Durieux D, Monnerie R, Grebert D, Pellerin L, Repond C, Tolle V, Zizzari P, Baly C

Obesity is associated with chronic food intake disorders and binge eating. Food intake relies on the interaction between homeostatic regulation and hedonic signals among which, olfaction is a major sensory determinant. However, its potential modulation at the peripheral level by a chronic energy imbalance associated to obese status remains a matter of debate. We further investigated the olfactory function in a rodent model relevant to the situation encountered in obese humans, where genetic susceptibility is juxtaposed on chronic eating disorders. Using several olfactory-driven tests, we compared the behaviors of obesity-prone Sprague-Dawley rats (OP) fed with a high-fat/high-sugar diet with those of obese-resistant ones fed with normal chow. In OP rats, we reported 1) decreased odor threshold, but 2) poor olfactory performances, associated with learning/memory deficits, 3) decreased influence of fasting, and 4) impaired insulin control on food seeking behavior. Associated with these behavioral modifications, we found a modulation of metabolism-related factors implicated in 1) electrical olfactory signal regulation (insulin receptor), 2) cellular dynamics (glucorticoids receptors, pro- and antiapoptotic factors), and 3) homeostasis of the olfactory mucosa and bulb (monocarboxylate and glucose transporters). Such impairments might participate to the perturbed daily food intake pattern that we observed in obese animals.

01/02/2015 | Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab   IF 4.4
Physical activity: benefit or weakness in metabolic adaptations in a mouse model of chronic food restriction?
Mequinion M, Caron E, Zgheib S, Stievenard A, Zizzari P, Tolle V, Cortet B, Lucas S, Prevot V, Chauveau C, Viltart O

In restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, physical activity is usually associated with food restriction, but its physiological consequences remain poorly characterized. In female mice, we evaluated the impact of voluntary physical activity with/without chronic food restriction on metabolic and endocrine parameters that might contribute to AN. In this protocol, FRW mice (i.e., food restriction with running wheel) reached a crucial point of body weight loss (especially fat mass) faster than FR mice (i.e., food restriction only). However, in contrast to FR mice, their body weight stabilized, demonstrating a protective effect of a moderate, regular physical activity. Exercise delayed meal initiation and duration. FRW mice displayed food anticipatory activity compared with FR mice, which was strongly diminished with the prolongation of the protocol. The long-term nature of the protocol enabled assessment of bone parameters similar to those observed in AN patients. Both restricted groups adapted their energy metabolism differentially in the short and long term, with less fat oxidation in FRW mice and a preferential use of glucose to compensate for the chronic energy imbalance. Finally, like restrictive AN patients, FRW mice exhibited low leptin levels, high plasma concentrations of corticosterone and ghrelin, and a disruption of the estrous cycle. In conclusion, our model suggests that physical activity has beneficial effects on the adaptation to the severe condition of food restriction despite the absence of any protective effect on lean and bone mass.

09/2014 | Endocrinology   IF 4.2
An early reduction in GH peak amplitude in preproghrelin-deficient male mice has a minor impact on linear growth.
Hassouna R, Zizzari P, Tomasetto C, Veldhuis JD, Fiquet O, Labarthe A, Cognet J, Steyn F, Chen C, Epelbaum J, Tolle V

Ghrelin is a gut hormone processed from the proghrelin peptide acting as the endogenous ligand of the GH secretagogue receptor 1a. The regulatory role of endogenous ghrelin on pulsatile GH secretion and linear growth had to be established. The aim of the present study was to delineate the endogenous actions of preproghrelin on peripheral and central components of the GH axis. Accordingly, the ultradian pattern of GH secretion was measured in young and old preproghrelin-deficient males. Blood samples were collected by tail bleeding every 10 minutes over a period of 6 hours. Analysis of the GH pulsatile pattern by deconvolution showed that GH was secreted in an ultradian manner in all genotypes, with major secretory peaks occurring at about 3-hour intervals. In older mice, the peak number was reduced and secretion was less irregular compared with younger animals. Remarkably, in young Ghrl(-/-) mice, the amplitude of GH secretory bursts was significantly reduced. In older mice, however, genotype differences were less significant. Changes in GH pulsatility in young Ghrl(-/-) mice were associated with a tendency for reduced GH pituitary contents and plasma IGF-I concentrations, but with only a minor impact on linear growth. In Ghrl(+/-) mice, despite reduced Acyl ghrelin to des-acyl ghrelin ratio, GH secretion was not impaired. Ghrelin deficiency was not associated with a reduction in hypothalamic GHRH content or altered response to GHRH stimulation. Therefore, reduction in GHRH production and/or sensitivity do not primarily account for the altered GH pulsatile secretion of young Ghrl(-/-) mice. Instead, GHRH expression was elevated in young but not old Ghrl(-/-) mice, suggesting that differential compensatory responses resulting from the absence of endogenous ghrelin is occurring according to age. These results show that endogenous ghrelin is a regulator of GH pulse amplitude in growing mice but does not significantly modulate linear growth.

2014 | PLoS ONE   IF 3.1
Long-term physiological alterations and recovery in a mouse model of separation associated with time-restricted feeding: a tool to study anorexia nervosa related consequences.
Zgheib S, Mequinion M, Lucas S, Leterme D, Ghali O, Tolle V, Zizzari P, Bellefontaine N, Legroux-Gerot I, Hardouin P, Broux O, Viltart O, Chauveau C

BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa is a primary psychiatric disorder, with non-negligible rates of mortality and morbidity. Some of the related alterations could participate in a vicious cycle limiting the recovery. Animal models mimicking various physiological alterations related to anorexia nervosa are necessary to provide better strategies of treatment. AIM: To explore physiological alterations and recovery in a long-term mouse model mimicking numerous consequences of severe anorexia nervosa. METHODS: C57Bl/6 female mice were submitted to a separation-based anorexia protocol combining separation and time-restricted feeding for 10 weeks. Thereafter, mice were housed in standard conditions for 10 weeks. Body weight, food intake, body composition, plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, IGF-1, blood levels of GH, reproductive function and glucose tolerance were followed. Gene expression of several markers of lipid and energy metabolism was assayed in adipose tissues. RESULTS: Mimicking what is observed in anorexia nervosa patients, and despite a food intake close to that of control mice, separation-based anorexia mice displayed marked alterations in body weight, fat mass, lean mass, bone mass acquisition, reproductive function, GH/IGF-1 axis, and leptinemia. mRNA levels of markers of lipogenesis, lipolysis, and the brown-like adipocyte lineage in subcutaneous adipose tissue were also changed. All these alterations were corrected during the recovery phase, except for the hypoleptinemia that persisted despite the full recovery of fat mass. CONCLUSION: This study strongly supports the separation-based anorexia protocol as a valuable model of long-term negative energy balance state that closely mimics various symptoms observed in anorexia nervosa, including metabolic adaptations. Interestingly, during a recovery phase, mice showed a high capacity to normalize these parameters with the exception of plasma leptin levels. It will be interesting therefore to explore further the central and peripheral effects of the uncorrected hypoleptinemia during recovery from separation-based anorexia.

2014 | Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
Ghrelin-Derived Peptides: A Link between Appetite/Reward, GH Axis, and Psychiatric Disorders?
Labarthe A, Fiquet O, Hassouna R, Zizzari P, Lanfumey L, Ramoz N, Grouselle D, Epelbaum J, Tolle V

Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep-wake cycles, and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators. Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic, and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic, and psychiatric disorders, ghrelin plays a unique role as the only one increasing appetite. The secretion of ghrelin is altered in several psychiatric disorders (anorexia, schizophrenia) as well as in metabolic disorders (obesity) and in animal models in response to emotional triggers (psychological stress ...) but the relationship between these modifications and the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders remains unclear. Recently, a large literature showed that this key metabolic/endocrine regulator is involved in stress and reward-oriented behaviors and regulates anxiety and mood. In addition, preproghrelin is a complex prohormone but the roles of the other ghrelin-derived peptides, thought to act as functional ghrelin antagonists, are largely unknown. Altered ghrelin secretion and/or signaling in psychiatric diseases are thought to participate in altered appetite, hedonic response and reward. Whether this can contribute to the mechanism responsible for the development of the disease or can help to minimize some symptoms associated with these psychiatric disorders is discussed in the present review. We will thus describe (1) the biological actions of ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides on food and drugs reward, anxiety and depression, and the physiological consequences of ghrelin invalidation on these parameters, (2) how ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides are regulated in animal models of psychiatric diseases and in human psychiatric disorders in relation with the GH axis.

12/2013 | growth horm igf res
QTLs influencing IGF-1 levels in a LOU/CxFischer 344F2 rat population. Tracks towards the metabolic theory of Ageing.
Marissal-Arvy N, Duron E, Parmentier F, Zizzari P, Mormede P, Epelbaum J

OBJECTIVE: Since a reduction of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling cascade extends life span in many species and IGF-1 signaling might partly mediate the effects of caloric restriction (CR), an experimental intervention for increasing longevity, the purpose of the present study was to use quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, an unbiased genetic approach, to identify particular regions of the genome influencing plasma IGF-1 levels in an F2 intercross between F344 and LOU/C rats; the latter being an inbred strain of Wistar origin, considered as a model of healthy aging since it resists to age (and diet)-induced obesity. DESIGN: F1 hybrids were obtained by crossbreeding LOU/C with F344 rats, and then F1 were bred inter se to obtain the F2 population, of which 93 males and 94 females were studied. Total plasma IGF-1 levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. A genome scan of the F2 population was made with 100 microsatellite markers) selected for their polymorphism between LOU/C and F344 strains (and by covering evenly the whole genome. RESULTS: By simple interval mapping sex-dependent QTLs were found on chromosome 17 in males and on chromosome 18 in females. By multiple interval mapping, additional QTLs were found on chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 6, 12, 15 and 19 in males and on chromosomes 3, 5, 6, 12 and 17 in females. Only the markers D1Rat196 and D12Mgh5 were found in both males and females. The majority of QTLs corresponded to metabolic syndrome (cardiac function: n = 45 (30%), obesity/diabetes: n = 22 (15%), inflammation: n = 19 (13%) and only a limited number to body weight: n = 13 (9%), proliferation (n = 10 (7%) or ossification: n = 7 (5%). Ninety-six candidate genes were located on the different QTLs. A significant proportion of these genes are connected to IGF-1 production and receptor pathways (n = 18) or metabolic syndrome (n = 11). CONCLUSIONS: Subsequent studies are necessary to determine whether the genetic networks underscored are also involved in age-associated obesity, diabetes and inflammation as well as cardiovascular impairments.

11/2013 | Endocrinology   IF 4.2
Comparative inhibition of the GH/IGF-I axis obtained with either the targeted secretion inhibitor SXN101959 or the somatostatin analog octreotide in growing male rats.
Somm E, Bonnet N, Zizzari P, Tolle V, Toulotte A, Jones R, Epelbaum J, Martinez A, Huppi PS, Aubert ML

Abnormally high GH/IGF-I levels, most often caused by adenomas arising from pituitary somatotrophs, generate deleterious effects. We recently described a targeted secretion inhibitor (SXN101742) comprising a GHRH domain and the endopeptidase domain of botulinum toxin serotype D (GHRH-light chain endopeptidase type D domain [LC/D] associated to a heavy chain translocation domain [HN]) able to down-regulate the GH/IGF-I axis. In the present study, we compared the effect of a single iv bolus of a related molecule developed for clinical studies (SXN101959, 1 mg/kg) with a sc infusion of the somatostatin analog octreotide (SMS201-995, 10 mug/kg . h) to lower GH/IGF-I activity in growing male rats. Ten days after administration of SXN101959 or initiation of the octreotide infusion, body and pituitary weights, body length, GH peaks, and IGF-I production were reduced by both treatments but to a greater extent with SXN101959. In contrast to unaltered GH gene expression and increased GH storage in pituitaries from octreotide-treated rats, the inhibition of GH secretion was associated with a collapse of both GH mRNA and protein level in pituitaries from SXN101959-treated rats, in line with a specific decrease in hypothalamic GHRH production, not observed with octreotide. SXN101959 did not induce major apoptotic events in anterior pituitary and exhibited a reversible mode of action with full recovery of somatotroph cell functionality 30 days after treatment. Octreotide infusion permanently decreased ghrelin levels, whereas SXN101959 only transiently attenuated ghrelinemia. Both treatments limited bone mass acquisition and altered specifically tissues development. In conclusion, SXN101959 exerts a powerful and reversible inhibitory action on the somatotropic axis. Specific features of SXN101959, including long duration of action coupled to a strong inhibition of pituitary GH synthesis, represent advantages when treating overproduction of GH.