Neurocentre Magendie

Samantha JAMES


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7 publication(s) depuis Janvier 2012:

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02/12/2014 | Endocrinology   IF 4.2
Cannabinoid type 1 (CB) receptors on Sim1-expressing neurons regulate energy expenditure in male mice.
Cardinal P, Bellocchio L, Guzman-Quevedo O, Andre C, Clark S, Elie M, Leste-Lasserre T, Gonzales D, Cannich A, Marsicano G, Cota D

The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) regulates energy balance by modulating not only food intake, but also energy expenditure and brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. To test the hypothesis that cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor in PVN neurons might control these processes, we used the Cre/loxP system to delete CB1 from Single minded 1 (Sim1) neurons, which account for the majority of PVN neurons. On standard chow, mice lacking CB1 receptor in Sim1 neurons (Sim1-CB1-KO) had food intake, body weight, adiposity, glucose metabolism and energy expenditure comparable to wild-type (Sim1-CB1-WT) littermates. However, maintenance on a high-fat diet (HFD) revealed a gene-by-diet interaction whereby Sim1-CB1-KO mice had decreased adiposity, improved insulin sensitivity and increased energy expenditure, while feeding behavior was similar to Sim1-CB1-WT mice. Additionally, HFD-fed Sim1-CB1-KO mice had increased mRNA expression of the beta3-adrenergic receptor, as well as of UCP-1, Cox-IV and Tfam in the BAT, all molecular changes suggestive of increased thermogenesis. Pharmacological studies using beta-blockers suggested that modulation of beta-adrenergic transmission play an important role in determining energy expenditure changes observed in Sim1-CB1-KO. Finally, chemical sympathectomy abolished the obesity-resistant phenotype of Sim1-CB1-KO mice. Altogether, these findings reveal a diet-dependent dissociation in the CB1 receptor control of food intake and energy expenditure, likely mediated by the PVN, where CB1 receptors on Sim1-positive neurons do not impact food intake, but hinder energy expenditure during dietary environmental challenges that promote body weight gain.

10/2014 | Mol Metab   IF 5.4
CB1 cannabinoid receptor in SF1-expressing neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus determines metabolic responses to diet and leptin.
Cardinal P, Andre C, Quarta C, Bellocchio L, Clark S, Elie M, Leste-Lasserre T, Maitre M, Gonzales D, Cannich A, Pagotto U, Marsicano G, Cota D

Metabolic flexibility allows rapid adaptation to dietary change, however, little is known about the CNS mechanisms regulating this process. Neurons in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMN) participate in energy balance and are the target of the metabolically relevant hormone leptin. Cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors are expressed in VMN neurons, but the specific contribution of endocannabinoid signaling in this neuronal population to energy balance regulation is unknown. Here we demonstrate that VMN CB1 receptors regulate metabolic flexibility and actions of leptin. In chow-fed mice, conditional deletion of CB1 in VMN neurons (expressing the steroidogenic factor 1, SF1) decreases adiposity by increasing sympathetic activity and lipolysis, and facilitates metabolic effects of leptin. Conversely, under high-fat diet, lack of CB1 in VMN neurons produces leptin resistance, blunts peripheral use of lipid substrates and increases adiposity. Thus, CB1 receptors in VMN neurons provide a molecular switch adapting the organism to dietary change.

15/09/2014 | Int J Obes (Lond)   IF 4.3
The corticotrophin-releasing factor/urocortin system regulates white fat browning in mice through paracrine mechanisms.
Lu B, Diz-Chaves Y, Markovic D, Contarino A, Penicaud L, Fanelli F, Clark S, Lehnert H, Cota D, Grammatopoulos DK, Tabarin A

Objectives:The corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)/urocortin system is expressed in the adipose tissue of mammals, but its functional role in this tissue remains unknown.Methods:Pharmacological manipulation of the activity of CRF receptors, CRF1 and CRF2, was performed in 3T3L1 white pre-adipocytes and T37i brown pre-adipocytes during in vitro differentiation. The expression of genes of the CRF/urocortin system and of markers of white and brown adipocytes was evaluated along with mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular oxygen consumption. Metabolic evaluation of corticosterone-deficient or supplemented Crhr1-null (Crhr1-/-) mice and their wild-type controls was performed along with gene expression analysis carried out in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues.Results:Peptides of the CRF/urocortin system and their cognate receptors were expressed in both pre-adipocyte cell lines. In vitro pharmacological studies showed an inhibition of the expression of the CRF2 pathway by the constitutive activity of the CRF1 pathway. Pharmacological activation of CRF2 and, to a lesser extent, inhibition of CRF1 signaling induced molecular and functional changes indicating transdifferentiation of white pre-adipocytes and differentiation of brown pre-adipocytes. Crhr1-/- mice showed increased expression of CRF2 and its agonist Urocortin 2 in adipocytes that was associated to brown conversion of WAT and activation of BAT. Crhr1-/- mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Restoring physiological circulating corticosterone levels abrogated molecular changes in adipocytes and the favorable phenotype of Crhr1-/- mice.Conclusions:Our findings suggest the importance of the CRF2 pathway in the control of adipocyte plasticity. Increased CRF2 activity in adipocytes induces browning of WAT, differentiation of BAT and is associated with a favorable metabolic phenotype in mice lacking CRF1. Circulating corticosterone represses CRF2 activity in adipocytes and may thus regulate adipocyte physiology through the modulation of the local CRF/urocortin system. Targeting CRF receptor signaling specifically in the adipose tissue may represent a novel approach to tackle obesity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 14 October 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.164.

25/07/2013 | Obesity (Silver Spring)   IF 3.4
Leucine supplementation modulates fuel substrates utilization and glucose metabolism in previously obese mice.
Binder E, Bermudez-Silva FJ, Elie M, Leste-Lasserre T, Belluomo I, Clark S, Duchampt A, Mithieux G, Cota D

OBJECTIVE: High-protein diets favor weight loss and its maintenance. Whether these effects might be recapitulated by certain amino acids is unknown. Therefore, the impact of leucine supplementation on energy balance and associated metabolic changes in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice during and after weight loss was investigated. DESIGN AND METHODS: DIO C57BL/6J mice were fed a normocaloric diet to induce weight loss while receiving or not the amino acid leucine in drinking water. Body weight, food intake, body composition, energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, insulin, and leptin sensitivity were evaluated. Q-PCR analysis was performed on muscle, brown and white adipose tissues. RESULTS: DIO mice decreased body weight and fat mass in response to chow, but supplementation with leucine did not affect these parameters. During weight maintenance, mice supplemented with leucine had improved glucose tolerance, increased leptin sensitivity, and lower respiratory quotient. The latter was associated with changes in the expression of several genes modulating fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial activity in the epididymal white and the brown adipose tissues, but not muscle. CONCLUSIONS: Leucine supplementation might represent an adjuvant beneficial nutritional therapy during weight loss and maintenance, because it improves lipid and glucose metabolism and restores leptin sensitivity in previously obese animals.

2013 | PLoS ONE   IF 3.1
Leucine supplementation protects from insulin resistance by regulating adiposity levels.
Binder E, Bermudez-Silva FJ, Andre C, Elie M, Romero-Zerbo SY, Leste-Lasserre T, Belluomo L, Duchampt A, Clark S, Aubert A, Mezzullo M, Fanelli F, Pagotto U, Laye S, Mithieux G, Cota D

BACKGROUND: Leucine supplementation might have therapeutic potential in preventing diet-induced obesity and improving insulin sensitivity. However, the underlying mechanisms are at present unclear. Additionally, it is unclear whether leucine supplementation might be equally efficacious once obesity has developed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed chow or a high-fat diet (HFD), supplemented or not with leucine for 17 weeks. Another group of HFD-fed mice (HFD-pairfat group) was food restricted in order to reach an adiposity level comparable to that of HFD-Leu mice. Finally, a third group of mice was exposed to HFD for 12 weeks before being chronically supplemented with leucine. Leucine supplementation in HFD-fed mice decreased body weight and fat mass by increasing energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and locomotor activity in vivo. The decreased adiposity in HFD-Leu mice was associated with increased expression of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP-3) in the brown adipose tissue, better insulin sensitivity, increased intestinal gluconeogenesis and preservation of islets of Langerhans histomorphology and function. HFD-pairfat mice had a comparable improvement in insulin sensitivity, without changes in islets physiology or intestinal gluconeogenesis. Remarkably, both HFD-Leu and HFD-pairfat mice had decreased hepatic lipid content, which likely helped improve insulin sensitivity. In contrast, when leucine was supplemented to already obese animals, no changes in body weight, body composition or glucose metabolism were observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that leucine improves insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice by primarily decreasing adiposity, rather than directly acting on peripheral target organs. However, beneficial effects of leucine on intestinal gluconeogenesis and islets of Langerhans's physiology might help prevent type 2 diabetes development. Differently, metabolic benefit of leucine supplementation is lacking in already obese animals, a phenomenon possibly related to the extent of the obesity before starting the supplementation.

09/2012 | Endocrinology   IF 4.2
Hypothalamic CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors Regulate Energy Balance in Mice.
Cardinal P , Bellocchio L , Clark S , Cannich A , Klugmann M , Lutz B , Marsicano G , Cota D

Cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptor activation is generally considered a powerful orexigenic signal and inhibition of the endocannabinoid system is beneficial for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. The hypothalamus plays a critical role in regulating energy balance by modulating both food intake and energy expenditure. Although CB(1) receptor signaling has been implicated in the modulation of both these mechanisms, a complete understanding of its role in the hypothalamus is still lacking. Here we combined a genetic approach with the use of adeno-associated viral vectors to delete the CB(1) receptor gene in the adult mouse hypothalamus and assessed the impact of such manipulation on the regulation of energy balance. Viral-mediated deletion of the CB(1) receptor gene in the hypothalamus led to the generation of Hyp-CB(1)-KO mice, which displayed an approximately 60% decrease in hypothalamic CB(1) receptor mRNA levels. Hyp-CB(1)-KO mice maintained on a normocaloric, standard diet showed decreased body weight gain over time, which was associated with increased energy expenditure and elevated beta(3)-adrenergic receptor and uncoupling protein-1 mRNA levels in the brown adipose tissue but, surprisingly, not to changes in food intake. Additionally, Hyp-CB(1)-KO mice were insensitive to the anorectic action of the hormone leptin (5 mg/kg) and displayed a time-dependent hypophagic response to the CB(1) inverse agonist rimonabant (3 mg/kg). Altogether these findings suggest that hypothalamic CB(1) receptor signaling is a key determinant of energy expenditure under basal conditions and reveal its specific role in conveying the effects of leptin and pharmacological CB1 receptor antagonism on food intake.

2012 | PLoS ONE   IF 3.1
Endocannabinoids measurement in human saliva as potential biomarker of obesity.
Matias I, Cherifi-Gatta B, Tabarin A, Clark S, Leste-Lasserre T, Marsicano G, Piazza PV, Cota D

BACKGROUND: The discovery of the endocannabinoid system and of its role in the regulation of energy balance has significantly advanced our understanding of the physiopathological mechanisms leading to obesity and type 2 diabetes. New knowledge on the role of this system in humans has been acquired by measuring blood endocannabinoids. Here we explored endocannabinoids and related N-acylethanolamines in saliva and verified their changes in relation to body weight status and in response to a meal or to body weight loss. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fasting plasma and salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines were measured through liquid mass spectrometry in 12 normal weight and 12 obese, insulin-resistant subjects. Salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines were evaluated in the same cohort before and after the consumption of a meal. Changes in salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines after body weight loss were investigated in a second group of 12 obese subjects following a 12-weeks lifestyle intervention program. The levels of mRNAs coding for enzymes regulating the metabolism of endocannabinoids, N-acylethanolamines and of cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptor, alongside endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines content, were assessed in human salivary glands. The endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA), and the N-acylethanolamines (oleoylethanolamide, OEA and palmitoylethanolamide, PEA) were quantifiable in saliva and their levels were significantly higher in obese than in normal weight subjects. Fasting salivary AEA and OEA directly correlated with BMI, waist circumference and fasting insulin. Salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines did not change in response to a meal. CB(1) receptors, ligands and enzymes were expressed in the salivary glands. Finally, a body weight loss of 5.3% obtained after a 12-weeks lifestyle program significantly decreased salivary AEA levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines are quantifiable in saliva and their levels correlate with obesity but not with feeding status. Body weight loss significantly decreases salivary AEA, which might represent a useful biomarker in obesity.